Down-regulation of oxytocin-induced cyclooxygenase-2 and prostaglandin F synthase expression by interferon-tau in bovine endometrial cells.
Oxytocin (OT) is responsible for the episodic release of luteolytic prostaglandin (PG) F2alpha from the uterus in ruminants. The attenuation of OT-stimulated uterine PGF2alpha secretion by interferon-tau (IFN-tau) is essential for prevention of luteolysis during pregnancy in cows. To better understand the mechanisms involved, the effect of recombinant bovine IFN-tau (rbIFN-tau) on OT-induced PG production and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and PGF synthase (PGFS) expression in cultured endometrial epithelial cells was investigated. Cells were obtained from cows at Days 1-3 of the estrous cycle and cultured to confluence in RPMI medium supplemented with 5% steroid-free fetal calf serum. The cells were then incubated in the presence or absence of either 100 ng/ml OT or OT+100 ng/ml rbIFN-tau for 3, 6, 12, and 24 h. OT significantly increased PGF2alpha and PGE2 secretion at all time points (p < 0.01), while rbIFN-tau inhibited the OT-induced PG production and reduced OT receptor binding in a time-dependent manner. OT increased the steady-state level of COX-2 mRNA, measured by Northern blot, which was maximal at 3 h (9-fold increase) and then decreased with time (p < 0.01). OT also caused an increase in COX-2 protein, which peaked at 12 h (11-fold increase), as measured by Western blot. Addition of rbIFN-tau suppressed the induction of COX-2 mRNA (89%, p < 0.01) and COX-2 protein (50%, p < 0.01) by OT. OT also increased PGFS mRNA, and this stimulation was attenuated by rbIFN-tau (p < 0.01). To ensure that the decrease in COX-2 was not solely due to down-regulation of the OT receptor, cells were stimulated with a phorbol ester (phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate; PMA) in the presence and absence of rbIFN-tau. The results showed that rbIFN-tau also decreased PMA-stimulated PG production and COX-2 protein. It can be concluded that rbIFN-tau inhibition of OT-stimulated PG production is due to down-regulation of OT receptor, COX-2, and PGFS. (+info)
Cloning and characterization of two novel aldo-keto reductases (AKR1C12 and AKR1C13) from mouse stomach.
In contrast to hepatic hydrosteroid dehydrogenases (HSDs) of the aldo-keto reductase family (AKR1C), little is known about a stomach one. From a mouse stomach cDNA library, we isolated two clones encoding proteins of 323 amino acid residues. They exhibited 93.2% amino acid sequence identity and 64-68% with any known HSDs. Recombinant proteins expressed in Escherichia coli reduced 9,10-phenanthraquinone with NAD(P)H as cofactor. The mRNAs were exclusively expressed in stomach, liver and ileum. The present study demonstrates that these proteins are new members of the HSD subfamily and they are named AKR1C12 and AKR1C13. Immunohistochemical analysis suggests that they are involved in detoxification of xenobiotics in the stomach. (+info)
Detection and regulation of the messenger for a putative bovine endometrial 9-keto-prostaglandin E(2) reductase: effect of oxytocin and interferon-tau.
During reproductive processes, prostaglandin (PG) E(2) (PGE(2)) and PGF(2alpha) play important roles in which they often exert opposite effects. At the time of recognition of pregnancy in vivo, PGF(2alpha) is recognized as the luteolytic factor in ruminants and in most species including human, whereas PGE(2) may exert a luteoprotective action. We have previously demonstrated that recombinant interferon-tau (rIFN-tau), the embryonic signal responsible for recognition of pregnancy in ruminants, stimulated in vitro the production of PGE(2) and prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (Ptgs2; also called cyclooxygenase-2) gene expression in both epithelial and stromal endometrial cells. Since PGE(2) is the major prostaglandin produced by stromal cells, the effect on Ptgs2 could explain the increase in PGE(2) output. At high concentrations, however, recombinant ovine (ro) IFN-tau acts on epithelial cells by changing the primary PG produced from PGF(2alpha) to PGE(2). This change in the primary PG produced could be explained by a decrease in PGF synthase (PGFS) activity or an increase in PGE synthase activity, or by modulation of a putative PGE(2)-9-ketoreductase, which converts PGE(2) into PGF(2alpha). Therefore, we have investigated the regulation of the mRNAs for PGFS and PGE(2)-9-ketoreductase (9K-PGR), two enzymes that lead to the production of PGF(2alpha). Others have described 9K-PGR activity in uterus, ovaries, kidney, and liver of different species and have established that this enzyme could possess both 9K-PGR and 20alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (20alpha-HSD) activity. Some have concluded that 9K-PGR and 20alpha-HSD are identical enzymes. Using primers sequences chosen from homologous nucleotide sequences of published rabbit 20alpha-HSD/9K-PGR and rat 20alpha-HSD cDNAs, a 317-base pair (bp) fragment was amplified by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), cloned, and sequenced. Homologies of 83% and 78% were found with rabbit and rat 20alpha-HSD, respectively. The presence of 20alpha-HSD/9K-PGR and prostaglandin F synthase (PGFS) mRNA expression was studied semiquantitatively in cultured epithelial cells using RT-PCR. Stimulation of cells with roIFN-t resulted in a biphasic response, an inhibition of PGF(2alpha) production at low dose (1 ng/ml) and a stimulation of PGE(2) at high dose (10 microg/ml). The increase of PGE(2) was accompanied by reduced 9K-PGR and PGFS mRNA gene expression. The effect of oxytocin (OT) was also studied, and the presence of OT had no effect on either 9K-PGR or PGFS gene expression. The 20alpha-HSD/9K-PGR transcript was also detected in other bovine tissues at different intensity (liver > kidney > testis > ovaries). We believe that the 9K-PGR and PGFS can be key enzymes in the regulation of specific PGs in the endometrium during the periimplantation period. (+info)
cDNA cloning, expression and characterization of human prostaglandin F synthase.
A cDNA clone of prostaglandin F synthase (PGFS) was isolated from human lung by using cDNA of bovine lung-type PGFS as a probe and its protein expressed in Escherichia coli was purified to apparent homogeneity. The human PGFS catalyzed the reduction of prostaglandin (PG) D2, PGH2 and phenanthrenequinone (PQ), and the oxidation of 9alpha,11beta-PGF2 to PGD2. The kcat/Km values for PGD2 and 9alpha,11beta-PGF2 were 21000 and 1800 min(-1) mM(-1), respectively, indicating that the catalytic efficiency for PGD2 and 9alpha,11beta-PGF2 was the highest among the various substrates, except for PQ. The PGFS activity in the cytosol of human lung was completely absorbed with antihuman PGFS antiserum. Moreover, mRNA of PGFS was expressed in peripheral blood lymphocytes and the expression in lymphocytes was markedly suppressed by the T cell mitogen concanavalin A. These results support the notion that human PGFS plays an important role in the pathogenesis of allergic diseases such as asthma. (+info)
Dexamethasone inhibits the induction of NAD(+)-dependent 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase by phorbol ester in human promonocytic U937 cells.
Pro-inflammatory prostaglandins are known to be first catabolized by NAD(+)-dependent 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (15-PGDH) to inactive metabolites. This enzyme is under regulatory control by various inflammation-related agents. Regulation of this enzyme was investigated in human promonocytic U937 cells. 15-PGDH activity was found to be optimally induced by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) at 10 nM after 24 h of treatment. The induction was blocked by staurosporine or GF 109203X indicating that the induction was mediated by protein kinase C. The induction by PMA was inhibited by the concurrent addition of dexamethasone. Nearly complete inhibition was observed at 50 nM. Other glucocorticoids, such as hydrocortisone and corticosterone, but not sex hormones, were also inhibitory. Inhibition by dexamethasone could be reversed by the concurrent addition of antagonist mifepristone (RU-486) indicating that the inhibition was a receptor-mediated event. Either induction by PMA or inhibition by dexamethasone the 15-PGDH activity correlated well with the enzyme protein expression as shown by the Western blot analysis. These results provide the first evidence that prostaglandin catabolism is regulated by glucocorticoids at the therapeutic level. (+info)
Increase in 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase activity in the ovine placentome at parturition and effect of oestrogen.
Type 1 NAD(+)-dependent 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (PGDH) is the key enzyme for metabolism of active primary prostaglandins to inactive forms in gestational tissues. The present study examined the activity and immunolocalization of PGDH in the ovine placenta, fetal membranes and uterus over the latter half of pregnancy, and its potential regulation by oestradiol. Placenta, fetal membranes and myometrium were collected from sheep with known single insemination dates on days 70, 100 and 135 of gestation and in active labour demonstrated by electromyographic activity. In addition, chronically catheterized fetuses were infused with oestradiol (100 microgram kg(-1) per 24 h) (n = 5) or saline vehicle into the fetus from day 120 to day 125. PGDH activity measured in placental extracts remained constant from day 70 to day 135 of gestation, and then significantly (P < 0.05) increased by 300% in active labour. Immunoreactive PGDH was localized in the placentome at all stages and was present predominantly in the fetal component of the placentome in uninucleate, but not in binucleate, trophoblast cells. Similarly, in the fetal membranes PGDH immuno-reactivity was present in the uninucleate trophoblast but not in the binucleate cells of the chorion. PGDH immunostaining was also present in the endometrial luminal epithelium, in the smooth muscle of the myometrium, and the glandular epithelium of the cervix. Infusion of oestradiol into the fetal circulation from day 120 to day 125 of gestation had no effect on placental PGDH activity. Immunohistochemistry was used to localize oestrogen receptor alpha in intrauterine tissues to investigate further the failure of oestradiol to increase PGDH activity. Immunoreactive oestrogen receptor alpha was not present in the fetal component of the placenta, although it was expressed in adjacent maternal-derived cells. It is concluded that (1) PGDH activity increases in late gestation; (2) PGDH is expressed in uninucleate trophoblast cells in the ovine placenta and fetal membranes, and also in the maternal endometrial epithelium and stroma, myometrium and cervix; (3) oestrogen receptor alpha is not expressed in fetal cells in the placenta or fetal membranes; and (4) the increase in PGDH activity is not regulated by oestradiol administered to the fetus. (+info)
C-Terminal region of human NAD+-dependent 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase is involved in the interaction with prostaglandin substrates.
NAD+-dependent 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (15-PGDH) catalyzes the oxidation of the 15(S) hydroxyl group of prostaglandins to a 15-keto group resulting in a significant reduction of the biological activities of prostaglandins. Although the key residues involved in NAD+ binding and in catalytic activity have been partially identified, the sites of interaction of the enzyme with the prostaglandin substrates are yet to be determined. Homology analysis of the primary structures of 15-PGDH from human, mouse and rat indicates that the sequences are almost homologous except for two regions near the C-terminus. The involvement of the C-terminal region in catalytic activity was examined by studies on C-terminally truncated enzymes and on human/rat chimeric enzymes. When three to four amino acids were removed successively from the C-terminal end of human 15-PGDH, the truncated enzymes exhibited decreasing Vmax/Km ratios and increasing Km values for PGE2 as the chain was shortened. Similarly, when the C-terminal 14 amino acids of human 15-PGDH were replaced by the C-terminal 14 amino acids of rat 15-PGDH or vice versa, the Vmax/Km ratios and the Km values for prostaglandin E2 of the chimeric enzymes were in between those of the two wild-type enzymes. This indicates that the catalytic effectiveness of human 15-PGDH decreases as the C-terminal region is gradually removed or replaced by rat sequences. The C-terminal region appears to be more important for the interaction of the enzyme with the prostaglandin substrates than with the coenzyme. (+info)
Metabolism of prostaglandin glycerol esters and prostaglandin ethanolamides in vitro and in vivo.
Prostaglandin glycerol esters (PG-Gs) and prostaglandin ethanolamides (PG-EAs) are generated by the action of cyclooxygenase-2 on the endocannabinoids 2-arachidonylglycerol (2-AG) and arachidonylethanolamide, respectively. These novel eicosanoids may have unique pharmacological properties and/or serve as latent sources of prostaglandins at sites remote from their tissue of origin. Therefore, we investigated the metabolism of PG-Gs and PG-EAs in vitro and in vivo. PGE(2)-G was rapidly hydrolyzed in rat plasma to generate PGE(2) (t(1/2) = 14 s) but was only slowly metabolized in human plasma (t(1/2) > 10 min). An intermediate extent of metabolism of PGE(2)-G was observed in human whole blood (t(1/2) approximately 7 min). The parent arachidonylglycerol, 2-AG, and the more stable regioisomer, 1-AG, also were much more rapidly metabolized in rat plasma compared with human plasma. PGE(2)-EA was not significantly hydrolyzed in plasma, undergoing slow dehydration/isomerization to PGB(2)-EA. Both PGE(2)-G and PGE(2)-EA were stable in canine, bovine, and human cerebrospinal fluid. Human 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase, the enzyme responsible for the initial step in PG inactivation in vivo, oxidized both PGE(2)-G and PGE(2)-EA less efficiently than the free acid. The sterically hindered glyceryl prostaglandin was the poorest substrate examined in the E series. Minimal 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase oxidation of PGF(2 alpha)-G was observed. PGE(2)-G and PGE(2)-EA pharmacokinetics were assessed in rats. PGE(2)-G was not detected in plasma 5 min following an intravenous dose of 2 mg/kg. However, PGE(2)-EA was detectable up to 2 h following an identical dose, displaying a large apparent volume of distribution and a half-life of over 6 min. The results suggest that endocannabinoid-derived PG-like compounds may be sufficiently stable in humans to exert actions systemically. Furthermore, these results suggest that the rat is not an adequate model for investigating the biological activities of 2-arachidonylglycerol or glyceryl prostaglandins in humans. (+info)