Interleukin-3 (IL-3), IL-5, and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor regulate the survival, proliferation, and differentiation of hematopoietic lineages. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) has been implicated in the regulation of these processes. Here we investigate the molecular mechanism by which PI3K regulates cytokine-mediated proliferation and survival in the murine pre-B-cell line Ba/F3. IL-3 was found to repress the expression of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27(KIP1) through activation of PI3K, and this occurs at the level of transcription. This transcriptional regulation occurs through modulation of the forkhead transcription factor FKHR-L1, and IL-3 inhibited FKHR-L1 activity in a PI3K-dependent manner. We have generated Ba/F3 cell lines expressing a tamoxifen-inducible active FKHR-L1 mutant [FKHR-L1(A3):ER*]. Tamoxifen-mediated activation of FKHR-L1(A3):ER* resulted in a striking increase in p27(KIP1) promoter activity and mRNA and protein levels as well as induction of the apoptotic program. The level of p27(KIP1) appears to be critical in the regulation of cell survival since mere ectopic expression of p27(KIP1) was sufficient to induce Ba/F3 apoptosis. Moreover, cell survival was increased in cytokine-starved bone marrow-derived stem cells from p27(KIP1) null-mutant mice compared to that in cells from wild-type mice. Taken together, these observations indicate that inhibition of p27(KIP1) transcription through PI3K-induced FKHR-L1 phosphorylation provides a novel mechanism of regulating cytokine-mediated survival and proliferation. (+info)
Cloning and characterization of UROC28, a novel gene overexpressed in prostate, breast, and bladder cancers.
A novel gene, designated UROC28, was identified by an agarose gel-based differential display technique, and it was found to be up-regulated in prostate, breast, and bladder cancer. Expression of UROC28 was also up-regulated in prostate cancer cells in the presence of androgens as demonstrated by relative quantitative reverse transcription-PCR. The elevated expression of this gene was observed to increase in surgically removed tissues concomitantly with rising Gleason grade and was most elevated in metastatic tissue. UROC28 protein was detected in serum by Western slot blot analyses, and a significant higher UROC28 protein level was found in sera of prostate cancer individuals compared with normal individuals and individuals with nonmalignant prostatic hyperplasia. Northern analyses in normal tissues showed that the UROC28 cDNA hybridizes to two mRNAs at about 2.1 and 2.5 kb. Nucleic acid sequence analyses indicated that these two alternatively spliced mRNA variants differ only at the 3' untranslated region. These two mRNAs encode the same protein with 135 amino acids. Bioinformation analyses suggest that there is a possible transmembrane domain from amino acid aa34 to aa50, three protein kinase-C phosphorylation sites at aa62 (SQK), aa89 (TMK), and aa94 (SMK), and one myristylation site at aa118 (GLECCL). Genomic Southern hybridization and chromosomal mapping demonstrated that UROC28 is encoded by a single copy of gene at chromosome 6q23-24. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry experiments further confirmed up-regulation of this gene in prostate and breast cancers with the expression localizing to the glandular epithelium. This gene did not demonstrate increased expression in lung and colon cancer tissues. (+info)
The fallacy of using adrenochrome reaction for measurement of reactive oxygen species formed during cytochrome p450-mediated metabolism of xenobiotics.
The adrenochrome reaction (oxidation of epinephrine to adrenochrome) has been widely employed as a standard assay for reactive oxygen species, produced under a variety of conditions, including those produced during cytochrome P450 (CYP)-mediated oxidation of substrates such as cyclosporine. However, it has been reported that epinephrine and adrenochrome can be metabolized by hepatic microsomes and that adrenochrome can also be metabolized by NADPH-CYP reductase. Thus, in the present report, we provide evidence that measurement of adrenochrome cannot be used as an index of reactive oxygen species generated during CYP-mediated metabolism of xenobiotics because adrenochrome and its precursor, epinephrine, interact with the CYP enzyme system as substrates and inhibitors. Our results indicated that adrenochrome was moderately stable in phosphate buffer but degraded rapidly (over 50% consumed in less than 2 min) by (cloned and expressed) CYP3A4 and CYP reductase in the presence of NADPH. Furthermore, both epinephrine and adrenochrome were found to be inhibitors of CYP3A4-mediated oxidation of testosterone. Together, these results lead to the conclusion that the use of adrenochrome reaction for measurement of reactive oxygen species formed during CYP3A4-mediated metabolism of xenobiotics is inappropriate. (+info)
Cell cycle inhibition by FoxO forkhead transcription factors involves downregulation of cyclin D.
The FoxO forkhead transcription factors FoxO4 (AFX), FoxO3a (FKHR.L1), and FoxO1a (FKHR) represent important physiological targets of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (PKB) signaling. Overexpression or conditional activation of FoxO factors is able to antagonize many responses to constitutive PI3K/PKB activation including its effect on cellular proliferation. It was previously shown that the FoxO-induced cell cycle arrest is partially mediated by enhanced transcription and protein expression of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27(kip1) (R. H. Medema, G. J. Kops, J. L. Bos, and B. M. Burgering, Nature 404:782-787, 2000). Here we have identified a p27(kip1)-independent mechanism that plays an important role in the antiproliferative effect of FoxO factors. Forced expression or conditional activation of FoxO factors leads to reduced protein expression of the D-type cyclins D1 and D2 and is associated with an impaired capacity of CDK4 to phosphorylate and inactivate the S-phase repressor pRb. Downregulation of D-type cyclins involves a transcriptional repression mechanism and does not require p27(kip1) function. Ectopic expression of cyclin D1 can partially overcome FoxO factor-induced cell cycle arrest, demonstrating that downregulation of D-type cyclins represents a physiologically relevant mechanism of FoxO-induced cell cycle inhibition. (+info)
Regulated recruitment of HP1 to a euchromatic gene induces mitotically heritable, epigenetic gene silencing: a mammalian cell culture model of gene variegation.
Heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) is a key component of constitutive heterochromatin in Drosophila and is required for stable epigenetic gene silencing classically observed as position effect variegation. Less is known of the family of mammalian HP1 proteins, which may be euchromatic, targeted to expressed loci by repressor-corepressor complexes, and retained there by Lys 9-methylated histone H3 (H3-MeK9). To characterize the physical properties of euchromatic loci bound by HP1, we developed a strategy for regulated recruitment of HP1 to an expressed transgene in mammalian cells by using a synthetic, hormone-regulated KRAB repression domain. We show that its obligate corepressor, KAP1, can coordinate all the machinery required for stable gene silencing. In the presence of hormone, the transgene is rapidly silenced, spatially recruited to HP1-rich nuclear regions, assumes a compact chromatin structure, and is physically associated with KAP1, HP1, and the H3 Lys 9-specific methyltransferase, SETDB1, over a highly localized region centered around the promoter. Remarkably, silencing established by a short pulse of hormone is stably maintained for >50 population doublings in the absence of hormone in clonal-cell populations, and the silent transgenes in these clones show promoter hypermethylation. Thus, like variegation in Drosophila, recruitment of mammalian HP1 to a euchromatic promoter can establish a silenced state that is epigenetically heritable. (+info)
Development of Protacs to target cancer-promoting proteins for ubiquitination and degradation.
The proteome contains hundreds of proteins that in theory could be excellent therapeutic targets for the treatment of human diseases. However, many of these proteins are from functional classes that have never been validated as viable candidates for the development of small molecule inhibitors. Thus, to exploit fully the potential of the Human Genome Project to advance human medicine, there is a need to develop generic methods of inhibiting protein activity that do not rely on the target protein's function. We previously demonstrated that a normally stable protein, methionine aminopeptidase-2 or MetAP-2, could be artificially targeted to an Skp1-Cullin-F-box (SCF) ubiquitin ligase complex for ubiquitination and degradation through a chimeric bridging molecule or Protac (proteolysis targeting chimeric molecule). This Protac consisted of an SCF(beta-TRCP)-binding phosphopeptide derived from IkappaBalpha linked to ovalicin, which covalently binds MetAP-2. In this study, we employed this approach to target two different proteins, the estrogen (ER) and androgen (AR) receptors, which have been implicated in the progression of breast and prostate cancer, respectively. We show here that an estradiol-based Protac can enforce the ubiquitination and degradation of the alpha isoform of ER in vitro, and a dihydroxytestosterone-based Protac introduced into cells promotes the rapid disappearance of AR in a proteasome-dependent manner. Future improvements to this technology may yield a general approach to treat a number of human diseases, including cancer. (+info)
An assessment of udp-glucuronosyltransferase induction using primary human hepatocytes.
Uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) catalyze the glucuronidation of a wide range of xenobiotics and endogenous substrates. However, there is a lack of information concerning the response of human UGTs to inducers, and this observation prompted the current investigation. The glucuronidation of estradiol (3- and 17-positions), naphthol, propofol, and morphine (3- and 6-positions) was assessed against a battery of recombinant human UGTs to determine selective glucuronidation reactions for induction studies. The potential induction of the glucuronidation of estradiol at the 3-position, naphthol, propofol, and morphine at the 3-position was subsequently investigated in cultured primary human hepatocytes against a range of prototypic inducers including dexamethasone, 3-methylcholanthrene (3-MC), phenobarbital, rifampicin, and omeprazole. Treatment with 3-MC induced estradiol-3-glucuronidation (up to 2.5-fold) in four of five donors investigated. Statistically significant increases in naphthol glucuronidation (up to 1.7-fold) were observed following treatment with carbamazepine. UGT1A9-mediated propofol glucuronidation was induced by phenobarbital (up to 2.2-fold) and rifampicin (up to 1.7-fold). However, treatment with alpha-naphthoflavone and tangeretin resulted in a decrease in propofol glucuronidation (30% of control values). Statistically significant induction of morphine-3-glucuronidation was observed in at least three donors following treatment with phenobarbital, rifampicin, and carbamazepine. Each UGT isoform investigated displayed a distinct induction profile. Although statistically significant increases in glucuronidation were observed for each reaction studied, the level of induction was less than that observed for CYP1A2 or CYP3A4 and exhibited a large interdonor variability. The clinical relevance of the induction responses obtained in this study is unclear. (+info)
Steroids and plasminogen activator concentrations in follicular fluid of gilts at first and third estrus.
An experiment was conducted to determine whether morphological and functional characteristics of follicles differed at a similar stage of pubertal (first) and third estrus in the same gilts. Nine prepubertal gilts were checked three times daily for estrus and laparotomized 6 h after detected first and third estrus. Samples of vena cava and ovarian venous blood were collected, follicle numbers and diameters were recorded, and follicular fluid (FF) was aspirated from all follicles 8 to 12 mm in diameter. Sera and(or) FF were analyzed for progesterone (P4), estradiol-17 beta (E2), testosterone (T), androstenedione (A4), 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT), plasminogen activator (PA), and plasmin (PLM). Overall mean number of follicles > or = 8 mm in diameter did not differ between gilts at first and third estrus (P > .05) but gilts at first estrus had more follicles 4 to 8 (P < .05) and 8.1 to 10 mm in diameter (P < .01) and fewer 10.1 to 12 mm in diameter (P < .07) than at third estrus. Mean FF concentrations of E2, T, and A4 at third estrus were significantly greater than at first estrus, whereas FF concentrations of P4, DHT, PA, and PLM were similar at first and third estrus (P > .05). Mean concentrations of E2 in systemic and ovarian venous sera were also greater in gilts at third than at first estrus (both P < .05). Systemic concentrations of P4 in gilts at first and third estrus did not differ (P > .05).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) (+info)