Non-pseudogene-derived complex acid beta-glucosidase mutations causing mild type 1 and severe type 2 gaucher disease.
Gaucher disease is an autosomal recessive inborn error of glycosphingolipid metabolism caused by the deficient activity of the lysosomal hydrolase, acid beta-glucosidase. Three phenotypically distinct subtypes result from different acid beta-glucosidase mutations encoding enzymes with absent or low activity. A severe neonatal type 2 variant who presented with collodion skin, ichthyosis, and a rapid neurodegenerative course had two novel acid beta-glucosidase alleles: a complex, maternally derived allele, E326K+L444P, and a paternally inherited nonsense mutation, E233X. Because the only other non-pseudogene-derived complex allele, D140H+E326K, also had the E326K lesion and was reported in a mild type 1 patient with a D140H+E326K/K157Q genotype, these complex alleles and their individual mutations were expressed and characterized. Because the E233X mutation expressed no activity and the K157Q allele had approximately 1% normal specific activity based on cross-reacting immunologic material (CRIM SA) in the baculovirus system, the residual activity in both patients was primarily from their complex alleles. In the type 1 patient, the D140H+E326K allele was neuroprotective, encoding an enzyme with a catalytic efficiency similar to that of the N370S enzyme. In contrast, the E326K+L444P allele did not have sufficient activity to protect against the neurologic manifestations and, in combination with the inactive E233X lesion, resulted in the severe neonatal type 2 variant. Thus, characterization of these novel genotypes with non-pseudogene-derived complex mutations provided the pathogenic basis for their diverse phenotypes. (+info)
A novel mutation in the 1A domain of keratin 2e in ichthyosis bullosa of Siemens.
Ichthyosis bullosa of Siemens (IBS) is a rare autosomal dominant skin disorder with clinical features similar to epidermolytic hyperkeratosis (EHK). Both diseases have been linked to the type II keratin cluster on chromosome 12q. Hyperkeratosis and blister formation are relatively mild in IBS compared with EHK, and the lysis of keratinocytes is restricted to the upper spinous and granular layers of the epidermis of IBS patients, whereas in EHK lysis occurs in the lower spinous layer. Recently, mutations in the helix initiation and termination motifs of keratin 2e (K2e) have been described in IBS patients. The majority of the mutations reported to date lie in the 2B region. In this report, we have examined a large kindred in which the disease was originally diagnosed as EHK and mapped to the type II keratin cluster on chromosome 12q. Molecular analysis revealed a novel amino acid substitution at the beginning of the conserved 1A region of the rod domain (I4N) of K2e, resulting from a T to A transversion in codon 188. (+info)
Bricks and mortar of the epidermal barrier.
A specialized tissue type, the keratinizing epithelium, protects terrestrial mammals from water loss and noxious physical, chemical and mechanical insults. This barrier between the body and the environment is constantly maintained by reproduction of inner living epidermal keratinocytes which undergo a process of terminal differentiation and then migrate to the surface as interlocking layers of dead stratum corneum cells. These cells provide the bulwark of mechanical and chemical protection, and together with their intercellular lipid surroundings, confer water-impermeability. Much of this barrier function is provided by the cornified cell envelope (CE), an extremely tough protein/lipid polymer structure formed just below the cytoplasmic membrane and subsequently resides on the exterior of the dead cornified cells. It consists of two parts: a protein envelope and a lipid envelope. The protein envelope is thought to contribute to the biomechanical properties of the CE as a result of cross-linking of specialized CE structural proteins by both disulfide bonds and N(epsilon)-(gamma-glutamyl)lysine isopeptide bonds formed by transglutaminases. Some of the structural proteins involved include involucrin, loricrin, small proline rich proteins, keratin intermediate filaments, elafin, cystatin A, and desmosomal proteins. The lipid envelope is located on the exterior of and covalently attached by ester bonds to the protein envelope and consists of a monomolecular layer of omega-hydroxyceramides. These not only serve of provide a Teflon-like coating to the cell, but also interdigitate with the intercellular lipid lamellae perhaps in a Velcro-like fashion. In fact the CE is a common feature of all stratified squamous epithelia, although its precise composition, structure and barrier function requirements vary widely between epithelia. Recent work has shown that a number of diseases which display defective epidermal barrier function, generically known as ichthyoses, are the result of genetic defects of the synthesis of either CE proteins, the transglutaminase 1 cross-linking enzyme, or defective metabolism of skin lipids. (+info)
A novel function for transglutaminase 1: attachment of long-chain omega-hydroxyceramides to involucrin by ester bond formation.
Transglutaminases (TGases) are defined as enzymes capable of forming isopeptide bonds by transfer of an amine onto glutaminyl residues of a protein. Here we show that the membrane-bound form of the TGase 1 enzyme can also form ester bonds between specific glutaminyl residues of human involucrin and a synthetic analog of epidermal specific omega-hydroxyceramides. The formation of a approximately 5-nm-thick lipid envelope on the surface of epidermal keratinocytes is an important component of normal barrier function. The lipid envelope consists of omega-hydroxyceramides covalently linked by ester bonds to cornified envelope proteins, most abundantly to involucrin. We synthesized an analog of natural omega-hydroxyceramides N-[16-(16-hydroxyhexadecyl)oxypalmitoyl]sphingosine (lipid Z). When recombinant human TGase 1 and involucrin were reacted on the surface of synthetic lipid vesicles containing lipid Z, lipid Z was attached to involucrin and formed saponifiable protein-lipid adducts. By mass spectroscopy and sequencing of tryptic lipopeptides, the ester linkage formation used involucrin glutamine residues 107, 118, 122, 133, and 496 by converting the gamma-carboxamido groups to lipid esters. Several of these residues have been found previously to be attached to ceramides in vivo. Mass spectrometric analysis after acetonide derivatization also revealed that ester formation involved primarily the omega-hydroxyl group of lipid Z. Our data reveal a dual role for TGase 1 in epidermal barrier formation and provide insights into the pathophysiology of lamellar ichthyosis resulting from defects of TGase 1 enzyme. (+info)
Mouse model for the DNA repair/basal transcription disorder trichothiodystrophy reveals cancer predisposition.
Patients with the nucleotide excision repair (NER) disorder xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) are highly predisposed to develop sunlight-induced skin cancer, in remarkable contrast to photosensitive NER-deficient trichothiodystrophy (TTD) patients carrying mutations in the same XPD gene. XPD encodes a helicase subunit of the dually functional DNA repair/basal transcription complex TFIIH. The pleiotropic disease phenotype is hypothesized to be, in part, derived from a repair defect causing UV sensitivity and, in part, from a subtle, viable basal transcription deficiency accounting for the cutaneous, developmental, and the typical brittle hair features of TTD. To understand the relationship between deficient NER and tumor susceptibility, we used a mouse model for TTD that mimics an XPD point mutation of a TTD patient in the mouse germline. Like the fibroblasts from the patient, mouse cells exhibit a partial NER defect, evident from the reduced UV-induced DNA repair synthesis (residual repair capacity approximately 25%), limited recovery of RNA synthesis after UV exposure, and a relatively mild hypersensitivity to cell killing by UV or 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene. In accordance with the cellular studies, TTD mice exhibit a modestly increased sensitivity to UV-induced inflammation and hyperplasia of the skin. In striking contrast to the human syndrome, TTD mice manifest a dear susceptibility to UV- and 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced skin carcinogenesis, albeit not as pronounced as the totally NER-deficient XPA mice. These findings open up the possibility that TTD is associated with a so far unnoticed cancer predisposition and support the notion that a NER deficiency enhances cancer susceptibility. These findings have important implications for the etiology of the human disorder and for the impact of NER on carcinogenesis. (+info)
Identification of a novel mutation R42P in the gap junction protein beta-3 associated with autosomal dominant erythrokeratoderma variabilis.
We report a missense mutation in the gap junction protein beta-3 (encoding Connexin 31), which was detected in only the affected members of a family in which the autosomal dominant skin disease erythrokeratoderma variabilis was segregating. The nucleotide change results in an arginine to proline substitution in codon 42. This residue is positioned on the first transmembrane/first extracellular domain of the gap junction protein with the mutation replacing a negatively charged residue with a nonpolar residue. This change may disrupt the conformation of the protein and voltage gating polarity leading to impaired channel function. (+info)
A novel asparagine-->aspartic acid mutation in the rod 1A domain in keratin 2e in a Japanese family with ichthyosis bullosa of Siemens.
Ichthyosis bullosa of Siemens is a unique type of congenital ichthyosis characterized by mild hyperkeratosis over the flexural areas and blister formation after mechanical trauma and superficial denuded areas in the hyperkeratotic skin. Recently, mutations in the helix initiation or termination motifs of keratin 2e (KRT2E) have been described in ichthyosis bullosa of Siemens patients. The majority of the mutations reported to date lie in the 2B region. We report a novel amino acid substitution mutation (asparagine-->aspartic acid) in codon 192 at the conserved 1A helix initiation site of the rod domain of KRT2E in a Japanese family with ichthyosis bullosa of Siemens. Our data indicate aspartic acid substitution in codon 192 in the 1A helix initiation site is deleterious to keratin filament network integrity and leads to ichthyosis bullosa of Siemens phenotype. (+info)
Type 2 Gaucher disease: the collodion baby phenotype revisited.
The association of Gaucher disease, the inherited deficiency of lysosomal glucocerebrosidase (EC 188.8.131.52), and congenital ichthyosis was first noted a decade ago. Subsequently, a null allele type 2 Gaucher mouse was generated that also exhibited ichthyotic skin, confirming that the skin disorder and enzyme deficiency were directly related. This paper details the clinical and molecular characterisation of 6 cases of type 2 Gaucher disease presenting with the collodion baby phenotype. The identified mutant glucocerebrosidase alleles include two novel mutations (S196P and R131L) and two rare point mutations (R120W and R257Q), as well as alleles resulting from recombination with the nearby glucocerebrosidase pseudogene. There is significant genotypic heterogeneity in this rare subset of patients with type 2 Gaucher disease. Gaucher disease should be considered in the differential diagnosis of congenital ichthyosis in the newborn period. (+info)