A comparison of affinity constants for muscarine-sensitive acetylcholine receptors in guinea-pig atrial pacemaker cells at 29 degrees C and in ileum at 29 degrees C and 37 degrees C.
1 The affinity of 17 compounds for muscarine-sensitive acetylcholine receptors in atrial pacemaker cells and ileum of the guinea-pig has been measured at 29 degrees C in Ringer-Locke solution. Measurements were also made at 37 degrees C with 7 of them. 2 Some of the compounds had much higher affinity for the receptors in the ileum than for those in the atria. For the most selective compound, 4-diphenylacetoxy-N-methylpiperidine methiodide, the difference was approximately 20-fold. The receptors in the atria are therefore different the structure from those in the ileum. 3 The effect of temperature on affinity are not the same for all the compounds, tested indicating different enthalpies and entropies of adsorption and accounting for some of the difficulty experienced in predicting the affinity of new compounds. (+info)
Is early post-operative treatment with 5-fluorouracil possible without affecting anastomotic strength in the intestine?
Early post-operative local or systemic administration of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) is under investigation as a means to improve outcome after resection of intestinal malignancies. It is therefore quite important to delineate accurately its potentially negative effects on anastomotic repair. Five groups (n = 24) of rats underwent resection and anastomosis of both ileum and colon: a control group and four experimental groups receiving daily 5-FU, starting immediately after operation or after 1, 2 or 3 days. Within each group, the drug (or saline) was delivered either intraperitoneally (n = 12) or intravenously (n = 12). Animals were killed 7 days after operation and healing was assessed by measurement of anastomotic bursting pressure, breaking strength and hydroxyproline content. In all cases, 5-FU treatment from the day of operation or from day 1 significantly (P<0.025) and severely suppressed wound strength; concomitantly, the anastomotic hydroxyproline content was reduced. Depending on the location of the anastomosis and the route of 5-FU administration, even a period of 3 days between operation and first dosage seemed insufficient to prevent weakening of the anastomosis. The effects of intravenous administration, though qualitatively similar, were quantitatively less dramatic than those observed after intraperitoneal delivery. Post-operative treatment with 5-FU, if started within the first 3 days after operation, is detrimental to anastomotic strength and may compromise anastomotic integrity. (+info)
Comparison of functional antagonism between isoproterenol and M2 muscarinic receptors in guinea pig ileum and trachea.
The ability of the M2 muscarinic receptor to mediate an inhibition of the relaxant effects of forskolin and isoproterenol was investigated in guinea pig ileum and trachea. In some experiments, trachea was first treated with 4-diphenylacetoxy-N-methylpiperidine (4-DAMP) mustard to inactivate M3 receptors. The contractile response to oxotremorine-M was measured subsequently in the presence of both histamine (10 microM) and isoproterenol (10 nM). Under these conditions, [[2-[(diethylamino)methyl]-1-piperidinyl]acetyl]-5, 11-dihydro-6H-pyrido[2,3b]-[1,4]benzodiazepine-6-one (AF-DX 116) antagonized the contractile response to oxotremorine-M in a manner consistent with an M3 mechanism. However, when the same experiment was repeated using forskolin (4 microM) instead of isoproterenol, the response to oxotremorine-M exhibited greater potency and was antagonized by AF-DX 116 in a manner consistent with an M2 mechanism. We also measured the effects of pertussis toxin treatment on the ability of isoproterenol to inhibit the contraction elicited by a single concentration of either histamine (0.3 microM) or oxotremorine-M (40 nM) in both the ileum and trachea. Pertussis toxin treatment had no significant effect on the potency of isoproterenol for inhibiting histamine-induced contractions in the ileum and trachea. In contrast, pertussis toxin treatment enhanced the relaxant potency of isoproterenol against oxotremorine-M-induced contractions in the ileum but not in the trachea. Also, pertussis toxin treatment enhanced the relaxant potency of forskolin against oxotremorine-M-induced contractions in the ileum and trachea. We investigated the relaxant potency of isoproterenol when very low, equi-effective (i.e., 20-34% of maximal response) concentrations of either histamine or oxotremorine-M were used to elicit contraction. Under these conditions, isoproterenol exhibited greater relaxant potency against histamine in the ileum but exhibited similar relaxant potencies against histamine and oxotremorine-M in the trachea. Following 4-DAMP mustard treatment, a low concentration of oxotremorine-M (10 nM) had no contractile effect in either the ileum or trachea. Nevertheless, in 4-DAMP mustard-treated tissue, oxotremorine-M (10 nM) reduced the relaxant potency of isoproterenol against histamine-induced contractions in the ileum, but not in the trachea. We conclude that in the trachea the M2 receptor mediates an inhibition of the relaxant effects of forskolin, but not isoproterenol, and the decreased relaxant potency of isoproterenol against contractions elicited by a muscarinic agonist relative to histamine is not due to activation of M2 receptors but rather to the greater contractile stimulus mediated by the M3 receptor compared with the H1 histamine receptor. (+info)
Comparison of local anesthetic activities between optical isomers of cis-1-benzoyloxy-2-dimethylamino-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene.
The optical isomers of cis-1-benzoyloxy-2-dimethylamino-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene (YAU-17) were compared for their local anesthetic activity, acute toxicity, spasmolytic activity, and partition coefficient between chloroform and phosphate buffer. 1-YAU-17 was more active than d-YAU-17 in blocking the conduction of action potentials in isolated frog sciatic nerves. The difference in local anesthetic activities between the optical isomers was further substantiated by in vivo tests for corneal anesthesia, intracutaneous anesthesia and sciatic nerve block in quinea-pigs. Similarly, the i.v. injection to mice revealed a higher toxicity for 1-YAU-17 as compared to its d-isomer. In these tests, the potency ratios of the enantiomers ranged from 2 to 4, and the racemate had an intermediate potency. On the contrary, no difference among the compounds was found in their liposolubility, partition coefficient, and spasmolytic activity examined with isolated guinea-pig ileum. These results indicate that the steric factors play an important role in the production of different local anesthetic activities between the optical isomers of YAU-17, and their local anesthetic potency tends to be correlated to their intravenous acute toxicity but not to their spasmolytic activity. (+info)
Two affinities for a single antagonist at the neuronal NK1 tachykinin receptor: evidence from quantitation of receptor endocytosis.
1. In smooth muscle contractility assays, many NK1 receptor (NK1r) antagonists inhibit responses to the neurotransmitter, substance P (SP), and its analogue, septide, with markedly different potency, leading to the proposal that there is a septide-preferring receptor related to the NK1r. 2. We used fluorescence immunohistochemistry and confocal microscopy to visualize agonist-induced NK1r endocytosis and analyse agonist/antagonist interactions at native NK1r in neurons of the myenteric plexus of guinea-pig ileum. 3. SP and septide gave sigmoid log concentration-response curves and were equipotent in inducing NK1r endocytosis. 4. The NK1r antagonists, CP-99994 (2S,3S)-3-(2-methoxybenzyl)amino-2-phenylpiperidine dihydrochloride and MEN-10581, cyclo(Leu,[CH2NH]Lys(benzyloxycarbonyl)-Gln-Trp-Phe-betaAla) were both more potent in inhibiting endocytosis (50 x and 8 x greater respectively) against septide than against SP. 5. The results suggest that SP and septide interact differently with the NK1r, and that a single antagonist can exhibit different affinities at a single NK1r population, depending on the agonist with which it competes. Thus it may not be necessary to posit a separate septide-preferring tachykinin receptor. (+info)
[3H]-Mesulergine labels 5-HT7 sites in rat brain and guinea-pig ileum but not rat jejunum.
1. The primary aim of this investigation was to determine whether binding sites corresponding to the 5-HT7 receptor could be detected in smooth muscle of the rat jejunum. Binding studies in rat brain (whole brain minus cerebellum) and guinea-pig ileal longitudinal muscle were also undertaken in order to compare the binding characteristics of these tissues. Studies were performed using [3H]-mesulergine, as it has a high affinity for 5-HT7 receptors. 2. In the rat brain and guinea-pig ileum, pKD values for [3H]-mesulergine of 8.0 +/- 0.04 and 7.9 +/- 0.11 (n = 3) and Bmax values of 9.9 +/- 0.3 and 21.5 +/- 4.9 fmol mg(-1) protein were obtained respectively, but no binding was detected in the rat jejunum. [3H]-mesulergine binding in the rat brain and guinea-pig ileum was displaced with the agonists 5-carboxamidotryptamine (5-CT) > 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) > or = 5-methoxytryptamine (5-MeOT) > sumatriptan and the antagonists risperidone > or = LSD > or = metergoline > ritanserin > > pindolol. 3. Despite the lack of [3H]-mesulergine binding in the rat jejunum, functional studies undertaken revealed a biphasic contractile response to 5-HT which was partly blocked by ondansetron (1 microM). The residual response was present in over 50% of tissues studied and was found to be inhibited by risperidone > LSD > metergoline > mesulergine = ritanserin > pindolol, but was unaffected by RS 102221 (3 microM), cinanserin (30 nM), yohimbine (0.1 microM) and GR 113808 (1 microM). In addition, the agonist order of potency was 5-CT > 5-HT > 5-MeOT > sumatriptan. 4. In conclusion, binding studies performed with [3H]-mesulergine were able to detect 5-HT7 sites in rat brain and guinea-pig ileum, but not in rat jejunum, where a functional 5-HT7-like receptor was present. (+info)
Apparent ileal and total-tract nutrient digestion by pigs as affected by dietary nondigestible oligosaccharides.
The effects of two types of nondigestible oligosaccharides (NDO), fructooligosaccharides (FOS), and transgalactooligosaccharides (TOS) were studied on growing and weanling pigs' nutrient digestion. Dietary NDO were included at the expense of purified cellulose. Twenty-five 57-d-old growing pigs, averaging 15.9+/-.6 kg on d 0 of the experiment, were fed a corn-based control diet or the control with 6.8 or 13.5 g of FOS/kg or 4.0 or 8.0 g of TOS/kg (five pigs per diet). Feces were collected on d 28 to 32, and small-intestinal digesta were collected (slaughter technique) on d 42 to 47 of the experiment. Feeds, feces, and digesta were analyzed for DM, inorganic matter, CP, ether extract, and crude fiber. Dietary NDO did not significantly affect apparent fecal and small intestinal digestion of nutrients in growing pigs. After being fed a NDO-free diet through d 10 after weaning, 38-d-old weanling pigs (n = 20), averaging 10.4+/-.8 kg on d 0 of the experiment, were fed a control diet (based on cornstarch, casein, and oat husk meal) or the control with 10 or 40 g of FOS or TOS/kg (four pigs per diet). Feces and urine were collected on d 13 to 17, and ileal digesta were collected via a postvalve T-cecum cannula on d 33 to 37 of the experiment. Feeds, feces, and digesta were analyzed for DM, inorganic matter, CP, ether extract, starch, NDF, ADF, ADL, Ca, P, Mg, Fe, Cu, and Zn. Nonstarch neutral-detergent soluble carbohydrates (NNSC) completed the mass balance for the carbohydrates. Urine was analyzed for N and minerals. The apparent fecal digestion of NNSC increased in the NDO-supplemented diets. The TOS-fed pigs tended (P<.10) to have a higher apparent fecal digestion of CP than the FOS-fed and control pigs but excreted more N via the urine (P<.01). Nitrogen and mineral balances were not affected. The FOS was nearly completely degraded prececally. Mean fiber digestion was lower at the fecal compared with the ileal level, as was the extent of NDO effects. This indicates that fiber digestion requires more than 2 wk to adapt to dietary NDO. Apparent ileal digestion of hemicellulose increased for the NDO-supplemented diets (P<.05), but that of NNSC decreased (P<.001). Thus, under the well-controlled conditions of this experiment, dietary NDO hardly affected nutrient digestion in well-kept growing and weanling pigs. However, digestion of dietary nonstarch carbohydrates may be affected. (+info)
Identification and characterization of alkenyl hydrolase (lysoplasmalogenase) in microsomes and identification of a plasmalogen-active phospholipase A2 in cytosol of small intestinal epithelium.
A lysoplasmalogenase (EC 22.214.171.124; EC 126.96.36.199) that liberates free aldehyde from 1-alk-1'-enyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-ethanolamine or -choline (lysoplasmalogen) was identified and characterized in rat gastrointestinal tract epithelial cells. Glycerophosphoethanolamine was produced in the reaction in equimolar amounts with the free aldehyde. The microsomal membrane associated enzyme was present throughout the length of the small intestines, with the highest activity in the jejunum and proximal ileum. The rate of alkenyl ether bond hydrolysis was dependent on the concentrations of microsomal protein and substrate, and was linear with respect to time. The enzyme hydrolyzed both ethanolamine- and choline-lysoplasmalogens with similar affinities; the Km values were 40 and 66 microM, respectively. The enzyme had no activity with 1-alk-1'-enyl-2-acyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-ethanolamine or -choline (intact plasmalogen), thus indicating enzyme specificity for a free hydroxyl group at the sn-2 position. The specific activities were 70 nmol/min/mg protein and 57 nmol/min/mg protein, respectively, for ethanolamine- and choline-lysoplasmalogen. The pH optimum was between 6.8 and 7.4. The enzyme required no known cofactors and was not affected by low mM levels of Ca2+, Mg2+, EDTA, or EGTA. The detergents, Triton X-100, deoxycholate, and octyl glucoside inhibited the enzyme. The chemical and physical properties of the lysoplasmalogenase were very similar to those of the enzyme in liver and brain microsomes. In developmental studies the specific activities of the small intestinal and liver enzymes increased markedly, 11.1- and 3.4-fold, respectively, in the first approximately 40 days of postnatal life. A plasmalogen-active phospholipase A2 activity was identified in the cytosol of the small intestines (3.3 nmol/min/mg protein) and liver (0.3 nmol/min/mg protein) using a novel coupled enzyme assay with microsomal lysoplasmalogenase as the coupling enzyme. (+info)