Bilateral neck exploration under hypnosedation: a new standard of care in primary hyperparathyroidism?
OBJECTIVE: The authors review their experience with initial bilateral neck exploration under local anesthesia and hypnosedation for primary hyperparathyroidism. Efficacy, safety, and cost effectiveness of this new approach are examined. BACKGROUND: Standard bilateral parathyroid exploration under general anesthesia is associated with significant risk, especially in an elderly population. Image-guided unilateral approaches, although theoretically less invasive, expose patients to the potential risk of missing multiple adenomas or asymmetric hyperplasia. Initial bilateral neck exploration under hypnosedation may maximize the strengths of both approaches while minimizing their weaknesses. METHODS: In a consecutive series of 121 initial cervicotomies for primary hyperparathyroidism performed between 1995 and 1997, 31 patients were selected on the basis of their own request to undergo a conventional bilateral neck exploration under local anesthesia and hypnosedation. Neither preoperative testing of hypnotic susceptibility nor expensive localization studies were done. A hypnotic state (immobility, subjective well-being, and increased pain thresholds) was induced within 10 minutes; restoration of a fully conscious state was obtained within several seconds. Patient comfort and quiet surgical conditions were ensured by local anesthesia of the collar incision and minimal intravenous sedation titrated throughout surgery. Both peri- and postoperative records were examined to assess the safety and efficacy of this new approach. RESULTS: No conversion to general anesthesia was needed. No complications were observed. All the patients were cured with a mean follow-up of 18 +/- 12 months. Mean operating time was <1 hour. Four glands were identified in 84% of cases, three glands in 9.7%. Adenomas were found in 26 cases; among these, 6 were ectopic. Hyperplasia, requiring subtotal parathyroidectomy and transcervical thymectomy, was found in five cases (16.1%), all of which had gone undetected by localization studies when requested by the referring physicians. Concomitant thyroid lobectomy was performed in four cases. Patient comfort and recovery and surgical conditions were evaluated on visual analog scales as excellent. Postoperative analgesic consumption was minimal. Mean length of hospital stay was 1.5 +/- 0.5 days. CONCLUSIONS: Initial bilateral neck exploration for primary hyperparathyroidism can be performed safely, efficiently, and cost-effectively under hypnosedation, which may therefore be proposed as a new standard of care. (+info)
Dependence of explicit and implicit memory on hypnotic state in trauma patients.
BACKGROUND: It is still unclear whether memory of intraoperative events results entirely from moments of inadequate anesthesia. The current study was designed to determine whether the probability of memory declines with increasing depth of the hypnotic state. METHOD: A list of words was played via headphones during surgery to patients who had suffered acute trauma. Several commonly used indicators of anesthetic effect, including the bispectral index, were recorded during word presentation. First, these indicators served as predictors of the memory performance in a postoperative word stem completion test. Second, general memory performance observed in the first part was separated into explicit and implicit memory using the process dissociation procedure, and then two models of memory were compared: One model assumed that the probability of explicit and implicit memory decreases with increasing depth of hypnotic state (individual differences model), whereas the other assumed equal memory performance for all patients regardless of their level of hypnotic state. RESULTS: General memory performance declined with decreasing bispectral index values. None of the other indicators of hypnotic state were related to general memory performance. Memory was still significant at bispectral index levels between 60 and 40. A comparison of the two models of memory resulted in a better fit of the individual differences model, thus providing evidence of a dependence of explicit and implicit memory on the hypnotic state. Quantification of explicit and implicit memory revealed a significant implicit but no reliable explicit memory performance. CONCLUSIONS: This study clearly indicates that memory is related to the depth of hypnosis. The observed memory performance should be interpreted in terms of implicit memory. Auditory information processing occurred at bispectral index levels between 60 and 40. (+info)
Psychotherapeutic counseling and pregnancy rates in in vitro fertilization.
PURPOSE: Since the Austrian propagation bill of July 1, 1992, was passed into law, Austrian physicians are committed to offer psychological counseling to women before performing assisted reproductive techniques, unless refused by the patient. The acceptance of psychotherapeutic counseling (PSITCO) and its influence on pregnancy rate were carefully reviewed. METHODS: The study comprised 1156 consecutive patients (mean age, 33.3 years) and 1736 in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles. In a consent form for follicle puncture, the patients were interviewed about PSITCO as follows. Several methods of psychological support during IVF-embryo transfer treatment were offered to patients especially psychotherapy, hypnotherapy, and relaxation and physical perception exercises. RESULTS: Forty-two and three-tenths percent of patients rejected PSITCO, 17.8% had already received PSITCO, and 10.4% were willing to undergo PSITCO. The acceptance of PSITCO had no relevance on pregnancy rate. The cumulative calculation of pregnancy rates showed that up to 56.4% of women who had undergone PSITCO conceived. In patients who were planning to undergo PSITCO, the pregnancy rate was 41.9%. Concerning the cumulative pregnancy rate, this study showed that patients who accepted or underwent PSITCO had a higher pregnancy rate than those who did not avail themselves of this possibility. CONCLUSIONS: These results should encourage sterility specialists to consider psychological therapy as an essential aspect of IVF. Solely a written declaration of the patient stating his/her awareness of the possibility to undergo PSITCO is, in our opinion, insufficient. (+info)
Neural mechanisms of antinociceptive effects of hypnosis.
BACKGROUND: The neural mechanisms underlying the modulation of pain perception by hypnosis remain obscure. In this study, we used positron emission tomography in 11 healthy volunteers to identify the brain areas in which hypnosis modulates cerebral responses to a noxious stimulus. METHODS: The protocol used a factorial design with two factors: state (hypnotic state, resting state, mental imagery) and stimulation (warm non-noxious vs. hot noxious stimuli applied to right thenar eminence). Two cerebral blood flow scans were obtained with the 15O-water technique during each condition. After each scan, the subject was asked to rate pain sensation and unpleasantness. Statistical parametric mapping was used to determine the main effects of noxious stimulation and hypnotic state as well as state-by-stimulation interactions (i.e., brain areas that would be more or less activated in hypnosis than in control conditions, under noxious stimulation). RESULTS: Hypnosis decreased both pain sensation and the unpleasantness of noxious stimuli. Noxious stimulation caused an increase in regional cerebral blood flow in the thalamic nuclei and anterior cingulate and insular cortices. The hypnotic state induced a significant activation of a right-sided extrastriate area and the anterior cingulate cortex. The interaction analysis showed that the activity in the anterior (mid-)cingulate cortex was related to pain perception and unpleasantness differently in the hypnotic state than in control situations. CONCLUSIONS: Both intensity and unpleasantness of the noxious stimuli are reduced during the hypnotic state. In addition, hypnotic modulation of pain is mediated by the anterior cingulate cortex. (+info)
Characteristics of empirically supported treatments.
This study presents a survey of general characteristics of empirically supported treatments (ESTs) identified by the American Psychological Association Division 12 Task Force on the Promotion and Dissemination of Psychological Procedures. Results indicate that the ESTs share the following characteristics: they involve skill building, have a specific problem focus, incorporate continuous assessment of client progress, and involve brief treatment contact, requiring 20 or fewer sessions. Traditional assessment methods, such as intelligence testing, projectives, and objective personality tests such as the MMPI-2, are rarely used in these treatments. Although it is recognized that these findings are in part an artifact of sociological factors present in contemporary psychotherapy development and research, the findings may also serve as a heuristic aid in the development of therapies. (+info)
Dissociation, hypnotizability, coping styles and health locus of control: characteristics of pseudoseizure patients.
Although literature in this area is relatively sparse, the occurrence of psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (pseudoseizures) has been linked to stress, anxiety and possible dissociative tendencies. An association between dissociation and hypnotic susceptibility has also been proposed and dissociative tendencies have themselves been found to relate to the use of emotion-focused coping strategies. In order to investigate the hypothesis that pseudoseizure patients may exhibit higher levels of dissociation, a more emotion-focused coping style, and greater hypnotic susceptibility than the general population, the questionnaire responses of 20 patients with pseudoseizures were compared with those obtained from a non-clinical control group. As predicted, pseudoseizure patients demonstrated some evidence of higher levels of dissociation and escape-avoidance coping strategies. They also expressed a greater belief in external control over health and higher depression scores, compared to the control group, but the previously reported elevation in hypnotizability scores in the pseudoseizure patients was not found. Possible explanations for this pattern of results are discussed. (+info)
Biopsychosocial rehabilitation for repetitive-strain injuries among working-age adults.
The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of biopsychosocial rehabilitation for upper-limb repetitive-strain injuries among working-age adults. Studies were identified from electronic bibliographic databases, reference checks, and consultations with experts in rehabilitation. Four blinded reviewers selected randomized controlled and controlled trials. Two experts evaluated the clinical relevance of the findings. Two other reviewers extracted the data and assessed the main results and the methodological quality of the studies. Finally, a qualitative analysis was performed. Only 2 studies satisfied the criteria. They were both considered to be low-quality trials. The clinical relevance of the included studies was also unsatisfactory. The level of scientific evidence was limited, showing that hypnosis as a supplement to comprehensive treatment can decrease the pain intensity of acute repetitive-strain injury in short follow-ups. There appears to be little scientific evidence for the effectiveness of biopsychosocial rehabilitation with respect to repetitive-strain injuries. (+info)
Complementary and alternative medicine for children: does it work?
Paediatric use of complementary and alternative medicine is common and increasing, particularly for the sickest children. This review discusses the various options available including dietary supplements, hypnosis, massage, chiropractic, and acupuncture. (+info)