Changes in the total number of neuroglia, mitotic cells and necrotic cells in the anterior limb of the mouse anterior commissure following hypoxic stress.
The effects of hypoxic stress (390 mmHg) on the total number of glia, cell division, and cell death in the anterior limb of the anterior commissure were studied. There was a significant (P less than 0-01) fall in the total number of glia following exposure to hypoxia at 390 mmHg for two days. No significant change was observed in the total number of glia between the hypoxic and recovery group one week after return to sea level (ca. 760 mmHg). No change was observed in the number of mitotic figures in the control, hypoxic or recovery groups, but significant falls were observed in the mean number of necrotic cells between both the control and hypoxic groups (P less than 0-05) and the hypoxic and recovery groups (P less than 0-012). The decrease in necrotic cells may be due to a large number of elderly and effete cells, which would normally have undergone degeneration over a period of weeks, dying rapidly after the onset of hypoxia, thus temporarily reducing the daily cell death rate. (+info)
Cannabinoids and neuroprotection in global and focal cerebral ischemia and in neuronal cultures.
Marijuana and related drugs (cannabinoids) have been proposed as treatments for a widening spectrum of medical disorders. R(+)-[2, 3-dihydro-5-methyl-3-[(morpholinyl)methyl]pyrrolo[1,2,3-de]-1, 4-benzoxazin-yl]-(1-naphthalenyl)methanone mesylate (R(+)-WIN 55212-2), a synthetic cannabinoid agonist, decreased hippocampal neuronal loss after transient global cerebral ischemia and reduced infarct volume after permanent focal cerebral ischemia induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats. The less active enantiomer S(-)-WIN 55212-3 was ineffective, and the protective effect of R(+)-WIN 55212-2 was blocked by the specific central cannabinoid (CB1) cannabinoid receptor antagonist N-(piperidin-1-yl)-5-(4-chlorophenyl)-1-(2, 4-dichlorophenyl)-4-methyl-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxamide-hydrochloride. R(+)-WIN 55212-2 also protected cultured cerebral cortical neurons from in vitro hypoxia and glucose deprivation, but in contrast to the receptor-mediated neuroprotection observed in vivo, this in vitro effect was not stereoselective and was insensitive to CB1 and CB2 receptor antagonists. Cannabinoids may have therapeutic potential in disorders resulting from cerebral ischemia, including stroke, and may protect neurons from injury through a variety of mechanisms. (+info)
Predictive value of plasma and cerebrospinal fluid tumour necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-1 beta concentrations on outcome of full term infants with hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy.
AIM: To determine the predictive value of plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) concentrations on the outcome of hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE) in full term infants. METHODS: Thirty term infants with HIE were included in the study. HIE was classified according to the criteria of Sarnat and Sarnat. Blood and CSF were obtained within the first 24 hours of life and stored until assay. Five infants died soon after hypoxic insult. Neurological examinations and Denver Developmental Screening Test (DDST) were performed at 12 months in the survivors. RESULTS: At the age of 12 months neurological examination and DDST showed that 11 infants were normal; 14 had abnormal neurological findings and/or an abnormal DDST result. Eleven normal infants were classified as group 1 and 19 infants (14 with abnormal neurological findings and/or an abnormal DDST and five who died) as group 2. CSF IL-1 beta and TNF-alpha concentrations in group 2 were significantly higher than those in group 1. Plasma IL-1 beta and TNF-alpha concentrations were not significantly different between the two groups. IL-1 beta, but not TNF-alpha concentrations, in group 2 were even higher than those in group 1, although non-survivors were excluded from group 2. When the patients were evaluated according to the stages of Sarnat, the difference in the three groups was again significant. Patients whose CSF samples were taken within 6 hours of the hypoxic insult had higher IL-1 beta and TNF-alpha concentrations than the patients whose samples were taken after 6 hours. CONCLUSIONS: Both cytokines probably contribute to the damage sustained by the central nervous system after hypoxic insult. IL-1 beta seems to be a better predictor of HIE than TNF-alpha. (+info)
Developmental aspects and mechanisms of rat caudal hypothalamic neuronal responses to hypoxia.
Previous reports from this laboratory have shown that a high percentage of neurons in the caudal hypothalamus are stimulated by hypoxia both in vivo and in vitro. This stimulation is in the form of an increase in firing frequency and significant membrane depolarization. The goal of the present study was to determine if this hypoxia-induced excitation is influenced by development. In addition, we sought to determine the mechanism by which hypoxia stimulates caudal hypothalamic neurons. Caudal hypothalamic neurons from neonatal (4-16 days) or juvenile (20-40 days) rats were patch-clamped, and the whole cell voltage and current responses to moderate (10% O2) or severe (0% O2) hypoxia were recorded in the brain slice preparation. Analysis of tissue oxygen levels demonstrated no significant difference in the levels of tissue oxygen in brain slices between the different age groups. A significantly larger input resistance, time constant and half-time to spike height was observed for neonatal neurons compared with juvenile neurons. Both moderate and severe hypoxia elicited a net inward current in a significantly larger percentage of caudal hypothalamic neurons from rats aged 20-40 days (juvenile) as compared with rats aged 4-16 days (neonatal). In contrast, there was no difference in the magnitude of the inward current response to moderate or severe hypoxia between the two age groups. Those cells that were stimulated by hypoxia demonstrated a significant decrease in input resistance during hypoxic stimulation that was not observed in those cells unaffected by hypoxia. A subset of neurons were tested independent of age for the ability to maintain the inward current response to hypoxia during synaptic blockade (11.4 mM Mg2+/0. 2 mM Ca2+). Most of the neurons tested (88.9%) maintained a hypoxic excitation during synaptic blockade, and this inward current response was unaffected by addition of 2 mM cobalt chloride to the bathing medium. In contrast, perfusion with the Na+ channel blocker, tetrodotoxin (1-2 microM) or Na+ replacement with N-methyl-D-glucamine (NMDG) significantly reduced the inward current response to hypoxia. Furthermore, the input resistance decrease observed during hypoxia was attenuated significantly during perfusion with NMDG. These results indicate the excitation elicited by hypoxia in hypothalamic neurons is age dependent. In addition, the inward current response of caudal hypothalamic neurons is not dependent on synaptic input but results from a sodium-dependent conductance. (+info)
Relation of impaired energy metabolism to apoptosis and necrosis following transient cerebral hypoxia-ischaemia.
This study investigated whether both mild and severe hypoxia-ischaemia (HI) caused significant numbers of cells to die by apoptosis in the developing brain in vivo. Newborn piglets were subjected to transient global HI and the fraction of all cells in the cingulate gyrus that were apoptotic or necrotic counted 48 h after resuscitation. The mean (S.D.) proportion of apoptotic cells was 11.9% (6.7%) (sham operated controls 4.1% (2.7%)), while 11.4% (8.4%) were necrotic (controls 0.7% (1.3%)) (P<0.05). Apoptotic and necrotic cell counts were both linearly related to the severity of impaired cerebral energy metabolism measured by magnetic resonance spectroscopy (P<0.05), as shown by: (1) the decline in the ratio of nucleotide triphosphates to the exchangeable phosphate pool during HI; (2) the fall in the ratio of phosphocreatine to inorganic phosphate 8 - 48 h after HI; and (3) an increased ratio of lactate to total creatine at both these times. Thus both apoptosis and necrosis occurred in the cingulate gyrus after both severe and mild HI in vivo in proportion to the severity of the insult. (+info)
Extended therapeutic window for caspase inhibition and synergy with MK-801 in the treatment of cerebral histotoxic hypoxia.
In rats, striatal histotoxic hypoxic lesions produced by the mitochondrial toxin malonate resemble those of focal cerebral ischemia. Intrastriatal injections of malonate induced cleavage of caspase-2 beginning at 6 h, and caspase-3-like activity as identified by DEVD biotin affinity-labeling within 12 h. DEVD affinity-labeling was prevented and lesion volume reduced in transgenic mice overexpressing BCL-2 in neuronal cells. Intrastriatal injection of the tripeptide, N-benzyloxycarbonyl-Val-Ala-Asp-fluoromethylketone (zVAD-fmk), a caspase inhibitor, at 3 h, 6 h, or 9 h after malonate injections reduced the lesion volume produced by malonate. A combination of pretreatment with the NMDA antagonist, dizocilpine (MK-801), and delayed treatment with zVAD-fmk provided synergistic protection compared with either treatment alone and extended the therapeutic window for caspase inhibition to 12 h. Treatment with cycloheximide and zVAD-fmk, but not with MK-801, blocked the malonate-induced cleavage of caspase-2. NMDA injections alone resulted in a weak caspase-2 cleavage. These results suggest that malonate toxicity induces neuronal death by more than one pathway. They strongly implicate early excitotoxicity and delayed caspase activation in neuronal loss after focal ischemic lesions and offer a new strategy for the treatment of stroke. (+info)
MR line scan diffusion imaging of the brain in children.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: MR imaging of the self-diffusion of water has become increasingly popular for the early detection of cerebral infarction in adults. The purpose of this study was to evaluate MR line scan diffusion imaging (LSDI) of the brain in children. METHODS: LSDI was performed in four volunteers and 12 patients by using an effective TR/TE of 2736/89.4 and a maximum b value of 450 to 600 s/mm2 applied in the x, y, and z directions. In the volunteers, single-shot echo planar imaging of diffusion (EPID) was also performed. The patients (10 boys and two girls) ranged in age from 2 days to 16 years (average age, 6.6 years). Diagnoses included acute cerebral infarction, seizure disorder, posttraumatic confusion syndrome, complicated migraine, residual astrocytoma, encephalitis, hypoxia without cerebral infarction, cerebral contusion, and conversion disorder. In all patients, routine spin-echo images were also acquired. Trace images and apparent diffusion coefficient maps were produced for each location scanned with LSDI. RESULTS: In the volunteers, LSDI showed less chemical-shift and magnetic-susceptibility artifact and less geometric distortion than did EPID. LSDI was of diagnostic quality in all studies. Diffusion abnormalities were present in five patients. Restricted diffusion was present in the lesions of the three patients with acute cerebral infarction. Mildly increased diffusion was present in the lesions of encephalitis and residual cerebellar astrocytoma. No diffusion abnormalities were seen in the remaining seven children. CONCLUSION: LSDI is feasible in children, provides high-quality diffusion images with less chemical-shift and magnetic-susceptibility artifact and less geometric distortion than does EPID, and complements the routine MR examination. (+info)
Roles of nitric oxide in brain hypoxia-ischemia.
A large body of evidence has appeared over the last 6 years suggesting that nitric oxide biosynthesis is a key factor in the pathophysiological response of the brain to hypoxia-ischemia. Whilst studies on the influence of nitric oxide in this phenomenon initially offered conflicting conclusions, the use of better biochemical tools, such as selective inhibition of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) isoforms or transgenic animals, is progressively clarifying the precise role of nitric oxide in brain ischemia. Brain ischemia triggers a cascade of events, possibly mediated by excitatory amino acids, yielding the activation of the Ca2+-dependent NOS isoforms, i.e. neuronal NOS (nNOS) and endothelial NOS (eNOS). However, whereas the selective inhibition of nNOS is neuroprotective, selective inhibition of eNOS is neurotoxic. Furthermore, mainly in glial cells, delayed ischemia or reperfusion after an ischemic episode induces the expression of Ca2+-independent inducible NOS (iNOS), and its selective inhibition is neuroprotective. In conclusion, it appears that activation of nNOS or induction of iNOS mediates ischemic brain damage, possibly by mitochondrial dysfunction and energy depletion. However, there is a simultaneous compensatory response through eNOS activation within the endothelium of blood vessels, which mediates vasodilation and hence increases blood flow to the damaged brain area. (+info)