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(1/963) Endothelium-dependent relaxation by acetylcholine is impaired in hypertriglyceridemic humans with normal levels of plasma LDL cholesterol.

OBJECTIVES: Patients with high triglyceride (of which very low density lipoproteins [VLDL] are the main carriers), but with normal low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels, were examined for in vivo endothelium function status. BACKGROUND: Very low density lipoproteins inhibit endothelium-dependent, but not -independent, vasorelaxation in vitro. METHODS: Three groups were studied: 1) healthy volunteers (n = 10; triglyceride 1.24+/-0.14 mmol/liter, LDL cholesterol 2.99+/-0.24 mmol/liter); 2) hypertriglyceridemic (n = 11; triglyceride 6.97+/-1.19 mmol/liter, LDL cholesterol 2.17+/-0.2 mmol/liter, p < 0.05); and 3) hypercholesterolemic (n = 10; triglyceride 2.25+/-0.29 mmol/liter, LDL cholesterol 5.61+/-0.54 mmol/liter; p < 0.05) patients. Vasoactive responses to acetylcholine, sodium nitroprusside, noradrenaline, N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine and postischemic hyperemia were determined using forearm venous occlusion plethysmography. RESULTS: Responses to acetylcholine (37 microg/min) were significantly dampened both in hypercholesterolemic (% increase in forearm blood flow: 268.2+/-62) and hypertriglyceridemic patients (232.6+/-45.2) when compared with controls (547.8+/-108.9; ANOVA p < 0.05). Responses to sodium nitroprusside (at 1.6 microg/min: controls vs. hypercholesterolemics vs. hypertriglyceridemic: 168.7+/- 25.1 vs. 140.6+/-38.9 vs. 178.5+/-54.5% increase), noradrenaline, N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine and postischemic hyperemic responses were not different among the groups examined. CONCLUSIONS: Acetylcholine responses are impaired in patients with pathophysiologic levels of plasma triglycerides but normal plasma levels of LDL cholesterol. The impairment observed was comparable to that obtained in hypercholesterolemic patients. We conclude that impaired responses to acetylcholine normally associated with hypercholesterolemia also occur in hypertriglyceridemia. These findings identify a potential mechanism by which high plasma triglyceride levels may be atherogenic independent of LDL cholesterol levels.  (+info)

(2/963) Apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins in renal failure: the relation to mode of dialysis.

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to establish whether there is a differential effect of mode of dialysis, hemodialysis (HD), or continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) on the dyslipidemia of renal failure. METHODS: The lipoprotein profile was determined in 61 non-diabetic patients on chronic HD (N = 30) and CAPD treatment (N = 31), and in a control group of 27 healthy subjects. The analysis included the measurement of individual apolipoprotein (apo) A- and apo B-containing lipoproteins (LPs) separated by sequential immunoaffinity chromatography. Apo A-containing lipoproteins include lipoprotein A-I with apo A-I and lipoprotein A-I:A-II with apo A-I and apo A-II as the main protein constituents, whereas apo B-containing lipoproteins comprise simple cholesterol-rich lipoprotein B (LP-B), with apo B as the only protein moiety and complex triglyceride (TG)-rich lipoprotein B complex (LP-Bc) particles with apo B, apo A-II, apo C, and/or apo E as the protein constituents. RESULTS: CAPD patients had significantly higher concentrations of total cholesterol (6.8 vs. 5.1 mmol/liter), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (4.6 vs. 3.2 mmol/liter), TG (2.3 vs. 1.5 mmol/liter), apo B (155.3 vs. 105.7 mg/dl), LP-B (136.0 vs. 91.9 mg/dl), and LP-Bc (19.3 vs. 13.8 mg/dl) than HD patients. Both HD and CAPD patients had significantly higher TG, VLDL cholesterol, apo C-III, and apo E and significantly lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, apo A-II, and lipoprotein A-I:A-II levels than control subjects. The distribution of apo C-III in high-density lipoprotein and VLDL-LDL was altered in CAPD patients in comparison with control subjects. This suggests that the removal of TG-rich lipoproteins is less efficient in patients on CAPD. Normotriglyceridemic (NTG; TG < or = 1.7 mmol/liter, 150 mg/dl) CAPD patients had significantly higher levels of TC, LDL cholesterol, apo B, and LP-B than NTG-HD patients. There was little difference in the LP-Bc levels between NTG-CAPD, NTG-HD, and controls. Similarly, hypertriglyceridemic (HTG) CAPD patients had significantly higher TC, LDL cholesterol, apo B, and LP-B levels than HTG-HD patients. The LP-Bc levels were significantly increased in HTG-HD and HTG-CAPD patients compared with controls, but the slightly higher levels in the CAPD patients did not differ significantly from the HD group. CONCLUSION: CAPD and HD patients have a lipoprotein profile characteristic of renal failure. Patients on long-term CAPD have higher levels of cholesterol-rich apo B-containing lipoproteins unrelated to TG levels. Many patients on CAPD also have a substantial elevation of the plasma concentrations of TG-rich LPs. The clinical significance of increased levels of potentially atherogenic LP-B during CAPD remains to be investigated.  (+info)

(3/963) Overexpression of human apolipoprotein A-II in mice induces hypertriglyceridemia due to defective very low density lipoprotein hydrolysis.

Two lines of transgenic mice, hAIItg-delta and hAIItg-lambda, expressing human apolipoprotein (apo)A-II at 2 and 4 times the normal concentration, respectively, displayed on standard chow postprandial chylomicronemia, large quantities of very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) and low density lipoprotein (LDL) but greatly reduced high density lipoprotein (HDL). Hypertriglyceridemia may result from increased VLDL production, decreased VLDL catabolism, or both. Post-Triton VLDL production was comparable in transgenic and control mice. Postheparin lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and hepatic lipase activities decreased at most by 30% in transgenic mice, whereas adipose tissue and muscle LPL activities were unaffected, indicating normal LPL synthesis. However, VLDL-triglyceride hydrolysis by exogenous LPL was considerably slower in transgenic compared with control mice, with the apparent Vmax of the reaction decreasing proportionately to human apoA-II expression. Human apoA-II was present in appreciable amounts in the VLDL of transgenic mice, which also carried apoC-II. The addition of purified apoA-II in postheparin plasma from control mice induced a dose-dependent decrease in LPL and hepatic lipase activities. In conclusion, overexpression of human apoA-II in transgenic mice induced the proatherogenic lipoprotein profile of low plasma HDL and postprandial hypertriglyceridemia because of decreased VLDL catabolism by LPL.  (+info)

(4/963) Non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and hypertriglyceridemia impair lipoprotein metabolism in chronic hemodialysis patients.

Patients with diabetes mellitus undergoing chronic hemodialysis treatment have the worst outcome on dialysis due to an increased rate of cardiovascular complications. Nearly all patients present with dyslipidemia, a prominent vascular risk factor, probably responsible for the high rate of vascular injury. Since both uremia and diabetes predispose to hypertriglyceridemia, the present study was conducted to investigate the influence of diabetes mellitus and/or hypertriglyceridemia on lipoprotein metabolism in hemodialysis patients. LDL was isolated and characterized from hyper- and normotriglyceridemic diabetic and nondiabetic hemodialysis patients (n = 40; 10 in each group); also, LDL-receptor-dependent uptake and intracellular cholesterol metabolism were studied in HepG2 cells. In addition, scavenger-receptor-mediated uptake was examined in mouse peritoneal macrophages. LDL isolated from nondiabetic normotriglyceridemic hemodialysis patients exhibited impaired cellular uptake via the LDL receptor. Additionally, intracellular sterol synthesis was less inhibited and cholesterol esterification was reduced compared with LDL from healthy control subjects. Reduction of catabolic capacities was more marked in hemodialysis patients who were either diabetic or hypertriglyceridemic and even more pronounced in patients presenting with a combination of both diabetes and hypertriglyceridemia. Hypertriglyceridemic and diabetic patients showed reduced lipase activity and increased LDL oxidation. Furthermore, they accumulated a fraction of small, dense LDL, and LDL was predominantly taken up via the scavenger-receptor pathway in peritoneal macrophages. This study elucidates the distinct influence of diabetes and/or hypertriglyceridemia in hemodialysis patients on cellular LDL metabolism via specific and nonspecific metabolic pathways. Furthermore, it underscores the cumulative impact of these pathologic entities on impairment of lipoprotein metabolism and increase of cardiovascular risk.  (+info)

(5/963) A thymidine to cytosine substitution for codon 26 of exon 3 of apolipoprotein C-II gene in a patient with apolipoprotein C-II deficiency.

A 52-year-old Japanese woman was evaluated for severe hypertriglyceridemia and recurrent acute pancreatitis. This hypertriglyceridemia was found to be due to the absence of serum apolipoprotein C-II (apo C-II) which was identified by Western blotting using polyclonal anti-apo C-II antiserum. DNA sequence analysis of the apo C-II gene from the patient revealed a homozygous nucleotide change: a thymidine (T) to cytosine (C) substitution in codon 26 (TGG->CGG) at the third exon of the apo C-II gene, that resulted in a Trp26 to Arg substitution. The mutation was also confirmed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis with the restriction enzyme Hpa II. The same mutation has been found in a case previously reported in Japan, and was named apo C-II Wakayama. However, the case in Wakayama prefecture showed two concomitant point mutations at the 5'-flanking region upstream from the first exon, which were not identified in our case by RFLP analysis with the restriction enzyme BstXI. Considering that the prefectures of these two cases, Nara and Wakayama, are next to each other, the mutation in our case may be a genetic forebear of apo C-II Wakayama. However, no familial relationship between the two cases has been documented.  (+info)

(6/963) Isolated low HDL cholesterol: an insulin-resistant state only in the presence of fasting hypertriglyceridemia.

Individuals with isolated low HDL cholesterol are at increased risk of coronary artery disease. It has been reported previously that this is an insulin-resistant state. We analyzed data from the 1992 Singapore National Health Survey with the objective of defining the clinical and metabolic parameters associated with isolated low HDL cholesterol. A total of 3,568 individuals were selected by stratified random sampling. Subjects with low HDL cholesterol (<0.9 mmol/l) and "ideal" total cholesterol (<5.2 mmol/l) were identified. Data on anthropometry, blood pressure (BP), insulin resistance, glucose tolerance, sex, smoking habit, and ethnic group were examined. We found that this group was heterogeneous. Those with fasting triglyceride (TG) >1.7 mmol/l (low HDL/high TG) displayed features of the insulin resistance syndrome characterized by obesity, higher diastolic BP, greater insulin resistance, and a greater tendency to have diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). If fasting TG was <1.7 mmol/l (isolated low HDL cholesterol), individuals were similar to the general population in terms of insulin resistance and obesity. Both groups were more commonly men and Asian Indian. The ethnic difference in prevalence could not be explained by differences in diet, exercise, alcohol ingestion, or smoking. Our data support the view that Asian Indians are genetically predisposed to isolated low HDL cholesterol as well as the insulin resistance syndrome. The higher prevalence of isolated low HDL cholesterol, the young age at which individuals exhibit this phenotype (mean age 32.5 years), along with the greater propensity for Asian Indians to develop insulin resistance and IGT contribute to the threefold increased incidence of myocardial infarction in those <65 years of age in this ethnic group.  (+info)

(7/963) Induction of obesity and hyperleptinemia by central glucocorticoid infusion in the rat.

It has been claimed that factors favoring the development or maintenance of animal or human obesity may include increases in glucocorticoid production or hyperresponsiveness of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. In normal rats, glucocorticoids have been shown to be necessary for chronic intracerebroventricular infusion of neuropeptide Y to produce obesity and related abnormalities. Conversely, glucocorticoids inhibited the body weight-lowering effect of leptin. Such dual action of glucocorticoids may occur within the central nervous system, since both neuropeptide Y and leptin act within the hypothalamus. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of glucocorticoids (dexamethasone) given intracerebroventricularly to normal rats on body weight homeostasis and hypothalamic levels of neuropeptide Y and corticotropin-releasing hormone. Continuous central glucocorticoid infusion for 3 days resulted in marked sustained increases in food intake and body weight relative to saline-infused controls. The infusion abolished endogenous corticosterone output and produced hyperinsulinemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and hyperleptinemia, three salient abnormalities of obesity syndromes. Central glucocorticoid infusion also produced a marked decrease in the expression of uncoupling protein (UCP)-1 and UCP-3 in brown adipose tissue and UCP-3 in muscle. Finally, chronic central glucocorticoid administration increased the hypothalamic levels of neuropeptide Y and decreased those of corticotropin-releasing hormone. When the same dose of glucocorticoids was administered peripherally, it resulted in decreases in food intake and body weight, in keeping with the decrease in hypothalamic neuropeptide Y levels. These results suggest that glucocorticoids induce an obesity syndrome in rodents by acting centrally and not peripherally.  (+info)

(8/963) Improvement of endothelial vasomotor dysfunction by treatment with alpha-tocopherol in patients with high remnant lipoproteins levels.

OBJECTIVES: This study sought to examine whether oral intake of alpha-tocopherol, an antioxidant, could improve endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation in patients with high remnant lipoproteins levels. BACKGROUND: Remnant lipoproteins are known to be atherogenic and impair endothelium-dependent arterial relaxation, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Oxidative stress is a common feature of various risk factors for atherosclerosis. METHODS: Flow-mediated vasodilation of the brachial artery during reactive hyperemia was examined by high resolution ultrasound technique before and at the end of 4 weeks treatment with oral administration of alpha-tocopherol acetate (300 IU/day) or placebo, which was randomly assigned, in 40 patients with high serum levels of remnants and in 30 patients with low remnants levels in the fasting state (>75th percentile and <25th percentile, respectively, of the distribution of remnants levels in 150 consecutive hospitalized patients). RESULTS: Before treatment, flow-mediated vasodilation was lower in patients with high remnants levels than in those with low levels (4.1 +/- 0.3% vs. 6.0 +/- 0.5%, p < 0.01). Treatment with alpha-tocopherol but not with placebo significantly increased flow-mediated dilation in patients with high remnants levels (7.5 +/- 0.4% after alpha-tocopherol vs. 4.2 +/- 0.4% after placebo, p < 0.01). In patients with low remnants levels, alpha-tocopherol was not effective. The beneficial effect with alpha-tocopherol in high remnants patients was associated with decrease in plasma levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, an indicator of lipid peroxidation (6.6 +/- 0.3 nmol/ml before alpha-tocopherol vs. 4.6 +/- 0.3 after alpha-tocopherol, p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Alpha-tocopherol improved impairment of endothelium-dependent vasodilation in patients with high remnants levels. The increase in oxidative stress may at least partly contribute to endothelial vasomotor dysfunction, in patients with high remnants levels.  (+info)