Methemoglobin formation by hydroxylamine metabolites of sulfamethoxazole and dapsone: implications for differences in adverse drug reactions.
Differences in the incidence of adverse drug reactions to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and dapsone may result from differences in the formation, disposition, toxicity, and/or detoxification of their hydroxylamine metabolites. In this study, we examine whether differences in the biochemical processing of sulfamethoxazole hydroxylamine (SMX-NOH) and dapsone hydroxylamine (DDS-NOH) by erythrocytes [red blood cells (RBCs)] contribute to this differential incidence. The methemoglobin (MetHgb)-forming capacity of both metabolites was compared after a 60-min incubation with washed RBCs from four healthy human volunteers. DDS-NOH was significantly more potent (P =.004) but equally efficacious with SMX-NOH in its ability to form MetHgb. The elimination of potential differences in disposition by lysing RBCs did not change the MetHgb-forming potency of either hydroxylamine. At pharmacologically relevant concentrations, greater reduction to the parent amine occurred with DDS-NOH. Maintenance of MetHgb-forming potency was dependent on recycling with glutathione, but no difference in cycling efficiency was observed between DDS-NOH and SMX-NOH. In contrast, the pharmacodynamics of hydroxylamine-induced MetHgb formation were not changed by pretreatment with the glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase inhibitor epiandrosterone or by compounds that alter normal antioxidant enzyme activity. Methylene blue, which stimulates NADPH-dependent MetHgb reductase activity, decreased MetHgb levels but did not alter the differential potency of these hydroxylamines. DDS-NOH was also significantly more potent when incubated with purified human hemoglobin A0. Collectively, these data suggest that the inherently greater reactivity of DDS-NOH with hemoglobin, the greater conversion of DDS-NOH to its parent amine, and potential differences in disposition of hydroxylamine metabolites may contribute to the preferential development of dapsone-induced hemotoxicity and sulfamethoxazole-induced hypersensitivity reactions. (+info)
N-oxygenation of amphetamine and methamphetamine by the human flavin-containing monooxygenase (form 3): role in bioactivation and detoxication.
(+)- And (-)-amphetamine and methamphetamine were N-oxygenated by the cDNA expressed adult human flavin-containing monooxygenase form 3 (FMO3), their corresponding hydroxylamines. Two major polymorphic forms of human FMO3 were studied, and the results suggested preferential N-oxygenation by only one of the two enzymes. Chemically synthesized (+/-)-amphetamine hydroxylamine was also a substrate for the human FMO3 and it was converted to phenylpropanone oxime with a stereoselectivity ratio of trans/cis of 5:1. Human FMO3 also N-oxygenated methamphetamine to produce methamphetamine hydroxylamine. Methamphetamine hydroxylamine was also N-oxygenated by human FMO3, and the ultimate product observed was phenylpropanone. For amphetamine hydroxylamine, studies of the biochemical mechanism of product formation were consistent with the production of an N, N-dioxygenated intermediate that lead to phenylpropanone oxime. This was supported by the observation that alpha-deutero (+/-)-amphetamine hydroxylamine gave an inverse kinetic isotope effect on product formation in the presence of human FMO3. For methamphetamine, the data were consistent with a mechanism of human FMO3-mediated N,N-dioxygenation but the immediate product, a nitrone, rapidly hydrolyzed to phenylpropanone. The pharmacological activity of amphetamine hydroxylamine, phenylpropanone oxime, and methamphetamine hydroxylamine were examined for effects at the human dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine transporters. Amphetamine hydroxylamine and methamphetamine hydroxylamine were apparent substrates for the human biogenic amine transporters but phenylpropanone oxime was not. Presumably, phenylpropanone oxime or nitrone formation from amphetamine and methamphetamine, respectively, represents a detoxication process. Because of the potential toxic nature of amphetamine hydroxylamine and methamphetamine hydroxylamine metabolites and the polymorphic nature of N-oxygenation, human FMO3-mediated metabolism of amphetamine or methamphetamine may have clinical consequences. (+info)
Amyloid beta peptides do not form peptide-derived free radicals spontaneously, but can enhance metal-catalyzed oxidation of hydroxylamines to nitroxides.
Amyloid beta (Abeta) peptides play an important role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. Free radical generation by Abeta peptides was suggested to be a key mechanism of their neurotoxicity. Reports that neurotoxic free radicals derived from Abeta-(1-40) and Abeta-(25-35) peptides react with the spin trap N-tert-butyl-alpha-phenylnitrone (PBN) to form a PBN/.Abeta peptide radical adduct with a specific triplet ESR signal assert that the peptide itself was the source of free radicals. We now report that three Abeta peptides, Abeta-(1-40), Abeta-(25-35), and Abeta-(40-1), do not yield radical adducts with PBN from the Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation (OMRF). In contrast to OMRF PBN, incubation of Sigma PBN in phosphate buffer without Abeta peptides produced a three-line ESR spectrum. It was shown that this nitroxide is di-tert-butylnitroxide and is formed in the Sigma PBN solution as a result of transition metal-catalyzed auto-oxidation of the respective hydroxylamine present as an impurity in the Sigma PBN. Under some conditions, incubation of PBN from Sigma with Abeta-(1-40) or Abeta-(25-35) can stimulate the formation of di-tert-butylnitroxide. It was shown that Abeta peptides enhanced oxidation of cyclic hydroxylamine 1-hydroxy-4-oxo-2,2,6, 6-tetramethylpiperidine (TEMPONE-H), which was strongly inhibited by the treatment of phosphate buffer with Chelex-100. It was shown that ferric and cupric ions are effective oxidants of TEMPONE-H. The data obtained allow us to conclude that under some conditions toxic Abeta peptides Abeta-(1-40) and Abeta-(25-35) enhance metal-catalyzed oxidation of hydroxylamine derivatives, but do not spontaneously form peptide-derived free radicals. (+info)
Mechanism of the mutagenic action of hydroxylamine. IX. The UV-induced cleavage of the N-O bond in N4-hydroxy-and N4-methoxycytidine and N6-methoxyadenosine.
The principal UV-induced (lambda = 2546nm) reaction of N4-hydroxy- and N4methoxycytidines and N6-methoxyadenosine in neutral aqueous solutions is cleavage of the exocyclic N-O bond with the respective formation of cytidine and adenosine. Quantum yields are 2.8x10(-3) and 2.2x10(-3) M/E for the first two compounds and 9.1x10(-3) M/E for N6-methoxyadenosine. (+info)
N-oxidative metabolism of 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx) in humans: excretion of the N2-glucuronide conjugate of 2-hydroxyamino-MeIQx in urine.
2-Amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx), a major heterocyclic aromatic amine (HAA) formed in cooked meats, is metabolically transformed to mutagenic/carcinogenic intermediates. Cytochrome P4501A2 (CYP1A2)-mediated N-hydroxylation followed by phase II O-esterification by N-acetyltransferase (NAT2) are generally regarded as activation processes in which MeIQx and other HAAs are converted to genotoxic species. In this study, we determined the relationship between the activities of these two enzymes and the urinary excretion level of the N2-glucuronide conjugate of 2-hydroxyamino-MeIQx--N2-(beta-1-glucosiduronyl)-2-hydroxyam ino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (N-OH-MeIQx-N2-glucuronide)--among healthy subjects fed a uniform diet containing high-temperature cooked meat. The individuals (n = 66) in the study ate meat containing known amounts of MeIQx, and urine was collected from 0 to 12 h after the meal. After addition of the deuterium-labeled internal standard to urine, N-OH-MeIQx-N2-glucuronide was isolated using solid-phase extraction and immunoaffinity separation. The isolated conjugate was converted to the deaminated product 2-hydroxy-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (2-OH-MeIQx) by heating with acetic acid. 2-OH-MeIQx and its deuterated analogue were derivatized to form the corresponding 3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)benzyl ether derivatives and analyzed by capillary gas chromatography-negative ion chemical ionization mass spectrometry using selected ion monitoring procedures. The subjects in the study excreted an average of 9.4 +/- 3.0% (+/-SD) of an ingested dose of MeIQx as N-OH-MeIQx-N2-glucuronide in urine; the range varied from 2.2 to 17.1%. A significant correlation was found between the level of N-OH-MeIQx-N2-glucuronide in urine and the amount of MeIQx ingested (r(s) = 0.44; P = 0.0002). The excretion level of N-OH-MeIQx-N2-glucuronide in urine was not associated with the enzyme activities of NAT2 or CYP1A2. This is expected with the latter enzyme because the metabolism of MeIQx is first order and very rapid at the amounts ingested. The amount of N-OH-MeIQx-N2-glucuronide in urine was not correlated with the age or sex of the individuals. Our results indicate that biotransformation of MeIQx via CYP1A2 oxidation to form the N-hydroxylamine followed by N2-glucuronidation is a general pathway of MeIQx metabolism in humans; the variability in the excreted levels of N-OH-MeIQx-N2-glucuronide is probably due to interindividual differences in UDP-glucuronosyltransferase activity and/or excretion pathways. (+info)
Pharmacologic disruption of base excision repair sensitizes mismatch repair-deficient and -proficient colon cancer cells to methylating agents.
Previously we showed that a mismatch repair (MMR)-deficient cell line, HCT116 (hMLH1 mut), unlike a MMR wild-type cell line, SW480, was more resistant to the therapeutic methylating agent, temozolomide (TMZ), because the MMR complex fails to recognize TMZ-induced O6-methylguanine DNA adduct mispairings with thymine that arise after replication. TMZ also produces N7-methylguanine and N3-methyladenine adducts that are processed efficiently by the base excision repair (BER) system. After removal of the methylated base by methylpurine glycosylase, which creates the abasic or apurinic-apyrimidinic (AP) site, the phosphodiester bond is hydrolyzed immediately by AP endonuclease, initiating the repair of the AP site. Methoxyamine (MX) reacts with the abasic site and prevents AP endonuclease cleavage, disrupting DNA repair. MX potentiated the cytotoxic effect of TMZ with a dose modification factor (DMF) of 2.3+/-0.12 in SW480 and 3.1+/-0.16 in HCT116. When combined with O6-benzylguanine (BG), MX and TMZ dramatically increased TMZ cytotoxicity (65.8-fold) in SW480, whereas no additive effect was seen in HCT116. This suggests that N7-methylguanine and N3-methyladenine adducts are cytotoxic lesions in MMR-deficient and wild-type cells when BER is interrupted. Because poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) aids in processing of DNA strand breaks induced during MMR and BER, we asked whether PARP inhibitors would also affect BER-mediated cell killing. We found that PARP inhibitors PD128763, 3-aminobenzimide, and 6-aminonicotinamide increased the sensitivity to TMZ in both HCT116 MMR-deficient cells and SW480 MMR wild-type cells. In HCT116 cells, PD128763 remarkably decreased resistance to TMZ, with a DMF of 4.7+/-0.2. However, the combination of PD128763, BG, and TMZ had no greater effect, indicating that persistent O6-methylguanine had no effect on cytotoxicity. In SW480, the DMF for TMZ cytotoxicity was 3.1+/-0.12 with addition of PD128763 and 36 with addition of PD128763 and BG. Synergy analysis by median effect plots indicated a high degree of synergy between TMZ and MX or PD128763. In contrast, 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea combined with either MX or PD128763 showed little if any potentiation observed in the absence of BG in either cell line, suggesting that BER pathway has little impact on cytotoxic processing of 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea-induced adducts. These studies indicate that targeting BER with MX or PARP inhibitors enhances the cytotoxicity of methylating agents, even in MMR-deficient cells. (+info)
Protection against methylation-induced cytotoxicity by DNA polymerase beta-dependent long patch base excision repair.
Using a plasmid-based uracil-containing DNA substrate, we found that the long patch base excision repair (BER) activity of a wild-type mouse fibroblast extract was partially inhibited by an antibody to DNA polymerase beta (beta-pol). This suggests that beta-pol participates in long patch BER, in addition to single-nucleotide BER. In single-nucleotide BER, the deoxyribose phosphate (dRP) in the abasic site is removed by the lyase activity of beta-pol. Methoxyamine (MX) can react with the aldehyde of an abasic site, making it refractory to the beta-elimination step of the dRP lyase mechanism, thus blocking single-nucleotide BER. MX exposure sensitizes wild-type, but not beta-pol null mouse embryonic fibroblasts, to the cytotoxic effects of methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) and methylnitrosourea. Expression of beta-pol in the null cells restores the ability of MX to modulate sensitivity to MMS. The beta-pol null cells are known to be hypersensitive to MMS and methylnitrosourea, and in the presence of MX (i.e. under conditions where single-nucleotide BER is blocked) the null cells are still considerably more sensitive than wild-type. The data are consistent with a role of beta-pol in long patch BER, which helps protect cells against methylation damage-induced cytotoxicity. (+info)
Characterization of hydroxylaminobenzene mutase from pNBZ139 cloned from Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes JS45. A highly associated SDS-stable enzyme catalyzing an intramolecular transfer of hydroxy groups.
Hydroxylaminobenzene mutase is the enzyme that converts intermediates formed during initial steps in the degradation of nitrobenzene to a novel ring-fission lower pathway in Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes JS45. The mutase catalyzes a rearrangement of hydroxylaminobenzene to 2-aminophenol. The mechanism of the reactions and the properties of the enzymes are unknown. In crude extracts, the hydroxylaminobenzene mutase was stable at SDS concentrations as high as 2%. A procedure including Hitrap-SP, Hitrap-Q and Cu(II)-chelating chromatography was used to partially purify the enzyme from an Escherichia coli clone. The partially purified enzyme was eluted in the void volume of a Superose-12 gel-filtration column even in the presence of 0.05% SDS in 25 mM Tris/HCl buffer, which indicated that it was highly associated. When the enzymatic conversion of hydroxylaminobenzene to 2-aminophenol was carried out in 18O-labeled water, the product did not contain 18O, as determined by GC-MS. The results indicate that the reaction proceeded by intramolecular transfer of the hydroxy group from the nitrogen to the C-2 position of the ring. The mechanism is clearly different from the intermolecular transfer of the hydroxy group in the non-enzymatic Bamberger rearrangement of hydroxylaminobenzene to 4-aminophenol and in the enzymatic hydroxymutation of chorismate to isochorismate. (+info)