In vivo modulation of alternative pathways of P-450-catalyzed cyclophosphamide metabolism: impact on pharmacokinetics and antitumor activity.
The widely used anticancer prodrug cyclophosphamide (CPA) is activated in liver by a 4-hydroxylation reaction primarily catalyzed by cytochrome P-4502B and P-4502C enzymes. An alternative metabolic pathway involves CPA N-dechloroethylation to yield chloroacetaldehyde (CA), a P-4503A-catalyzed deactivation/neurotoxication reaction. The in vivo modulation of these alternative, competing pathways of P-450 metabolism was investigated in pharmacokinetic studies carried out in the rat model. Peak plasma concentrations (Cmax) for 4-OH-CPA and CA were increased by 3- to 4-fold, and apparent plasma half-lives of both metabolites were correspondingly shortened in rats pretreated with phenobarbital (PB), an inducer of P-4502B and P-4503A enzymes. However, PB had no net impact on the extent of drug activation or its partitioning between these alternative metabolic pathways, as judged from AUC values (area-under-the-plasma concentration x time curve) for 4-OH-CPA and CA. The P-4503A inhibitor troleandomycin (TAO) decreased plasma Cmax and AUC of CA (80-85% decrease) without changing the Cmax or AUC of 4-OH-CPA in uninduced rats. In PB-induced rats, TAO decreased AUCCA by 73%, whereas it increased AUC4-OH-CPA by 93%. TAO thus selectively suppresses CPA N-dechloroethylation, thereby increasing the availability of drug for P-450 activation via 4-hydroxylation. By contrast, dexamethasone, a P-4503A inducer and antiemetic widely used in patients with cancer, stimulated large, undesirable increases in the Cmax and AUC of CA (8- and 4-fold, respectively) while reducing the AUC of the 4-hydroxylation pathway by approximately 60%. Tumor excision/in vitro colony formation and tumor growth delay assays using an in vivo 9L gliosarcoma solid tumor model revealed that TAO suppression of CPA N-dechloroethylation could be achieved without compromising the antitumor effect of CPA. The combination of PB with TAO did not, however, enhance the antitumor activity of CPA, despite the approximately 2-fold increase in AUC4-OH-CPA, suggesting that other PB-inducible activities, such as aldehyde dehydrogenase, may counter this increase through enhanced deactivation of the 4-hydroxy metabolite. Together, these studies demonstrate that the P-4503A inhibitor TAO can be used to effectively modulate CPA metabolism and pharmacokinetics in vivo in a manner that decreases the formation of toxic metabolites that do not contribute to antitumor activity. (+info)
Involvement of cytochromes P-450 2E1 and 3A4 in the 5-hydroxylation of salicylate in humans.
Hydroxylation of salicylate into 2,3 and 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acids (2,3-DHBA and 2,5-DHBA) by human liver microsomal preparations was investigated. Kinetic studies demonstrated that salicylate was 5-hydroxylated with two apparent Km: one high-affinity Km of 606 microM and one low-affinity Km greater than 2 mM. Liver microsomes prepared from 15 human samples catalyzed the formation of 2,5-DHBA at metabolic rate of 21.7 +/- 8.5 pmol/mg/min. The formation of 2, 3-DHBA was not P-450 dependent. Formation of 2,5-DHBA was inhibited by 36 +/- 14% following preincubation of microsomes with diethyldithiocarbamate, a mechanism-based selective inhibitor of P-450 2E1. Furthermore, the efficiency of inhibition was significantly correlated with four catalytic activities specific to P-450 2E1, whereas the residual activity was correlated with three P-450 3A4 catalytic activities. Troleandomycin, a mechanism-based inhibitor selective to P-450 3A4, inhibited by 30 +/- 12% the 5-hydroxylation of salicylate, and this inhibition was significantly correlated with nifedipine oxidation, specific to P-450 3A4. The capability of seven recombinant human P-450s to hydroxylate salicylate demonstrated that P-450 2E1 and 3A4 contributed to 2, 5-DHBA formation in approximately equal proportions. The Km values of recombinant P-450 2E1 and 3A4, 280 and 513 microM, respectively, are in the same range as the high-affinity Km measured with human liver microsomes. The plasmatic metabolic ratio 2,5-DHBA/salicylate, measured 2 h after ingestion of 1 g acetylsalicylate, was increased 3-fold in 12 alcoholic patients at the beginning of their withdrawal period versus 15 control subjects. These results confirm that P-450 2E1, inducible by ethanol, is involved in the 5-hydroxylation of salicylate in humans. Furthermore, this ratio was still increased by 2-fold 1 week after ethanol withdrawal. This finding suggests that P-450 3A4, known to be also inducible by alcoholic beverages, plays an important role in this increase, because P-450 2E1 returned to normal levels in less than 3 days after ethanol withdrawal. Finally, in vivo and in vitro data demonstrated that P-450 2E1 and P-450 3A4, both inducible by alcohols, catalyzed the 5-hydroxylation of salicylate. (+info)
Reliability of the omeprazole hydroxylation index for CYP2C19 phenotyping: possible effect of age, liver disease and length of therapy.
AIMS: To evaluate the reliability of the omeprazole hydroxylation index as a marker for polymorphic CYP2C19 activity in a Japanese population of healthy young subjects (n = 78) and patients with peptic ulcer (n = 72). METHODS: Healthy subjects were administered a single dose of omeprazole (20 mg), whereas patients received 20 mg daily for at least 1 week. The ratio of the serum concentration of omeprazole to hydroxyomeprazole at 3 h postdose was determined and used as a measure of CYP2C19 activity. The CYP2C19 wild type (wt) gene and four mutant alleles associated with the poor metaboliser phenotype of (S)-mephenytoin, CYP2C19*2 in exon 5, CYP2C19*3 in exon 4, CYP2C19m4 in exon 9, and CYP2C19m3 in the initial codon were analysed. RESULTS: In the healthy volunteer study there was complete concordance between genotype and phenotype. However, eight of the patients who had the EM genotype had a high value for their hydroxylation index, and were classified as phenotypic PMs. No CYP2C19m4 and CYP2C19m3 mutations were detected in the eight mismatched patients. They were all genotypic heterozygous EMs, elderly (> or = 65 years) and/or had hepatic disease. Therefore, impaired CYP2C19 activity combined with partial saturation of omeprazole metabolism during multiple dosing may have contributed to the discrepancy between CYP2C19 genotyping and phenotyping. CONCLUSION: Although omeprazole has been used instead of mephenytoin as a probe for polymorphic CYP2C19, it does not appear to be reliable enough for clinical application in Japanese patients. (+info)
In vitro metabolism of quinidine: the (3S)-3-hydroxylation of quinidine is a specific marker reaction for cytochrome P-4503A4 activity in human liver microsomes.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the (3S)-3-hydroxylation and the N-oxidation of quinidine as biomarkers for cytochrome P-450 (CYP)3A4 activity in human liver microsome preparations. An HPLC method was developed to assay the metabolites (3S)-3-hydroxyquinidine (3-OH-Q) and quinidine N-oxide (Q-N-OX) formed during incubation with microsomes from human liver and from Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains expressing 10 human CYPs. 3-OH-Q formation complied with Michaelis-Menten kinetics (mean values of Vmax and Km: 74.4 nmol/mg/h and 74.2 microM, respectively). Q-N-OX formation followed two-site kinetics with mean values of Vmax, Km and Vmax/Km for the low affinity isozyme of 15.9 nmol/mg/h, 76.1 microM and 0.03 ml/mg/h, respectively. 3-OH-Q and Q-N-OX formations were potently inhibited by ketoconazole, itraconazole, and triacetyloleandomycin. Isozyme specific inhibitors of CYP1A2, -2C9, -2C19, -2D6, and -2E1 did not inhibit 3-OH-Q or Q-N-OX formation, with Ki values comparable with previously reported values. Statistically significant correlations were observed between CYP3A4 content and formations of 3-OH-Q and Q-N-OX in 12 human liver microsome preparations. Studies with yeast-expressed isozymes revealed that only CYP3A4 actively catalyzed the (3S)-3-hydroxylation. CYP3A4 was the most active enzyme in Q-N-OX formation, but CYP2C9 and 2E1 also catalyzed minor proportions of the N-oxidation. In conclusion, our studies demonstrate that only CYP3A4 is actively involved in the formation of 3-OH-Q. Hence, the (3S)-3-hydroxylation of quinidine is a specific probe for CYP3A4 activity in human liver microsome preparations, whereas the N-oxidation of quinidine is a somewhat less specific marker reaction for CYP3A4 activity, because the presence of a low affinity enzyme is demonstrated by different approaches. (+info)
Potential mechanisms of thyroid disruption in humans: interaction of organochlorine compounds with thyroid receptor, transthyretin, and thyroid-binding globulin.
Organochlorine compounds, particularly polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), alter serum thyroid hormone levels in humans. Hydroxylated organochlorines have relatively high affinities for the serum transport protein transthyretin, but the ability of these compounds to interact with the human thyroid receptor is unknown. Using a baculovirus expression system in insect cells (Sf9 cells), we produced recombinant human thyroid receptor ss (hTRss). In competitive binding experiments, the recombinant receptor had the expected relative affinity for thyroid hormones and their analogs. In competitive inhibition experiments with PCBs, hydroxylated PCBs (OH-PCBs), DDT and its metabolites, and several organochlorine herbicides, only the OH-PCBs competed for binding. The affinity of hTRss for OH-PCBs was 10,000-fold lower (Ki = 20-50 microM) than its affinity for thyroid hormone (3,3',5-triiodothyronine, T3; Ki = 10 nM). Because their relative affinity for the receptor was low, we tested the ability of OH-PCBs to interact with the serum transport proteins--transthyretin and thyroid-binding globulin (TBG). With the exception of one compound, the OH-PCBs had the same affinity (Ki = 10-80 nM) for transthyretin as thyroid hormone (thyroxine; T4). Only two of the OH-PCBs bound TBG (Ki = 3-7 microM), but with a 100-fold lower affinity than T4. Hydroxylated PCBs have relatively low affinities for the human thyroid receptor in vitro, but they have a thyroid hormonelike affinity for the serum transport protein transthyretin. Based on these results, OH-PCBs in vivo are more likely to compete for binding to serum transport proteins than for binding to the thyroid receptor. (+info)
The epidermal growth factor precursor. A calcium-binding, beta-hydroxyasparagine containing modular protein present on the surface of platelets.
Various human body fluids and secretions contain a soluble form of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) precursor. The EGF precursor molecule contains eight EGF modules in addition to EGF itself. Using monoclonal antibodies specific for the EGF modules 7 and 8, we have purified the soluble form of the EGF precursor from human urine to homogeneity. The protein was shown to have a molecular mass of about 160 kDa and the N-terminal sequence SAPNHWSXPE. EGF modules 2, 7 and 8 of the precursor have the consensus sequence for post-translational beta-hydroxylation of Asp/Asn residues. We identified the presence of erythro-beta-hydroxy-aspartic acid (Hya) in acid hydrolysates of the EGF precursor (2.4 M.M protein-1). As the DNA sequence encodes Asn in the corresponding position, the Hya represents erythro-beta-hydroxyasparagine (Hyn). The Hyn-containing modules have a consensus calcium-binding motif immediately N-terminal of the first Cys residue. The synthetic EGF module 2 (residues 356-395) of the EGF precursor was found to bind calcium with low affinity, Kd approximately 3.5 mM, i.e. similar to the affinity of other isolated calcium-binding EGF modules. EGF module 7, when part of the intact protein, was found to bind Ca2+ with a Kd approximately 0.2 microM, i.e. approximately 10(4)-fold higher than that of isolated EGF modules presumably due to the influence of neighboring modules. We have detected EGF precursor in platelet-rich plasma and demonstrated it to be associated to platelets. The platelets were found to have 30-160 EGF molecules each. (+info)
Enzymatic properties of mouse 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 1 alpha-hydroxylase expressed in Escherichia coli.
Renal 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 1 alpha-hydroxylase cDNA cloned from the kidneys of mice lacking the vitamin D receptor was expressed in Escherichia coli JM109. As expected, the bacterially-expressed enzyme catalyzes the 1 alpha-hydroxylation of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 with a Michaelis constant, K(m), value of 2.7 microM. Unexpectedly, the enzyme also hydroxylates the 1 alpha-position of 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 with a K(m) of 1.3 microM, and a fourfold higher Vmax/K(m) compared with the 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 hydroxylase activity, suggesting that 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 is a better substrate than 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 for 1 alpha-hydroxylase. In addition, the enzyme showed 1 alpha-hydroxylase activity toward 24-oxo-25-hydroxyvitamin D3. However, it showed only slight activity towards 23,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and 24-oxo-23,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, and no detectable activity towards vitamin D3 and 24,25,26,27-tetranor-23-hydroxyvitamin D3. These results suggest that the 25-hydroxyl group of vitamin D3 is essential for the 1 alpha-hydroxylase activity and the 24-hydroxyl group enhances the activity, but the 23-hydroxyl group greatly reduced the activity. Another remarkable finding is that living recombinant E. coli cells can convert the substrates into the 1 alpha-hydroxylated products, suggesting the presence of a redox partner of 1 alpha-hydroxylase in E. coli cells. (+info)
Effect of L-azetidine-2-carboxylic acid on glycosylations of collagen in chick-embryo tendon cells.
The glycosylations of hydroxylysine during collagen biosynthesis in isolated chick-embryo tendon cells were studied by using pulse-chase labelling experiments with [14C]-lysine. The hydroxylation of lysine and the glycosylations of hydroxylysine continued after a 5 min pulse label for up to about 10 min during the chase period. These data differ from those obtained previously in isolated chick-embryo cartilage cells, in which, after a similar 5 min pulse label, these reactions continued during the chase period for up to about 20 min. The collagen synthesized by the isolated chick-embryo tendon cells differed markedly from the type I collagen of adult tissues in its degree of hydroxylation of lysine residues and glycosylations of hydroxylysine residues. When the isolated tendon cells were incubated in the presence of L-azetidine-2-carboxylic acid, the degree of glycosylations of hydroxylysine during the first 10 min of the chase period was identical with that in cells incubated without thcarboxylic acid for at least 60 min, whereas no additional glycosylations took place in the control cells after the 10 min time-point. As a consequence, the collagen synthesized in the presence of this compound contained more carbohydrate than did the collagen synthesized by the control cells. Additional experiments indicated that azetidine-2-carboxylic acid did not increase the collagen glycosyltransferase activities in the tendon cells or the rate of glycosylation reactions when added directly to the enzyme incubation mixture. Control experiments with colchicine indicated that the delay in the rate of collagen secretion, which was observed in the presence of azetidine-2-carboxylic acid, did not in itself affect the degree of glycosylations of collagen. The results thus suggest that the increased glycosylations were due to inhibition of the collagen triple-helix formation, which is known to occur in the presence of azetidine-2-carboxylic acid. (+info)