(1/3915) Accelerated intimal hyperplasia and increased endogenous inhibitors for NO synthesis in rabbits with alloxan-induced hyperglycaemia.
1. We examined whether endogenous inhibitors of NO synthesis are involved in the augmentation of intimal hyperplasia in rabbits with hyperglycaemia induced by alloxan. 2. Four weeks after the endothelial denudation of carotid artery which had been performed 12 weeks after alloxan, the intimal hyperplasia was greatly augmented with hyperglycaemia. The degree of hyperplasia was assessed using three different parameters of histopathological findings as well as changes in luminal area and intima: media ratio. 3. There were positive and significant correlations between intima:media ratio, plasma glucose, and concentrations of N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA) and N(G), N(G)-dimethyl-L-arginine (ADMA) in endothelial cells, that is, the intima:media ratio became greater as plasma glucose and endothelial L-NMMA and ADMA were increased. Furthermore, endothelial L-NMMA and ADMA were increased in proportion to the increase in plasma glucose. 4. In contrast, there were inverse and significant correlations between cyclic GMP production by carotid artery strips with endothelium and plasma glucose, between cyclic GMP production and endothelial L-NMMA and ADMA, and between the intima:media ratio and cyclic GMP production. 5. Exogenously applied L-NMMA and ADMA inhibited cyclic GMP production in a concentration-dependent manner. IC50 values were determined to be 12.1 microM for the former and 26.2 microM for the latter. The cyclic GMP production was abolished after the deliberate removal of endothelium from the artery strips. 6. These results suggest that the augmentation of intimal hyperplasia with hyperglycaemia is closely related to increased accumulation of L-NMMA and ADMA with hyperglycaemia, which would result in an accelerated reduction in NO production/release by endothelial cells. (+info)
(2/3915) Effect of hyperglycemia-hyperinsulinemia on whole body and regional fatty acid metabolism.
The effects of combined hyperglycemia-hyperinsulinemia on whole body, splanchnic, and leg fatty acid metabolism were determined in five volunteers. Catheters were placed in a femoral artery and vein and a hepatic vein. U-13C-labeled fatty acids were infused, once in the basal state and, on a different occasion, during infusion of dextrose (clamp; arterial glucose 8.8 +/- 0.5 mmol/l). Lipids and heparin were infused together with the dextrose to maintain plasma fatty acid concentrations at basal levels. Fatty acid availability in plasma and fatty acid uptake across the splanchnic region and the leg were similar during the basal and clamp experiments. Dextrose infusion decreased fatty acid oxidation by 51.8% (whole body), 47.4% (splanchnic), and 64.3% (leg). Similarly, the percent fatty acid uptake oxidized decreased at the whole body level (53 to 29%), across the splanchnic region (30 to 13%), and in the leg (48 to 22%) during the clamp. We conclude that, in healthy men, combined hyperglycemia-hyperinsulinemia inhibits fatty acid oxidation to a similar extent at the whole body level, across the leg, and across the splanchnic region, even when fatty acid availability is constant. (+info)
(3/3915) Effects of duodenal distension on antropyloroduodenal pressures and perception are modified by hyperglycemia.
Marked hyperglycemia (blood glucose approximately 15 mmol/l) affects gastrointestinal motor function and modulates the perception of gastrointestinal sensations. The aims of this study were to evaluate the effects of mild hyperglycemia on the perception of, and motor responses to, duodenal distension. Paired studies were done in nine healthy volunteers, during euglycemia ( approximately 4 mmol/l) and mild hyperglycemia ( approximately 10 mmol/l), in randomized order, using a crossover design. Antropyloroduodenal pressures were recorded with a manometric, sleeve-side hole assembly, and proximal duodenal distensions were performed with a flaccid bag. Intrabag volumes were increased at 4-ml increments from 12 to 48 ml, each distension lasting for 2.5 min and separated by 10 min. Perception of the distensions and sensations of fullness, nausea, and hunger were evaluated. Perceptions of distension (P < 0.001) and fullness (P < 0.05) were greater and hunger less (P < 0.001) during hyperglycemia compared with euglycemia. Proximal duodenal distension stimulated pyloric tone (P < 0.01), isolated pyloric pressure waves (P < 0.01), and duodenal pressure waves (P < 0.01). Compared with euglycemia, hyperglycemia was associated with increases in pyloric tone (P < 0.001), the frequency (P < 0.05) and amplitude (P < 0.01) of isolated pyloric pressure waves, and the frequency of duodenal pressure waves (P < 0.001) in response to duodenal distension. Duodenal compliance was less (P < 0.05) during hyperglycemia compared with euglycemia, but this did not account for the effects of hyperglycemia on perception. We conclude that both the perception of, and stimulation of pyloric and duodenal pressures by, duodenal distension are increased by mild hyperglycemia. These observations are consistent with the concept that the blood glucose concentration plays a role in the regulation of gastrointestinal motility and sensation. (+info)
(4/3915) Time-dependent and tissue-specific effects of circulating glucose on fetal ovine glucose transporters.
To determine the cellular adaptations to fetal hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia, we examined the time-dependent effects on basal (GLUT-1 and GLUT-3) and insulin-responsive (GLUT-4) glucose transporter proteins by quantitative Western blot analysis in fetal ovine insulin-insensitive (brain and liver) and insulin-sensitive (myocardium, skeletal muscle, and adipose) tissues. Maternal glucose infusions causing fetal hyperglycemia resulted in a transient 30% increase in brain GLUT-1 but not GLUT-3 levels and a decline in liver and adipose GLUT-1 and myocardial and skeletal muscle GLUT-1 and GLUT-4 levels compared with gestational age-matched controls. Maternal insulin infusions leading to fetal hypoglycemia caused a decline in brain GLUT-3, an increase in brain GLUT-1, and a subsequent decline in liver GLUT-1, with no significant change in insulin-sensitive myocardium, skeletal muscle, and adipose tissue GLUT-1 or GLUT-4 concentrations, compared with gestational age-matched sham controls. We conclude that fetal glucose transporters are subject to a time-dependent and tissue- and isoform-specific differential regulation in response to altered circulating glucose and/or insulin concentrations. These cellular adaptations in GLUT-1 (and GLUT-3) are geared toward protecting the conceptus from perturbations in substrate availability, and the adaptations in GLUT-4 are geared toward development of fetal insulin resistance. (+info)
(5/3915) Brain-derived neurotrophic factor improves blood glucose control and alleviates fasting hyperglycemia in C57BLKS-Lepr(db)/lepr(db) mice.
Systemic administration of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) decreases nonfasted blood glucose in obese, non-insulin-dependent diabetic C57BLKS-Lepr(db)/lepr(db) (db/db) mice, with a concomitant decrease in body weight. By measuring percent HbA1c in BDNF-treated and pair-fed animals, we show that the effects of BDNF on nonfasted blood glucose levels are not caused by decreased food intake but reflect a significant improvement in blood glucose control. Furthermore, once established, this effect can persist for weeks after cessation of BDNF treatment. Oral glucose tolerance tests were performed to examine the effects of BDNF on blood glucose control in the fasted state and after an oral glucose challenge. BDNF treatment normalized fasting blood glucose from initially hyperglycemic levels and also showed evidence for beneficial, although less marked, effects on the ability to remove exogenous glucose from blood. One means to lower fasting blood glucose is to reduce the glucose output of peripheral tissues that normally play a part in the maintenance of fasting hyperglycemia. Because the liver is the major endogenous source of glucose in blood during fasting, and because hepatic weight and glucose output are increased in type 2 diabetes, we evaluated the effects of BDNF on liver tissue. BDNF reduced the hepatomegaly present in db/db mice, in association with reduced liver glycogen and reduced liver enzyme activity in serum, supporting the possible involvement of liver tissue in the mechanism of action for BDNF. (+info)
(6/3915) Hyperglycemia inhibits insulin activation of Akt/protein kinase B but not phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase in rat skeletal muscle.
Sustained hyperglycemia impairs insulin-stimulated glucose utilization in the skeletal muscle of both humans and experimental animals--a phenomenon referred to clinically as glucose toxicity. To study how this occurs, a model was developed in which hyperglycemia produces insulin resistance in vitro. Rat extensor digitorum longus muscles were preincubated for 4 h in Krebs-Henseleit solution containing glucose or glucose + insulin at various concentrations, after which insulin action was studied. Preincubation with 25 mmol/l glucose + insulin (10 mU/ml) led to a 70% decrease in the ability of insulin (10 mU/ml) to stimulate glucose incorporation into glycogen and a 30% decrease in 2-deoxyglucose (2-DG) uptake, compared with muscles incubated with 0 mmol/l glucose. Glucose incorporation into lipid and its oxidation to CO2 were marginally diminished, if at all. The alterations of glycogen synthesis and 2-DG uptake were first evident after 1 h and were maximal after 2 h of preincubation; they were not observed in muscles preincubated with 25 mmol/l glucose + insulin for 5 min. Preincubation for 4 h with 25 mmol/l glucose in the absence of insulin produced a similar although somewhat smaller decrease in insulin-stimulated glycogen synthesis; however, it did not alter 2-DG uptake, glucose oxidation to CO2, or incorporation into lipids. Studies of insulin signaling in the latter muscles revealed that activation of Akt/protein kinase B (PKB) was diminished by 60%, compared with that of muscles preincubated in a glucose-free medium; whereas activation of phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase, an upstream regulator of Akt/PKB in the insulin-signaling cascade, and of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase, a parallel signal, was unaffected. Immunoblots demonstrated that this was not due to a change in Akt/PKB abundance. The results indicate that hyperglycemia-induced insulin resistance can be studied in rat skeletal muscle in vitro. They suggest that impairment of insulin action in these muscles is related to inhibition of Akt/PKB by events that do not affect PI 3-kinase. (+info)
(7/3915) Hyperglycemia and focal brain ischemia.
The influence of hyperglycemic ischemia on tissue damage and cerebral blood flow was studied in rats subjected to short-lasting transient middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion. Rats were made hyperglycemic by intravenous infusion of glucose to a blood glucose level of about 20 mmol/L, and MCA occlusion was performed with the intraluminar filament technique for 15, 30, or 60 minutes, followed by 7 days of recovery. Normoglycemic animals received saline infusion. Perfusion-fixed brains were examined microscopically, and the volumes of selective neuronal necrosis and infarctions were calculated. Cerebral blood flow was measured autoradiographically at the end of 30 minutes of MCA occlusion and after 1 hour of recirculation in normoglycemic and hyperglycemic animals. In two additional groups with 30 minutes of MCA occlusion, CO2 was added to the inhaled gases to create a similar tissue acidosis as in hyperglycemic animals. In one group CBF was measured, and the second group was examined for tissue damage after 7 days. Fifteen and 30 minutes of MCA occlusion in combination with hyperglycemia produced larger infarcts and smaller amounts of selective neuronal necrosis than in rats with normal blood glucose levels, a significant difference in the total volume of ischemic damage being found after 30 minutes of MCA occlusion. After 60 minutes of occlusion, when the volume of infarction was larger, only minor differences between normoglycemic and hyperglycemic animals were found. Hypercapnic animals showed volumes of both selective neuronal necrosis and infarction that were almost identical with those observed in normoglycemic, normocapnic animals. When local CBF was measured in the ischemic core after 30 minutes of occlusion, neither the hyperglycemic nor the hypercapnic animals were found to be significantly different from the normoglycemic group. Brief focal cerebral ischemia combined with hyperglycemia leads to larger and more severe tissue damage. Our results do not support the hypothesis that the aggravated injury is caused by any disturbances in CBF. (+info)
(8/3915) Renal changes on hyperglycemia and angiotensin-converting enzyme in type 1 diabetes.
Hyperglycemia causes capillary vasodilation and high glomerular capillary hydraulic pressure, which lead to glomerulosclerosis and hypertension in type 1 diabetic subjects. The insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism of the angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) gene can modulate risk of nephropathy due to hyperglycemia, and the II genotype (producing low plasma ACE concentrations and probably reduced renal angiotensin II generation and kinin inactivation) may protect against diabetic nephropathy. We tested the possible interaction between ACE I/D polymorphism and uncontrolled type 1 diabetes by measuring glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and effective renal plasma flow (ERPF) during normoglycemia ( approximately 5 mmol/L) and hyperglycemia ( approximately 15 mmol/L) in 9 normoalbuminuric, normotensive type 1 diabetic subjects with the II genotype and 18 matched controls with the ID or DD genotype. Baseline GFR (145+/-22 mL/min per 1.73 m2) and ERPF (636+/-69 mL/min per 1.73 m2) of II subjects declined by 8+/-10% and 10+/-9%, respectively, during hyperglycemia; whereas baseline GFR (138+/-16 mL/min per 1.73 m2) and ERPF (607+/-93 mL/min per 1.73 m2) increased by 4+/-7% and 6+/-11%, respectively, in ID and DD subjects (II versus ID or DD subjects: P=0.0007 and P=0.0005, for GFR and ERPF, respectively). The changes in renal hemodynamics of subjects carrying 1 or 2 D alleles were compatible, with a mainly preglomerular vasodilation induced by hyperglycemia, proportional to plasma ACE concentration (P=0.024); this was not observed in subjects with the II genotype. Thus, type 1 diabetic individuals with the II genotype are resistant to glomerular changes induced by hyperglycemia, providing a basis for their reduced risk of nephropathy. (+info)