Molecular cloning and characterization of a human uronyl 2-sulfotransferase that sulfates iduronyl and glucuronyl residues in dermatan/chondroitin sulfate.
A partial-length human cDNA with a predicted amino acid sequence homologous to a previously described heparan sulfate iduronyl 2-sulfotransferase (Kobayashi, M., Habuchi, H., Yoneda, M., Habuchi, O., and Kimata, K. (1997) J. Biol. Chem. 272, 13980-13985) was obtained by searching the expressed sequence-tagged data bank. Northern blot analysis was performed using this homologous cDNA as a probe, which demonstrated ubiquitous expression of messages of 5.1 and 2.0 kilobases in a number of human tissues and in several human cancer cell lines. Since the human lymphoma Raji cell line had the highest level of expression, it was used to isolate a full-length cDNA clone. The full-length cDNA was found to contain an open reading frame that predicted a type II transmembrane protein composed of 406 amino acid residues. The cDNA in a baculovirus expression vector was expressed in Sf9 insect cells, and cell extracts were then incubated together with 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phospho[35S]sulfate and potential glycosaminoglycan acceptors. This demonstrated substantial sulfotransferase activity with dermatan sulfate, a small degree of activity with chondroitin sulfate, but no sulfotransferase activity with desulfated N-resulfated heparin. Analysis of [35S]sulfate-labeled disaccharide products of chondroitin ABC, chondroitin AC, and chondroitin B lyase treatment demonstrated that the enzyme only transferred sulfate to the 2-position of uronyl residues, which were preponderantly iduronyl residues in dermatan sulfate, but some lesser transfer to glucuronyl residues of chondroitin sulfate. (+info)
Fluorometric measurement of urinary alpha-L-iduronidase activity.
A fluorogenic substrate for alpha-L-iduronidase, 4-methylumbelliferyl alpha-L-iduronide, has been newly synthesized and the enzyme activity has been measured in urine samples obtained from normal persons and patients suffering from mucopolysaccharidosis. Urine samples derived from a patient with Scheie syndrome showed greatly reduced activity compared with a normal adult at a similar age. This patient exhibited a high level of urinary excretion of dermatan sulfate and heparan sulfate, which could be interpreted in terms of her low alpha-L-iduronidase activity. The use of the fluorogenic substrate has some advantages over existing methods because of the high sensitivity and the relative ease of handling, and it should be useful not only for diagnosis but also for following the purification process of the enzyme. (+info)
Structural features and anticoagulant activities of a novel natural low molecular weight heparin from the shrimp Penaeus brasiliensis.
A natural low molecular weight heparin (8.5 kDa), with an anticoagulant activity of 95 IU/mg by the USP assay, was isolated from the shrimp Penaeus brasiliensis. The crustacean heparin was susceptible to both heparinase and heparitinase II from Flavobacterium heparinum forming tri- and di-sulfated disaccharides as the mammalian heparins. (13)C and (1)H NMR spectroscopy revealed that the shrimp heparin was enriched in both glucuronic and non-sulfated iduronic acid residues. The in vitro anticlotting activities in different steps of the coagulation cascade have shown that its anticoagulant action is mainly exerted through the inhibition of factor Xa and heparin cofactor II-mediated inhibition of thrombin. The shrimp heparin has also a potent in vivo antithrombotic activity comparable to the mammalian low molecular weight heparins. (+info)
Common binding sites for beta-amyloid fibrils and fibroblast growth factor-2 in heparan sulfate from human cerebral cortex.
Heparan sulfate found in the cerebral plaques of Alzheimer's disease binds to beta-amyloid (Abeta) fibrils. This interaction has been proposed to enhance fibril deposition and mediate Abeta-induced glia activation and neurotoxicity. On the other hand, heparan sulfate augments signaling of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2), a neuroprotective factor that antagonizes the neurotoxic effects of Abeta. We defined structures in heparan sulfate from human cerebral cortex that bind Abeta fibrils. The minimal binding site is found in N-sulfated hexasaccharide domains and contains critical 2-O-sulfated iduronic acid residues. By contrast, binding of Abeta monomers requires, in addition, 6-O-sulfate groups on glucosamine residues. The binding specificity of fibrillar Abeta is shared by FGF-2, and we here show that cerebral heparan sulfate domains selected for binding to Abeta-(1-40) fibrils bind also to FGF-2. These data suggest that neurotoxic and neuroprotective signals may converge by competing for the same binding sites on the heparan sulfate chain. (+info)
The effect of a reducing-end extension on pentasaccharide binding by antithrombin.
Antithrombin requires heparin for efficient inhibition of the final two proteinases of the blood coagulation cascade, factor Xa and thrombin. Antithrombin binds heparin via a specific pentasaccharide domain in a two-step mechanism whereby initial weak binding is followed by a conformational change and subsequent tight binding. The goal of this study is to investigate the role of a reducing-end extension in the binding of the longer oligosaccharides that contain the cognate pentasaccharide sequence. We determined the antithrombin binding properties of a synthetic heptasaccharide containing the natural pentasaccharide sequence (DEFGH) and an additional reducing-end disaccharide (DEFGHG'H'). Binding at low ionic strength is unaffected by the disaccharide addition, but at ionic strengths >/=0.2 the mode of heptasaccharide binding changes resulting in a 2-fold increase in affinity due to a decrease in the off-rate caused by a greater nonionic contribution to binding. Molecular modeling of possible binding modes for the heptasaccharide at high ionic strength indicates a possible shift in position of the pentasaccharide domain to occupy the extended heparin-binding site. This conclusion supports the likely presence of a range of sequences that can bind to and activate antithrombin in the natural heparan sulfates that line the vascular endothelium. (+info)
Biosynthesis of heparin/heparan sulphate: mechanism of epimerization of glucuronyl C-5.
In the biosynthesis of heparin and heparan sulphate, D-glucuronic acid residues are converted into L-iduronic acid (IdoA) units by C-5 epimerization, at the polymer level. The reaction catalysed by the epimerase occurs by reversible abstraction and readdition of a proton at C-5 of target hexuronic acid residues, through a carbanion intermediate, with or without an inversion of configuration at C-5 [Prihar, Campbell, Feingold, Jacobsson, Jensen, Lindahl and Roden (1980) Biochemistry 19, 495-500]. Incubation of chemically N-sulphated capsular polysaccharide from Escherichia coli K5 ([4GlcAbeta1-4GlcNSO(3)alpha1-](n)), or of O-desulphated heparin (predominantly [4IdoAalpha1-4GlcNSO(3)alpha1-](n)) with purified C-5 epimerase from bovine liver, resulted in the interconversion of glucuronic acid and IdoA residues, which reached equilibrium (30-40% IdoA/total hexuronic acid) after approx. 1 h of incubation. Similar incubations performed in the presence of (3)H(2)O resulted in progressive labelling at C-5 of the target hexuronic acid units of either substrate polysaccharide. Contrary to chemical D-gluco/L-ido equilibrium, established within 1 h of incubation, the accumulation of (3)H label continued for at least 6 h. This isotope effect suggests that the second stage of the reaction, i.e. the re-addition of a proton to the carbanion intermediate, is the rate-limiting step of the overall process. Analysis of the 5-(3)H-labelled polysaccharide products showed that the (3)H was approximately equally distributed between glucuronic acid and IdoA units, irrespective of incubation time (from 15 min to 72 h) and of the relative proportions of the two epimers in the substrate. This finding points to a catalytic mechanism in which the abstraction and re-addition of C-5 protons are effected by two polyprotic bases, presumably lysine residues. Previous experiments relating to the biosynthesis of dermatan sulphate were similarly interpreted in terms of a two-base epimerization mechanism but differed from the present findings by implicating one monoprotic and one polyprotic base function [Hannesson, Hagner-McWhirter, Tiedemann, Lindahl and Malmstrom (1996) Biochem. J. 313, 589-596]. (+info)
Iduronic acid-containing glycosaminoglycans on target cells are required for efficient respiratory syncytial virus infection.
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is an important human respiratory pathogen, particularly in infants. Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) have been implicated in the initiation of RSV infection of cultured cells, but it is not clear what type of GAGs and GAG components are involved, whether the important GAGs are on the virus or the cell, or what the magnitude is of their contribution to infection. We constructed and rescued a recombinant green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing RSV (rgRSV) and used this virus to develop a sensitive system to assess and quantify infection by flow cytometry. Evaluation of a panel of mutant Chinese hamster ovary cell lines that are genetically deficient in various aspects of GAG synthesis showed that infection was reduced up to 80% depending on the type of GAG deficiency. Enzymatic removal of heparan sulfate and/or chondroitin sulfate from the surface of HEp-2 cells also reduced infection, and the removal of both reduced infection even further. Blocking experiments in which RSV was preincubated with various soluble GAGs revealed the relative blocking order of: heparin > heparan sulfate > chondroitin sulfate B. Iduronic acid is a component common to these GAGs. GAGs that do not contain iduronic acid, namely, chondroitin sulfate A and C and hyaluronic acid, did not inhibit infection. A role for iduronic acid-containing GAGs in RSV infection was confirmed by the ability of basic fibroblast growth factor to block infection, because basic fibroblast growth factor binds to GAGs containing iduronic acid. Pretreatment of cells with protamine sulfate, which binds and blocks GAGs, also reduced infection. In these examples, infection was reduced by pretreatment of the virus with soluble GAGs, pretreatment of the cells with GAG-binding molecules, pretreatment of the cells with GAG-destroying enzymes or in cells genetically deficient in GAGs. These results establish that the GAGs involved in RSV infection are present on the cell rather than on the virus particle. Thus, the presence of cell surface GAGs containing iduronic acid, like heparan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate B, is required for efficient RSV infection in cell culture. (+info)
The spacing of S-domains on HS glycosaminoglycans determines whether the chain is a substrate for intracellular heparanases.
Heparanases are mammalian endoglucuronidases that degrade heparan sulfate (HS) glycosaminoglycans to short 5-6 kDa pieces. In the Golgi, HS glycosaminoglycans are modified by a series of interdependent reactions which result in chains that have regions rich in N- and O-sulfate groups and iduronate residues (S-domains), separated by regions that are nearly devoid of sulfate. Structural analysis of the short HS chains produced by Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell heparanases indicate that the enzymes recognize differences in sulfate content between S-domains and unmodified sequences, and cleave the chain at junctions between these regions. To look more closely at whether the spacing of S-domains on the gly- cosaminoglycan influences its ability to be cleaved by heparanases, we examined the susceptibility of the HS chains synthesized by the proteoglycan synthesis mutant, pgsE-606. PGS:E-606 cells are deficient in the modification enzyme N-deacetylase/N-sulfotransferase I, and synthesize HS chains that have fewer N- and O-sulfate groups and iduronate residues compared to wild-type (Bame et al., (1991), J. Biol. Chem., 266, 10287). HS glycosaminoglycans were isolated from wild-type and pgsE-606 cells and separated into populations based on sulfate content. Compared to wild-type HS, which has 14 S-domains, pgsE-606 cells synthesize three HS species, 606-1, 606-2, and 606-3, with 1, 4, and 8 S-domains, respectively. The spacing of the S-domains on the pgsE-606 HS chains is similar to the spacing the modified sequences on wild-type HS, indicating that each mutant glycosaminoglycan is composed of wild-type-like sequences and sequences devoid of S-domains. When incubated with partially purified CHO heparanases, only the portion of the mutant HS chains that had S-domains were degraded. Structural analysis of the heparanase-products confirmed that both the number and the arrangement of S-domains on the HS glycosaminoglycan are important for heparanase susceptibility. The structure of the different pgsE-606 HS chains also suggests mechanisms for the placement of S-domains when the gly- cosaminoglycan is synthesized. (+info)