Immobilization with metal hydroxides as a means to concentrate food-borne bacteria for detection by cultural and molecular methods.
The application of nucleic acid amplification methods to the detection of food-borne pathogens could be facilitated by concentrating the organisms from the food matrix before detection. This study evaluated the utility of metal hydroxide immobilization for the concentration of bacterial cells from dairy foods prior to detection by cultural and molecular methods. Using reconstituted nonfat dry milk (NFDM) as a model, two food-borne pathogens (Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis) were concentrated from 25-ml samples by the sequential steps of clarification and high-speed centrifugation (designated primary concentration) and immobilization with zirconium hydroxide and low-speed centrifugation (designated secondary concentration). Sample volume reduction after immobilization with zirconium hydroxide was 50-fold, with total bacterial recoveries ranging from 78 to 96% of input for serovar Enteritidis and 65 to 96% of input for L. monocytogenes. Immobilized bacteria remained viable and could be enumerated by standard cultural procedures. When followed by RNA extraction and subsequent detection by reverse transcription (RT)-PCR, detection limits of 10(1) to 10(2) CFU/25 ml of reconstituted NFDM were achieved for both organisms. The bacterial-immobilization step was relatively nonspecific, resulting in recovery of >50% of the input cells when evaluated on a panel of representative bacterial strains of significance to foods. The method could be adapted to more complex dairy products, such as whole milk and ice cream, for which bacterial recoveries after immobilization ranged from 64 to >100%, with subsequent RT-PCR detection limits of >/=10(2) CFU/ml for whole milk and >/=10(1) CFU for ice cream for both serovar Enteritidis and L. monocytogenes. The bacterial-immobilization method is easy, rapid, and inexpensive and may have applications for the concentration of a wide variety of food-borne bacteria prior to detection by both conventional and alternative methods. (+info)
Repair and enumeration of injured coliforms by a plating procedure.
Surface plating of coliforms on Trypticase soy agar, followed by 1 to 2 h of incubation at 25 C and subsequent overlay with violet red bile agar, was found to be a useful method for the repair and enumeration of coliforms injured by freezing. (+info)
Cocoa powder increases postprandial insulinemia in lean young adults.
We hypothesized that chocolate products elicit higher insulin responses than matched products with alternate flavoring. To test this, we used a within-subject, repeated-measures comparison of six pairs of foods, one flavored with chocolate (cocoa powder) and the other not. Healthy subjects (n = 10, 4 men, 6 women) tested each pair of foods. Postprandial glucose and insulin levels were determined at intervals over 2 h using standardized glycemic index (GI) methodology. The product categories were chocolate bars, cakes, breakfast cereals, ice creams, flavored milks and puddings. Although the GI did not differ within each pair, the insulin index (II) of the chocolate product was always higher, by a mean of 28%, than the alternate flavored product (P < 0.001). The greatest difference occurred within the flavored milk category in which the chocolate version elicited 45% greater insulinemia than the strawberry flavored milk (P = 0.021). Macronutrient composition (fat, protein, sugar, fiber or energy density) accounted for nearly all of the variation in GI among the foods, but did not explain differences in insulinemia. The presence of cocoa powder in foods leads to greater postprandial insulin secretion than alternate flavorings. Specific insulinogenic amino acids or greater cephalic phase insulin release may explain the findings. (+info)
The epidemic of pediatric traffic injuries in South Florida: a review of the problem and initial results of a prospective surveillance strategy.
This study identified specific regional risk factors for the high rate of pediatric pedestrian trauma in Florida. Of the 29 cases studied prospectively, 3 (10%) occurred near ice cream trucks and 13 (45%) involved "dart-outs"; mean hospital charges were 24,478 +/- 43,939 US dollars. Recommendations included an engineering change for a dangerous intersection, and a population-based recommendation was to equip ice cream trucks with extending stop signs. (+info)
Outbreak of verocytotoxin-producing E. coli O145 and O26 infections associated with the consumption of ice cream produced at a farm, Belgium, 2007.
In October 2007, an outbreak of verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC) O145 and E. coli O26 occurred among consumers of ice cream produced and sold in September 2007 at a farm in the province of Antwerp (Belgium). The ice cream was consumed at two birthday parties and also eaten at the farm. Five children, aged between two and 11 years, developed haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS), and seven other co-exposed persons contracted severe diarrhoea. In three of the five HUS cases VTEC O145 infections were laboratory confirmed, one in association with VTEC O26. Identical isolates of E. coli O145 and O26 were detected with PCR and PFGE in faecal samples of patients and in ice cream leftovers from one of the birthday parties, in faecal samples taken from calves, and in samples of soiled straw from the farm at which the ice cream was produced. Ice cream was made from pasteurised milk and most likely contaminated by one of food handlers. (+info)
Coliform and Escherichia coli contamination of desserts served in public restaurants from Guadalajara, Mexico, and Houston, Texas.
Bacterial enteropathogens acquired from contaminated food are the principal causes of travelers' diarrhea (TD). We evaluated desserts obtained from popular restaurants in the tourist city of Guadalajara, Mexico, and Houston, Texas, to determine coliform and Escherichia coli contamination levels and presence of diarrheagenic E. coli known to be important in TD. Contamination for all organisms was seen for desserts served in Guadalajara restaurants. Desserts should be considered as potentially risky foods for development of TD among international visitors to developing regions of the world. (+info)
Calcium absorption from fortified ice cream formulations compared with calcium absorption from milk.