Cholesterol sulfate and calcium affect stratum corneum lipid organization over a wide temperature range.
The main diffusion barrier for drugs penetrating through the skin is located in the intercellular lipid matrix in the upper layer of the skin, the stratum corneum (SC). The main lipid classes in the SC are ceramides (CER), free fatty acids (FFA) and cholesterol (CHOL). The lipids in SC are organized into two lamellar phases with periodicities of approximately 13 and 6 nm, respectively. Similar lipid organization has been found with equimolar CHOL:CER:FFA mixtures in SAXD studies performed at room temperature. However, one may conclude that the phase behavior of the mixtures is similar to that in SC only when the lipid organization of the lipid mixtures resembles that in SC over a wide temperature range. Therefore, in the present study, the organization of the lipid mixtures has been studied in a temperature range between 20 degrees and 95 degrees C. From these experiments it appeared that at elevated temperatures in equimolar CHOL:CER:FFA mixtures a new prominent 4.3 nm phase is formed between 35;-55 degrees C, which is absent or only weakly formed in intact human and pig SC, respectively. As it has been suggested that gradients of pH and cholesterol sulfate exist in the SC and that Ca(2+) is present only in the lowest SC layers, the effect of pH, cholesterol sulfate, and Ca(2+) on the lipid phase behavior has been investigated with lipid mixtures. Both an increase in pH from 5 (pH at the skin surface) to 7.4 (pH at the SC;-stratum granulosum interface) and the presence of cholesterol sulfate promote the formation of the 13 nm lamellar phase. Furthermore, cholesterol sulfate reduces the amount of CHOL that is present in crystalline domains, causes a shift in the formation of the 4.3 nm phase to higher temperatures, and makes this phase less prominent at higher temperatures. The finding that Ca(2+) counteracts the effects of cholesterol sulfate indicates the importance of a proper balance of minor SC components for appropriate SC lipid organization. In addition, when the findings are extrapolated to the in vivo situation, it seems that cholesterol sulfate is required to dissolve cholesterol in the lamellar phases and to stabilize SC lipid organization. Therefore, a drop in cholesterol sulfate content in the superficial layers of the SC is expected to destabilize the lipid lamellar phases, which might facilitate the desquamation process. (+info)
Mutation report: a novel partial deletion of exons 2-10 of the STS gene in recessive X-linked ichthyosis.
X-linked ichthyosis is an inherited disease due to steroid sulfatase deficiency. Onset is at birth or early after birth with dark, regular, and adherent scales of skin. Approximately 85%-90% of X-linked ichthyosis patients have large deletions of the STS gene and flanking sequences. Three patients have been identified with partial deletions of the gene. Two deletions have been found at the 3' extreme and the other one implicating exons 2-5. This study describes a novel partial deletion of the STS gene in an X-linked ichthyosis patient. The subject was classified through steroid sulfatase assay in leukocytes using 7-[3H]-dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate as a substrate. Exons 1, 2, 5, and 7-10, and 3' flanking sequences DXS1131, DXS1133, DXS237, DXS1132, DXF22S1, and DXS278 of the STS gene were analyzed through polymerase chain reaction. The DNA analysis showed that exon 1 and 3' flanking sequences from DXS237 to DXS278 were present. In this study we report the fourth partial deletion of the STS gene and the first spanning exons 2-10 in X-linked ichthyosis patients. (+info)
Deletion of exons 1-5 of the STS gene causing X-linked ichthyosis.
X-linked ichthyosis is an inherited disorder due to steroid sulfatase deficiency. It is clinically characterized by dark, adhesive, and regular scales of the skin. Most X-linked ichthyosis patients present large deletions of the STS gene and flanking markers; a minority show a point mutation or partial deletion of the STS gene. In this study we analyzed the STS gene in a family with simultaneous occurrence of X-linked ichthyosis and ichthyosis vulgaris. X-linked ichthyosis diagnosis was confirmed through steroid sulfatase assay in leukocytes using 7-[3H]-dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate as a substrate. Exons 1, 2, 5, and 6-10, and the 5' flanking markers DXS1130, DXS1139, and DXS996 of the STS gene were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction. X-linked ichthyosis patients of the family (n = 4 males) had undetectable levels of STS activity (0.00 pmol per mg protein per h). The DNA analysis showed that only exons 6-10 and the 5' flanking markers of the STS gene were present. We report the first partial deletion of the STS gene spanning exons 1-5 in X-linked ichthyosis patients. (+info)
Deletion pattern of the STS gene in X-linked ichthyosis in a Mexican population.
BACKGROUND: X-linked ichthyosis (XLI) is an inherited disorder due to steroid sulfatase deficiency (STS). Most XLI patients (>90%) have complete deletion of the STS gene and flanking sequences. The presence of low copy number repeats (G1.3 and CRI-S232) on either side of the STS gene seems to play a role in the high frequency of these interstitial deletions. In the present study, we analyzed 80 Mexican patients with XLI and complete deletion of the STS gene. MATERIALS AND METHODS: STS activity was measured in the leukocytes using 7-[(3)H]-dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate as a substrate. Amplification of the regions telomeric-DXS89, DXS996, DXS1139, DXS1130, 5' STS, 3' STS, DXS1131, DXS1133, DXS237, DXS1132, DXF22S1, DXS278, DXS1134-centromeric was performed through PCR. RESULTS: No STS activity was detected in the XLI patients (0.00 pmoles/mg protein/h). We observed 3 different patterns of deletion. The first two groups included 25 and 32 patients, respectively, in which homologous sequences were involved. These subjects showed the 5' STS deletion at the sequence DXS1139, corresponding to the probe CRI-S232A2. The group of 32 patients presented the 3' STS rupture site at the sequence DXF22S1 (probe G1.3) and the remaining 25 patients had the 3' STS breakpoint at the sequence DXS278 (probe CRI-S232B2). The third group included 23 patients with the breakpoints at several regions on either side of the STS gene. No implication of the homologous sequences were observed in this group. CONCLUSION: These data indicate that more complex mechanisms, apart from homologous recombination, are occurring in the genesis of the breakpoints of the STS gene of XLI Mexican patients. (+info)
Somatic and germinal mosaicism for the steroid sulfatase gene deletion in a steroid sulfatase deficiency carrier.
Steroid sulfatase deficiency results in X-linked ichthyosis, an inborn error of metabolism in which the principal molecular defect is the complete deletion of the steroid sulfatase gene and flanking markers. Mosaicism for the steroid sulfatase gene has not yet been reported in X-linked ichthyosis. In this study we describe an X-linked ichthyosis patient with complete deletion of the steroid sulfatase gene and his mother with somatic and germinal mosaicism for this molecular defect. The family (X-linked ichthyosis patient, grandmother, mother, and sister) was analyzed through steroid sulfatase enzyme assay, polymerase chain reaction, DNA markers, and fluorescence in situ hybridization of the steroid sulfatase gene. Steroid sulfatase activity was undetectable in the X-linked ichthyosis patient, very low in the mother, and normal in the grandmother and sister. The X-linked ichthyosis patient showed a 2 Mb deletion of the steroid sulfatase gene and flanking regions from 5'DXS1139 to 3'DXF22S1. The mother showed one copy of the steroid sulfatase gene in 98.5% of oral cells and in 80% of leukocytes. The grandmother and sister showed two copies of the steroid sulfatase gene. The origin of the X chromosome with the deletion of the steroid sulfatase gene corresponded to the grandfather of the proband. We report the first case of somatic and germinal mosaicism of the steroid sulfatase gene in an X-linked ichthyosis carrier and propose DNA slippage as the most plausible mechanism in the genesis of this mosaicism. (+info)
Basis for abnormal desquamation and permeability barrier dysfunction in RXLI.
Mutations in the gene for steroid sulfatase (SSase), are responsible for recessive x-linked ichthyosis (RXLI). As a consequence of SSase deficiency, its substrate, cholesterol sulfate (CSO4), accumulates in the epidermis. Accumulation of this amphipathic lipid in the outer epidermis provokes both a typical scaling phenotype and permeability barrier dysfunction. Research on RXLI has illuminated several, potentially overlapping pathogenic mechanisms and provided insights about the role of SSase and CSO4 in normal differentiation, barrier maintenance, and desquamation. We now show here that SSase is concentrated in lamellar bodies (LB), and secreted into the SC interstices, along with other LB-derived lipid hydrolases. There, it degrades CSO4, generating some cholesterol for the barrier, while the progressive decline in CSO4 (a serine protease (SP) inhibitor) permits corneodesmosome (CD) degradation leading to normal desquamation. Two molecular pathways contribute to disease pathogenesis in RXLI: 1) excess CSO4 produces nonlamellar phase separation in the stratum corneum (SC) interstices, explaining the barrier abnormality. 2) The increased CSO4 in the SC interstices inhibit activity sufficiently to delay CD degradation, leading to corneocyte retention. We also show here that increased Ca++ in the SC interstices in RXLI could contribute to corneocyte retention, by increasing CD and interlamellar cohesion. RXLI represents one of the best understood diseases in dermatology--from the gene to the SC interstices, its etiology and pathogenesis are becoming clear, and assessment of disease mechanisms in RXLI led to new insights about the role of SSase and CSO4 in epidermis terminal differentiation. (+info)
Identification of point mutations in the steroid sulfatase gene of three patients with X-linked ichthyosis.
X-linked ichthyosis (XLI) is an inborn error of metabolism caused by steroid sulfatase (STS) deficiency. In more than 80% of XLI patients the enzyme deficiency is due to large deletions involving the entire STS gene and flanking sequences. However, some patients with the classical XLI phenotype and complete STS deficiency do not show any detectable deletions by Southern blot analysis using full-length STS cDNA as a probe. We have studied five unrelated patients who are such "nondeletion" mutants. Western blot analysis using anti-STS antibodies was performed on patients' fibroblast extracts and revealed absence of cross-reacting material. First-strand cDNA synthesis by reverse transcription from patients' RNA isolated from cultured fibroblasts and PCR amplification of overlapping segments of the entire STS polypeptide coding region were performed. Three point mutations were identified by chemical mismatch cleavage, sequenced by dideoxynucleotide chain-termination sequencing and confirmed by allele-specific oligonucleotide hybridization of the patients' genomic DNA. The mutations resulted in the substitution of a tryptophan for an arginine at codon 1319, changing a hydrophobic to a basic hydrophilic amino acid, the substitution of a cysteine for a tyrosine at codon 1542, potentially losing a disulfide bond, and the substitution of a serine for a leucine at codon 1237. These are the first point mutations to be documented in the STS gene and may allow insight into functionally important domains of the protein. (+info)
Mutations in X-linked ichthyosis disrupt the active site structure of estrone/DHEA sulfatase.
X-linked ichthyosis is an inherited genetic disorder of the skin that results from steroid sulfatase (STS) deficiency. Seven critical point mutations have been previously reported for the STS gene, six leading to amino acid substitutions and one to a premature termination of the polypeptide chain. The three-dimensional structure of the full-length human enzyme has been recently determined. Amino acid substitutions due to point mutations in X-linked ichthyosis are mapped onto the three-dimensional structure of human STS. In each case, the substitution appears to cause disruption of the active site architecture or to interfere with the enzyme's putative membrane-associating motifs crucial to the integrity of the catalytic cleft, thereby providing an explanation for the loss of STS activity. (+info)