Loss of normal profilaggrin and filaggrin in flaky tail (ft/ft) mice: an animal model for the filaggrin-deficient skin disease ichthyosis vulgaris.
Flaky tail (gene symbol ft) is an autosomal recessive mutation in mice that results in a dry, flaky skin, and annular tail and paw constrictions in the neonatal period. Previous studies demonstrated that the ft mutation maps to the central region of mouse chromosome 3, in the vicinity of the epidermal differentiation complex, a gene locus that includes many nonkeratin genes expressed in epidermis. In this study we report a detailed characterization of the flaky tail mouse. Affected homozygous ft/ft mice exhibit large, disorganized scales on tail and paw skin, marked attenuation of the epidermal granular layer, mild acanthosis, and orthokeratotic hyperkeratosis. Biochemical analysis demonstrated that ft/ft mice lacked normal high molecular profilaggrin (approximately 500 kDa), and instead expressed a lower molecular weight form of profilaggrin (220 kDa) that is not proteolytically processed to profilaggrin intermediates or filaggrin. Mutant mice lacked the large, irregular F-type keratohyalin granules that contain profilaggrin, and filaggrin was absent from the cornified layers of ft/ft epidermis. The expression of epidermal keratins was unchanged, whereas the cornified envelope proteins involucrin and loricrin were increased in ft/ft epidermis. Cultured ft/ft keratinocytes also synthesized reduced amounts of profilaggrin mRNA and protein, demonstrating that the defect in profilaggrin expression is intrinsic to epidermal cells. These findings demonstrate that flaky tail mice express an abnormal profilaggrin polypeptide that does not form normal keratohyalin F-granules and is not proteolytically processed to filaggrin. We propose that the absence of filaggrin, and in particular the hygroscopic, filaggrin-derived amino acids that are thought to function in epidermal hydration, underlies the dry, scaly skin characteristic of ft/ft mice. This animal model provides a tool for understanding the role of filaggrin in normal epidermal function and may provide insight into the molecular basis of the filaggrin-deficient human skin disorder ichthyosis vulgaris. J Invest Dermatol 115:1072-1081 2000 (+info)
Deletion of exons 1-5 of the STS gene causing X-linked ichthyosis.
X-linked ichthyosis is an inherited disorder due to steroid sulfatase deficiency. It is clinically characterized by dark, adhesive, and regular scales of the skin. Most X-linked ichthyosis patients present large deletions of the STS gene and flanking markers; a minority show a point mutation or partial deletion of the STS gene. In this study we analyzed the STS gene in a family with simultaneous occurrence of X-linked ichthyosis and ichthyosis vulgaris. X-linked ichthyosis diagnosis was confirmed through steroid sulfatase assay in leukocytes using 7-[3H]-dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate as a substrate. Exons 1, 2, 5, and 6-10, and the 5' flanking markers DXS1130, DXS1139, and DXS996 of the STS gene were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction. X-linked ichthyosis patients of the family (n = 4 males) had undetectable levels of STS activity (0.00 pmol per mg protein per h). The DNA analysis showed that only exons 6-10 and the 5' flanking markers of the STS gene were present. We report the first partial deletion of the STS gene spanning exons 1-5 in X-linked ichthyosis patients. (+info)
Epidermal tight junctions: ZO-1 and occludin are expressed in mature, developing, and affected skin and in vitro differentiating keratinocytes.
This study demonstrates the presence of tight junction antigens in adult and developing human epidermis. Indirect immunofluorescence labeling and immunoelectron microscopy with antibodies to ZO-1 and occludin localized tight junction components ZO-1 and occludin to a narrow zone of the granular cells of adult epidermis. Double immunolabeling for tight junction components with adherens junction or desmosome proteins suggested that occludin is more specific for tight junctions than ZO-1, which may also be associated with adherens junctions. In developing skin, tight junctions interconnected the peridermal cells, and after the fetal stratification localized to the granular cell layer. Immunolabeling of psoriasis, lichen planus, and ichthyosis vulgaris, representing aberrant differentiation of the epidermis, showed that these conditions were associated with relocation of ZO-1 and occludin to the spinous cells. Cultures of epidermal keratinocytes, which offer a useful model for the formation of cellular contacts, revealed that tight junction components, ZO-1 and occludin, displayed a marked degree of colocalization relatively late during the process when the fusion zone had assumed a linear appearance. This suggests that the formation of adherens junctions and desmosomes precedes that of tight junctions. We speculate that the epidermal barrier, isolating the human body from the external environment, is in part formed by tight junctions of stratum granulosum. (+info)
Expression of transglutaminase 5 in normal and pathologic human epidermis.
To explore the expression and gain more information on the function of transglutaminase 5 enzyme in normal and defective human epidermis, we generated a rat antihuman transglutaminase 5 antiserum elicited against a purified active recombinant protein expressed in the baculovirus system. By use of Western blotting and immunofluorescence methods, the immunospecificity of the antibodies for transglutaminase 5 was tested; no crossreactivity with other transglutaminases (types 1, 2, and 3) was observed, thus allowing histochemistry studies. By indirect immunofluorescence analysis the antibodies decorated the upper layers of normal human epidermis, with consistent staining in the spinous and granular layers. We evaluated transglutaminase 5 expression in comparison with proliferating (keratin 14) and differentiating (transglutaminase 3) markers in different diseases, such as psoriasis, ichthyosis vulgaris, lamellar ichthyosis, and Darier's disease. We observed that transglutaminase 5 contributes, as a secondary effect, to the hyperkeratotic phenotype in ichthyosis (both vulgaris and lamellar) and in psoriasis. In Darier's disease, transglutaminase 5 expression, as well as transglutaminase 3, is completely missregulated, being overexpressed or totally absent in different areas of the same lesion. (+info)
Epidermal differentiation complex yields a secret: mutations in the cornification protein filaggrin underlie ichthyosis vulgaris.
Ichthyosis vulgaris (IV), characterized by mild scaling on limbs and lower abdomen, has an incidence of 1 in 250. Smith, McLean, and colleagues demonstrate that common mutations in filaggrin underlie IV. Filaggrin aggregates keratin intermediate filaments and is cross-linked into the cornified envelope to form the epidermal barrier. These findings reinforce the importance of the epidermal barrier in pathogenesis of skin diseases. (+info)
Prevalent and rare mutations in the gene encoding filaggrin cause ichthyosis vulgaris and predispose individuals to atopic dermatitis.
Mutations in the filament aggregating protein (filaggrin) gene have recently been identified as the cause of the common genetic skin disorder ichthyosis vulgaris (IV), the most prevalent inherited disorder of keratinization. The main characteristics of IV are fine-scale on the arms and legs, palmar hyperlinearity, and keratosis pilaris. Here, we have studied six Irish families with IV for mutations in filaggrin. We have identified a new mutation, 3702delG, in addition to further instances of the reported mutations R501X and 2282del4, which are common in people of European origin. A case of a 2282del4 homozygote was also identified. Mutation 3702delG terminates protein translation in filaggrin repeat domain 3, whereas both recurrent mutations occur in repeat 1. These mutations are semidominant: heterozygotes have an intermediate phenotype most readily identified by palmar hyperlinearity and in some cases fine-scale and/or keratosis pilaris, whereas homozygotes or compound heterozygotes generally have more marked ichthyosis. Interestingly, the phenotypes of individuals homozygous for R501X, 2282del4, or compound heterozygous for R501X and 3702delG, were comparable, suggesting that mutations located centrally in the filaggrin repeats are also pathogenic. (+info)
Filaggrin mutations p.R501X and c.2282del4 in ichthyosis vulgaris.
Ichthyosis vulgaris (IV) is the most common hereditary disorder of cornification in humans, characterized by generalized fine scaling of the skin, palmar hyperlinearity with or without keratosis pilaris and atopy. Recently, the molecular basis of IV was ascribed to loss-of-function mutations in the gene encoding filaggrin (FLG), namely p.R501X and c.2282del4. Homozygotes and compound heterozygotes were severely affected whereas heterozygotes showed mild disease or were asymptomatic, suggesting semidominant inheritance with incomplete penetrance in heterozygotes. We report the presence of FLG mutations in 15 out of 21 IV patients with a marked generalized scaling phenotype, including eight affected members of a four-generation family. In this group of patients not only homozygous and compound heterozygous, but also heterozygous patients for p.R501X and c.2282del4 display a pronounced phenotype, whereas in none of six individuals these two mutations were detectable despite decreased filaggrin expression on immunohistochemistry in two patients, indicating that other mutations in FLG and/or in other genes remain to be identified. In contrast, two additional p.R501X heterozygotes from the extended family are asymptomatic. In a control population from west-Austria a combined p.R501X and c.2282del4 carrier frequency of 6/110 (5.45%) was observed. We confirm that these FLG variants are common, but our results point to the existence of additional modifiers. (+info)
Loss-of-function mutations in the filaggrin gene and allergic contact sensitization to nickel.
Allergic contact dermatitis is one of the most frequent dermatological problems affecting 7% of the general population. Impaired skin barrier function facilitates the penetration of contact allergens and irritants into the epidermal layer and is regarded as an important cofactor promoting the process of allergic contact sensitization. Filaggrin is crucial for the maintenance of the skin barrier function. Loss-of-function mutations within the filaggrin (FLG) gene are associated with skin barrier diseases such as ichthyosis vulgaris and atopic eczema (AE). To assess the impact of FLG on allergic contact sensitization and plausible intermediate traits, the two prevalent FLG mutations R501X and 2282del4 were typed in 1,502 individuals of the KORA C population-based cohort with extensive dermatologic phenotyping. Associations of FLG mutations with AE could be replicated. Strong associations were seen with dry skin, palmar hyperlinearity, and keratosis pilaris. In addition, an association with contact sensitization to nickel and contact sensitization to nickel combined with intolerance to fashion jewelry, but not with other contact allergens, was observed. From these data, we conclude that a genetically determined FLG deficiency manifests as dry skin and features of ichthyosis vulgaris. In addition, FLG deficiency may also represent a risk factor for contact sensitization to allergens. (+info)