Fine-scale clonal structure and diversity within patches of a clone-forming dioecious shrub, Ilex leucoclada (Aquifoliaceae).
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The mode of reproduction (sexual vs. asexual) is likely to have important effects on genetic variation and its spatial distribution within plant populations. An investigation was undertaken of fine-scale clonal structure and diversity within patches of Ilex leucoclada (a clone-forming dioecious shrub). METHODS: Six patches were selected in a 1-ha plot previously established in an old-growth beech forest. Two of the selected patches were composed predominantly of stems with male flowers (male patch), and two contained stems with predominantly female flowers (female patch). The remaining two patches contained stems with male flowers and stems with female flowers in more or less equal proportions (mixed patch). Different genets were distinguished using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. KEY RESULTS: One hundred and fifty-six genets with different RAPD phenotypes were identified among 1928 stems from the six patches. Among the six patches, the male patches had the lowest clonal diversity, and the mixed patches had the highest. Distribution maps of the genets showed that they extended downhill, reflecting natural layering that occurred when stems were pressed to the ground by heavy snow. In every patch, there were a few large genets with many stems and many small genets with a few stems. CONCLUSION: The differences in clonal diversity among patches may be due to differences in seedling recruitment frequencies. The skewed distribution of genet size (defined as the number of stems per genet) within patches may be due to differences in the timing of germination, or age (with early-establishing genets having clear advantages for acquiring resources) and/or intraspecific competition. (+info)
Are both sympatric species Ilex perado and Ilex canariensis secretly hybridizing? Indication from nuclear markers collected in Tenerife.
BACKGROUND: Intra-specific and intra-individual polymorphism is frequently observed in nuclear markers of Ilex (Aquifoliaceae) and discrepancy between plastid and nuclear phylogenies is the rule in this genus. These observations suggest that inter-specific plastid or/and nuclear introgression played an important role in the process of evolution of Ilex. With the aim of a precise understanding of the evolution of this genus, two distantly related sympatric species collected in Tenerife (Canary Islands), I. perado and I. canariensis, were studied in detail. Introgression between these two species was previously never reported. One plastid marker (the atpB-rbcL spacer) and two nuclear markers, the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and the nuclear encoded plastid glutamine synthetase (nepGS) were analyzed for 13 and 27 individuals of I. perado and I. canariensis, respectively. RESULTS: The plastid marker is intra-specifically constant and correlated with species identity. On the other hand, whereas the nuclear markers are conserved in I. perado, they are highly polymorphic in I. canariensis. The presence of pseudogenes and recombination in ITS sequences of I. canariensis explain this polymorphism. Ancestral sequence polymorphism with incomplete lineage sorting, or past or recent hybridization with an unknown species could explain this polymorphism, not resolved by concerted evolution. However, as already reported for many other plants, past or recent introgression of an alien genotype seem the most probable explanation for such a tremendous polymorphism. CONCLUSIONS: Data do not allow the determination with certitude of the putative species introgressing I. canariensis, but I. perado is suspected. The introgression would be unilateral, with I. perado as the male donor, and the paternal sequences would be rapidly converted in highly divergent and consequently unidentifiable pseudogenes. At least, this study allows the establishment of precautionary measures when nuclear markers are used in phylogenetic studies of genera having experienced introgression such as the genus Ilex. (+info)
An ecological 'footprint' of climate change.
Recently, there has been increasing evidence of species' range shifts due to changes in climate. Whereas most of these shifts relate ground truth biogeographic data to a general warming trend in regional or global climate data, we here present a reanalysis of both biogeographic and bioclimatic data of equal spatio-temporal resolution, covering a time span of more than 50 years. Our results reveal a coherent and synchronous shift in both species' distribution and climate. They show not only a shift in the northern margin of a species, which is in concert with gradually increasing winter temperatures in the area, they also confirm the simulated species' distribution changes expected from a bioclimatic model under the recent, relatively moderate climate change. (+info)
Six new triterpenoid saponins from the leaves of Ilex oblonga and their inhibitory activities against TMV replication.
Six new triterpenoid saponins of the ursane types were isolated from the MeOH extract of the leaves of Ilex oblonga. They were oblonganoside A (1), oblonganoside B (2), oblonganoside C (6), oblonganoside D (8), oblonganoside E (9), and oblonganoside F (10), together with three known triterpenoid saponins. The structures of these compounds were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analysis, and compound 1 showed appreciable inhibitory activity against TMV replication with EC50 value 0.074 mM. (+info)
In vivo anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of a purified saponin fraction derived from the root of Ilex pubescens.
The root of Ilex pubescens (Mao-Dong-Qing in Chinese, MDQ) has been commonly used for treatment of cardiovascular and inflammatory diseases in the Chinese medical system. The current studies aimed to investigate the anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects as well as the underlying mechanisms of a purified saponin fraction (PSF) derived from MDQ. PSF was found to significantly suppress the paw edema of rats induced by histamine given intraperitoneally at dosages ranging from 12.5-100 mg/kg. Meanwhile, PSF given orally at dosages of 200 and 100 mg/kg significantly inhibited acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing response of mice and prolonged the time required for mouse tail flick after exposure to a source of radiant heat. The mechanistic studies showed that cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) protein expression in carrageenan-injected paw tissues of rats was markedly attenuated by intraperitoneal injection of PSF at dosages of 12.5 to 100 mg/kg. PSF could also markedly inhibit production of proinflammatory cytokines, especially IL-1 beta, IL-6 and TNF-alpha, but enhance production of anti-inflammatory cytokines of IL-4 and IL-10 in the carrageenan-injected paw tissues in rats. These effects resulted in an overall attenuation of the ratio of proinflammatory/anti-inflammatory cytokines and, ultimately suppression of the paw edema. In conclusion, the current study has demonstrated the in vivo anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of PSF, and suggested that the molecular mechanisms might be associated with inhibition of the elevated expression of COX-2 protein and the overproduction of the proinflammatory cytokines, as well as augmentation of the anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-4 and IL-10 in the carrageenan-injected paw tissues of rats. (+info)
Triterpenoid glycosides from the leaves of Ilex pernyi.
Ten triterpenoid glycosides, including five new ones (1-5), were isolated from the leaves of Ilex pernyi. The chemical structures of 1-5 were determined on the basis of the chemical and spectroscopic evidence. (+info)
Continental-scale effects of nutrient pollution on stream ecosystem functioning.