(1/735) Endothelial dysfunction by acute hyperhomocyst(e)inaemia: restoration by folic acid.
Recent evidence demonstrates that hyperhomocyst(e)inaemia is a novel risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. In patients with chronic hyperhomocyst(e)inaemia, endothelial function is impaired. However, whether hyperhomocyst(e)inaemia per se is a cause or an epiphenomenon of endothelial dysfunction remains unknown. In this study, we examined the effects of methionine-induced acute hyperhomocyst(e)inaemia on human endothelial function. In healthy volunteers we administered methionine (0.1 g/kg body weight, per os), a substrate of homocyst(e)ine, with or without folic acid (20 mg, per os) and examined flow-mediated vasodilatation of the brachial artery by high-resolution ultrasonography as a non-invasive measure of endothelial function. We also measured plasma levels of homocyst(e)ine before and 3, 8 and 24 h after methionine loading. Methionine administration increased plasma levels of homocyst(e)ine by four times the basal level at 8 h (P<0.0001, ANOVA). The plasma levels returned to baseline at 24 h. Flow-mediated vasodilatation was significantly decreased to half of the baseline value at 8 h and returned to baseline at 24 h (P<0.0001, ANOVA), whereas endothelium-independent vasodilatation by glyceryl trinitrate was not affected by the methionine loading. Co-administration of folic acid did not attenuate methionine-induced hyperhomocyst(e)inaemia but completely prevented endothelial dysfunction. Our results suggest that in humans a methionine-rich diet may acutely impair endothelial function, which can be prevented by folic acid supplementation. (+info)
(2/735) Demonstration of rapid onset vascular endothelial dysfunction after hyperhomocysteinemia: an effect reversible with vitamin C therapy.
BACKGROUND: Hyperhomocysteinemia is a major and independent risk factor for vascular disease. The mechanisms by which homocysteine promotes atherosclerosis are not well understood. We hypothesized that elevated homocysteine concentrations are associated with rapid onset endothelial dysfunction, which is mediated through oxidant stress mechanisms and can be inhibited by the antioxidant vitamin C. METHODS AND RESULTS: We studied 17 healthy volunteers (10 male and 7 female) aged 33 (range 21 to 59) years. Brachial artery diameter responses to hyperemic flow (endothelium dependent), and glyceryltrinitrate (GTN, endothelium independent) were measured with high resolution ultrasound at 0 hours (fasting), 2 hours, and 4 hours after (1) oral methionine (L-methionine 100 mg/kg), (2) oral methionine preceded by vitamin C (1g/day, for 1 week), and (3) placebo, on separate days and in random order. Plasma homocysteine increased (0 hours, 12.8+/-1.4; 2 hours, 25.4+/-2.5; and 4 hours, 31. 2+/-3.1 micromol/l, P<0.001), and flow-mediated dilatation fell (0 hours, 4.3+/-0.7; 2 hours, 1.1+/-0.9; and 4 hours, -0.7+/-0.8%) after oral L-methionine. There was an inverse linear relationship between homocysteine concentration and flow-mediated dilatation (P<0. 001). Pretreatment with vitamin C did not affect the rise in homocysteine concentrations after methionine (0 hours, 13.6+/-1.6; 2 hours, 28.3+/-2.9; and 4 hours, 33.8+/-3.7 micromol/l, P=0.27), but did ameliorate the reduction in flow-mediated dilatation (0 hours, 4. 0+/-1.0; 2 hours, 3.5+/-1.2 and 4 hours, 2.8+/-0.7%, P=0.02). GTN-induced endothelium independent brachial artery dilatation was not affected after methionine or methionine preceded by vitamin C. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that an elevation in homocysteine concentration is associated with an acute impairment of vascular endothelial function that can be prevented by pretreatment with vitamin C in healthy subjects. Our results support the hypothesis that the adverse effects of homocysteine on vascular endothelial cells are mediated through oxidative stress mechanisms. (+info)
(3/735) Prevalence and determinants of hyperhomocysteinemia in hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis.
BACKGROUND: Hyperhomocysteinemia is an independent risk factor for atherosclerotic complications in patients with end-stage renal disease, although the mechanisms remain unclear. The major determinants of plasma homocysteine concentration are usually folate, vitamin B12, pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (vitamin B6), and glomerular filtration rate. METHODS: We measured factors, including plasma folate, vitamin B12, vitamin B6, creatinine, as well as the dose and duration of dialysis, that might affect plasma homocysteine concentrations in 130 patients on hemodialysis (HD) and compared these observations with those in 46 patients on peritoneal dialysis (PD). Independent determinants of total homocysteine were identified using a multiple logistical regression analysis. RESULTS: Total homocysteine values averaged 29.8 mumol/liter in HD patients, significantly higher than the mean value of 19.9 mumol/liter observed in patients on PD (P < 0.001). The prevalence of hyperhomocysteinemia was 90.8% among HD patients, significantly higher than the prevalence of 67.4% among PD patients. Folate values in HD patients averaged 45.5 nmol/liter and were significantly lower than in PD patients (104.2 nmol/liter, P < 0.001). For patients on HD, the only determinant of total homocysteine concentration was plasma folate (r = -0.31, P < 0.001). In contrast, for PD patients, total homocysteine did not correlate with plasma folate, vitamin B12, or vitamin B6. CONCLUSIONS: Hyperhomocysteinemia is more prevalent and intense in HD patients compared with those on PD. The homocysteine response may become refractory to excess folate supplementation in PD patients. (+info)
(4/735) Hyperhomocysteinemia: a risk factor for ischemic stroke in children.
BACKGROUND: Moderate hyperhomocysteinemia is a risk factor for arterial vascular disease and venous thrombosis in adults. We performed a case-control study to assess a possible relation between moderate hyperhomocysteinemia and ischemic stroke in Dutch children (age range, 0 to 18 years). METHODS AND RESULTS: We measured plasma total homocysteine levels (tHcy) in 45 patients with ischemic stroke and in 234 controls. Hyperhomocysteinemia was defined as a tHcy above the 95th percentile regression line for the respective age of the controls. Hyperhomocysteinemia was present in 8 (18%) of the 45 patients with ischemic stroke. The odds ratio was 4.4 (95% CI, 1.7 to 11.6). CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that moderate hyperhomocysteinemia is a risk factor for ischemic stroke in children. (+info)
(5/735) Hyperhomocysteinemia and hypofibrinolysis in young adults with ischemic stroke.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Data from epidemiological and case-control studies suggest that increased total homocysteine (tHcy) levels are associated with increased risk for thromboembolic disease. The mechanisms by which hyperhomocysteinemia contributes to thrombogenesis are incompletely understood. The main objectives of this study of young ischemic stroke patients were (1) to examine fasting and post-methionine load levels of tHcy, (2) to ascertain the genotype frequency of the C677CT mutation in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene (TT genotype), and (3) to study the possible interaction between plasma tHcy levels and fibrinolytic factors. METHODS: This case-control study was based on 80 consecutive patients aged 18 to 44 years admitted between January 1992 and May 1996 as a result of a first-ever ischemic stroke. Forty-one healthy control subjects were recruited. Measurement of fasting tHcy and post-methionine load levels and evaluation of the fibrinolytic system were undertaken at least 3 months (mean, 5.1+/-1. 9 months) after admission. Genotyping of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene was performed. RESULTS: Although the increase after methionine loading (ie, postload tHcy minus fasting-level tHcy) was significantly higher among patients, there was no difference in fasting and postload tHcy levels. After adjustment for conventional risk factors, elevated postload increase tHcy levels were associated with a 4.8-fold increased risk of ischemic stroke. There was no difference between patients and control subjects in either TT genotype frequency or T allele frequency. Abnormal response to methionine loading was associated with higher tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) mass concentration, higher plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 levels, and lower tPA activity. After adjustment for age, sex, body mass index, serum cholesterol, and triglycerides, an abnormal increase in postload tHcy levels remained significantly associated with tPA mass concentration levels (P=0.03). CONCLUSIONS: A moderately elevated increase in tHcy levels after methionine loading was associated with an increased risk for ischemic stroke in young adults. In contrast, fasting tHcy levels did not differ between patients and controls. A moderately elevated increase in tHcy after methionine loading may provide a additional thrombogenic risk mediated in part by interactions with the fibrinolytic system. In young stroke patients, a methionine loading test to detect hyperhomocysteinemia should always be considered in the convalescent phase of the disease. (+info)
(6/735) Peritoneal elimination of homocysteine moieties in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis patients.
BACKGROUND: The amount of total homocysteine eliminated by peritoneal dialysis and its relationship to peritoneal transport characteristics in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients are unknown. METHODS: The influence of total homocysteine, folate, and vitamin B12 plasma concentrations, serum albumin levels, age, sex, dialysate to plasma ratio (D/P) creatinine, D/D0 glucose, D/P albumin, dialysate effluent volume, and effluent albumin on the daily peritoneal excretion of total homocysteine was investigated in 39 CAPD patients. The relationship of D/P creatinine to D/P total homocysteine, D/P free homocysteine, and D/P protein-bound homocysteine was analyzed additionally in a subgroup of 25 patients. RESULTS: We observed a significant influence of plasma total homocysteine concentrations (P = 0.0001) of the daily dialysate effluent volume (P = 0.0221) and of the D/P creatinine (P = 0.0132) on peritoneal elimination of total homocysteine. The daily peritoneal excretion of total homocysteine was 38.94 +/- 20.82 mumol (5.27 +/- 2.81 mg). There was a positive linear association of the daily total homocysteine elimination with plasma total homocysteine concentrations (P = 0.0001). A significant linear correlation was observed between D/P creatinine and D/P total homocysteine (P = 0.0001), D/P free homocysteine (P = 0.0001), as well as D/P protein-bound homocysteine (P = 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: The peritoneal elimination of total homocysteine primarily depends on the plasma total homocysteine concentration. Elevated total homocysteine plasma levels cannot be reduced efficiently by peritoneal dialysis. (+info)
(7/735) Hyperhomocysteinemia but not the C677T mutation of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase is an independent risk determinant of carotid wall thickening. The Perth Carotid Ultrasound Disease Assessment Study (CUDAS)
BACKGROUND: Hyperhomocysteinemia has been identified as a potential risk factor for atherosclerosis. This study examined whether a modest elevation of plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) was an independent risk factor for increased carotid artery intimal-medial wall thickness (IMT) and focal plaque formation in a large, randomly selected community population. We also examined whether vitamin cofactors and the C677T genetic mutation of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) enzyme were major contributors to elevated plasma tHcy and carotid vascular disease. METHODS AND RESULTS: In 1111 subjects (558 men, 553 women) 52+/-13 years old (mean+/-SD; range, 27 to 77 years) recruited from a random electoral roll survey, we measured fasting tHcy and performed bilateral carotid B-mode ultrasound. For the total population, mean tHcy was 12.1+/-4.0 micromol/L. Plasma tHcy levels were correlated with IMT (Spearman rank rs=0.31, P=0.0001). After adjustment for age, sex, and other conventional risk factors, subjects in the highest versus the lowest quartile of tHcy had an odds ratio of 2.60 (95% CI, 1.51 to 4.45) for increased IMT and 1.76 (95% CI, 1.10 to 2.82) for plaque. Serum and dietary folate levels and the C677T mutation in MTHFR were independent determinants of tHcy (all P=0.0001). The mutant homozygotes (10% of the population) had higher mean tHcy than heterozygotes or those without the mutation (14.2 versus 12.3 versus 11.6 micromol/L, respectively, P=0.0001). The inverse association of folate levels with tHcy was steeper in the mutant homozygotes. Despite this, the C677T MTHFR mutation was not independently predictive of increased carotid IMT or plaque formation. CONCLUSIONS: Mild hyperhomocysteinemia is an independent risk factor for increased carotid artery wall thickness and plaque formation in a general population. Lower levels of dietary folate intake and the C677T mutation in MTHFR are important causes of mild hyperhomocysteinemia and may therefore contribute to vascular disease in the community. (+info)
(8/735) Enhanced in vivo lipid peroxidation at elevated plasma total homocysteine levels.
An elevated plasma total homocysteine level (tHcy) is considered an independent risk factor for atherosclerosis. The mechanisms by which hyperhomocysteinemia induces atherosclerosis are only partially understood, but promotion of LDL oxidation and endothelial injury have been suggested. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that a high plasma tHcy is associated in men with increased in vivo lipid peroxidation, as measured by plasma F2-isoprostane concentrations. We investigated this association in a subset of the participants in the Antioxidant Supplementation in Atherosclerosis Prevention (ASAP) study. Of 256 male participants, a subsample of 100 consecutive men was selected for F2-isoprostane assays. The mean tHcy was 11.0 micromol/L, and the mean F2-isoprostanes was 29.6 ng/L. The simple correlation coefficient for association between tHcy and F2-isoprostane was 0.40 (P<0.001). In a linear regression model, the variables with the strongest associations with F2-isoprostane were tHcy (standardized coefficient 0.33, P<0.001), serum triglycerides (0.21, P=0.042), carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (0.15, P=0.132), and plasma lipid-standardized alpha-tocopherol (-0.11, P=0.252) (R2=0.24, P<0. 001 for model). Plasma F2-isoprostane levels increased linearly across quintiles of tHcy (P<0.001). The unadjusted mean (95% confidence interval) F2-isoprostanes was 47.5% greater in the highest tHcy quintile (37.4, 31.1 to 43.6 ng/L) than in the lowest quintile (25.3, 21.3 to 29.3 ng/L). Adjustment for the strongest other determinants of F2-isoprostane reduced this difference to 28. 2% (P=0.010). Our present data suggest that elevated fasting plasma tHcy is associated with enhanced in vivo lipid peroxidation in men. (+info)