Sustained anabolic effects of long-term androgen administration in men with AIDS wasting.
Fifty-one human immunodeficiency virus-positive men with hypogonadism and wasting were randomized to receive testosterone enanthate, 300 mg i.m. every 3 weeks, or placebo for 6 months, followed by open-label testosterone administration for 6 months. Subjects initially randomized to placebo gained lean body mass (LBM) only after crossover to testosterone administration (mean change +/- standard error of the mean, -0.6 +/- 0.7 kg [months 0-6] vs. 1.9 +/- 0.7 kg [months 6-12]; P = .03). In contrast, subjects initially randomized to testosterone continued to gain LBM during open-label administration (2.0 +/- 0.7 kg [months 0-6] vs. 1.6 +/- 0.6 kg [months 6-12]; P = .62) and had gained more LBM at 1 year than did subjects receiving testosterone for only the final 6 months of the study (3.7 +/- 0.8 kg vs. 1.0 +/- 1.0 kg; P = .05). Testosterone administration results in sustained increases in LBM during 1 year of therapy in hypogonadal men with AIDS wasting. (+info)
Intramuscular injection of testosterone undecanoate for the treatment of male hypogonadism: phase I studies.
OBJECTIVE: In the search for long-acting testosterone preparations suited for substitution therapy of hypogonadal men, testosterone undecanoate (TU) dissolved in either tea seed oil or castor oil was investigated. DESIGN: In study I, 1000 mg TU in tea seed oil (125 mg/ml) were injected in equal parts into the gluteal muscles of seven hypogonadal men. In study II, 1000 mg TU in castor oil (250 mg/ml) were injected into one gluteal muscle of 14 patients. RESULTS: In comparison with published data on testosterone enanthate, most widely used for i.m. injections, the kinetic profiles of both TU preparations showed extended half-lives and serum levels not exceeding the upper limit of normal. The castor oil preparation had a longer half-life than TU in tea seed oil (33.9+/-4.9 vs 20.9+/-6.0 days (mean pm S.E.M.)). CONCLUSION: The longer half-life and the smaller injection volume make TU in castor oil a strong candidate for further applications in substitution therapy and in trials for male contraception. (+info)
A female case of Kallmann's syndrome.
A case of 20-year-old woman with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and anosmia is reported, since very few female cases of Kallmann's syndrome have been reported so far in Japan. Three uncles on the father's side had no children. Height was 168 cm, and arm span 165 cm. The olfactory test revealed complete anosmia. Bone age was 13 year. Chromosome was 46 XX and normal karyotype. Basal levels of serum FSH, LH and estrogens (E1, E2 and E3) were low. Serum FSH and LH levels rose slightly only after LH-RH administration, and did not increase in clomiphene test. Plasma estrogens did not increase after daily injection of 150 IU of HMG for 3 successive days. The response of serum GH to arginine infusion was normal, while that to insulin-induced hypoglycemia was poor. (+info)
Anti-nuclear antibodies in patients with premature ovarian failure.
We examined the prevalence of anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA) in 32 consecutive patients with premature ovarian failure with and without chromosomal abnormalities. Blood samples were taken for karyotype determination as well as detection of autoantibodies, X-terminal microdeletions and spontaneous follicular growth. The correlation between ANA positivity and the age at onset of amenorrhoea, as well as the presence of karyotype abnormalities, X-terminal microdeletions and follicular growth was determined. Ten of the 24 patients with normal karyotype and none of the 8 patients with karyotype abnormalities were ANA positive. ANA were found more frequently in patients with premature ovarian failure with normal karyotypes than in control amenorrhoeic patients (42 versus 6, P < 0.01). ANA were found in 77% (10/13) of premature ovarian failure patients with normal karyotypes who developed amenorrhoea at or under the age of 30 years, but not in the patients who developed amenorrhoea later in life. Follicular growth was evident in 50% (5/10) of karyotypically normal patients with ANA, 71% (10/14) of karyotypically normal patients without ANA and 38% (3/8) of patients with karyotype abnormalities. X-terminal microdeletions were not found in any of the patients studied. These results suggest that patients with premature ovarian failure and ANA are an aetiologically and clinically distinct group. (+info)
Imprinting by neonatal sex steroids on the structure and function of the mature mouse prostate.
Perinatal sex-steroid exposure may result in permanent modifications in the structure and function of the prostate gland. The mechanism of such long-range alterations in hormonal sensitivity is not known. This study aimed to define the molecular requirements for neonatal sex-steroid imprinting and to investigate whether combined administration of neonatal androgens and estrogens had synergistic effects upon the mature mouse prostate. Since the interaction between endogenous and exogenous sex steroids in normal mice makes it difficult to dissociate direct from indirect effects, we used the hypogonadal (hpg) mouse, characterized by congenital androgen deficiency yet still fully responsive to exogenous androgens. Newborn mice (Days 1-2) were administered a single s.c. injection of androgens alone or in combination with an estrogen followed by testosterone-induced maximal prostate growth at maturity. The final effects were determined in 7-wk-old mice through study of ductal architecture in microdissected ventral prostates (VP) and quantitation of volume densities and diameters of prostate tissue components. A single neonatal dose of androgens, but not of estrogen, increased branching morphogenesis and VP weights at adulthood. These effects did not differ significantly between various androgens; in addition, combined androgen and estrogen treatment failed to demonstrate any synergistic effects on the prostate. We conclude that neonatal androgens induce long-range effects upon the mature VP structure as well as its secretory function and that this imprinting occurs via the androgen receptor without requiring aromatization of androgens. However, these conclusions, based on a specific treatment protocol, are confined only to the distal segment of VP, and effects of neonatal sex-steroid exposure in other regions or lobes of VP may differ. (+info)
A concomitant decrease in cortical and trabecular bone mass in isolated hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and gonadal dysgenesis.
To assess the impact of hypogonadism on bone mineral density, we performed a cross-sectional study of 70 amenorrheic women, comprising 22 cases of gonadal dysgenesis and 48 cases of isolated hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH). Bone mineral density was measured by DEXA at four sites: the femur neck, Ward's triangle, trochanter, and lumbar spine (L2-4). The results were compared to those of a control group consisting of 60 age-matched, normal-cycling women. Bone mineral densities around age 20 were already significantly lower at all four sites in patients with IHH and gonadal dysgenesis when compared with controls, suggesting that these patients failed to achieve peak bone mass during pubertal development. In patients with IHH, the initial BMD around age 18-20 were significantly lower at all four sites and the decrease in bone density continued rapidly during the early twenties up to age 25, and then it slowed markedly thereafter. Bone biochemical marker, ICTP and osteocalcin were significantly negatively correlated with age and remained increased until age 40, which was reminiscent of menopausal bone loss pattern such as high bone turn-over in the early twenties, followed by slow bone loss in the late twenties. In patients with gonadal dysgenesis, bone biochemical marker, ICTP and osteocalcin were also significantly negative correlated with age and remained increased until age 40, but no significant changes in BMD were noted as a function of age, which may be attributed to the small sample size and slow bone loss. These findings suggest that the initiation of prompt and timely therapeutic intervention as early as possible in the menarchal period and throughout the remainder of life, particularly during the period associated with rapid bone loss. (+info)
Osteopenia in young hypogonadal women with systemic lupus erythematosus receiving chronic steroid therapy: a randomized controlled trial comparing calcitriol and hormonal replacement therapy.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of calcitriol and hormonal replacement therapy (HRT) in the treatment of steroid-induced osteoporosis in hypogonadal women. METHODS: We studied 28 young patients (aged 37 +/- 6 yr) with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) on chronic steroid therapy for 130 +/- 22 months and requiring more than 10 mg/day prednisone. They were amenorrhoeic for more than 2 yr with proven ovarian failure. All had osteopenia with a T score at L2-4 of less than -1. They were randomized to receive HRT (conjugated oestrogen 0.625 mg daily from day 1 to day 21 plus medroxyprogesterone acetate 5 mg daily days 10-21) or calcitriol 0.5 microg daily. All received calcium carbonate 1 g/day. RESULTS: There were no differences in the baseline demographic, bone mineral density (BMD) and biochemical data between the two groups. Lumbar spine BMD increased by 2.0 +/- 0.4% after 2 yr with HRT (P<0.05), but reduced by 1.74 +/- 0.4% (P<0.05) with calcitriol treatment. No change was seen at the distal one-third radius with HRT treatment but significant bone loss (2.3 +/- 1.4%, P<0.02) was observed with calcitriol therapy. BMD at the hip did not change in both groups. Comparing both treatment groups, significant differences in the BMD at the spine (P<0.03) and radius (P<0.05) were seen at the end of 2 yr. The changes in urinary n-telopeptide excretion but not serum osteocalcin at 6 months and 12 months were inversely correlated with the changes in lumbar spine BMD at 24 months. HRT did not cause an adverse effect on SLE disease activity. CONCLUSION: HRT but not calcitriol could prevent bone loss in young hypogonadal women on chronic steroid therapy. (+info)
A novel mutation of the KAL1 gene in Kallmann syndrome.
Kallmann syndrome is defined by the association of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and anosmia, for which three modes of transmission have been described: X-linked, autosomal recessive and autosomal dominant. The KAL1 gene, responsible for the X-linked form of the disease, has been isolated and its intron-exon organization determined. We report sequence analysis using PCR-direct sequencing method of the entire coding region and splice site junctions of the KAL1 gene in three males with Kallmann syndrome. We found a novel mutation in one case and no mutation in the other two cases. The mutation consisted of a C to T substitution in exon 1 converting codon 66 (CAG) encoding glutamine into a termination codon (TAG)/(Q66X). As a consequence of this mutation, the function of the KAL1 protein consisting of 680 amino acids was severely truncated so as to be consistent with Kallmann syndrome. As only this patient had unilateral renal hypoplasia among the three cases, this would suggest the existence of KAL1 gene mutation in this abnormality. (+info)