Role of iron in Nramp1-mediated inhibition of mycobacterial growth.
Innate resistance to mycobacterial growth is mediated by a gene, Nramp1. We have previously reported that Nramp1 mRNA from macrophages of Mycobacterium bovis BCG-resistant (Bcgr) mice is more stable than Nramp1 mRNA from macrophages of BCG-susceptible (Bcgs) mice. Based on these observations and on reports that show that the closely related Nramp2 gene is a metal ion transporter, we evaluated the effect of iron on the growth of Mycobacterium avium within macrophages as well as on the stability of Nramp1 mRNA. The addition of iron to macrophages from Bcgs mice resulted in a stimulation of mycobacterial growth. In contrast, iron increased the capacity of macrophages from Bcgr mice to control the growth of M. avium. When we treated recombinant gamma interferon (IFN-gamma)-activated macrophages with iron, we found that iron abrogated the growth inhibitory effect of IFN-gamma-activated macrophages from Bcgs mice but that it did not affect the capacity of macrophages from Bcgr mice to control microbial growth. A more detailed examination of the effect of iron on microbial growth showed that the addition of small quantities of iron to resident macrophages from Bcgr mice stimulated antimicrobial activity within a very narrow dose range. The effect of iron on the growth inhibitory activity of macrophages from Bcgr mice was abrogated by the addition of catalase or mannitol to the culture medium. These results are consistent with an Fe(II)-mediated stimulation of the Fenton/Haber-Weiss reaction and hydroxyl radical-mediated inhibition of mycobacterial growth. (+info)
EPR spin trapping and 2-deoxyribose degradation studies of the effect of pyridoxal isonicotinoyl hydrazone (PIH) on *OH formation by the Fenton reaction.
The search for effective iron chelating agents was primarily driven by the need to treat iron-loading refractory anemias such as beta-thalassemia major. However, there is a potential for therapeutic use of iron chelators in non-iron overload conditions. Iron can, under appropriate conditions, catalyze the production of toxic oxygen radicals which have been implicated in numerous pathologies and, hence, iron chelators may be useful as inhibitors of free radical-mediated tissue damage. We have developed the orally effective iron chelator pyridoxal isonicotinoyl hydrazone (PIH) and demonstrated that it inhibits iron-mediated oxyradical formation and their effects (e.g. 2-deoxyribose oxidative degradation, lipid peroxidation and plasmid DNA breaks). In this study we further characterized the mechanism of the antioxidant action of PIH and some of its analogs against *OH formation from the Fenton reaction. Using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) with 5, 5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide (DMPO) as a spin trap for *OH we showed that PIH and salicylaldehyde isonicotinoyl hydrazone (SIH) inhibited Fe(II)-dependent production of *OH from H2O2. Moreover, PIH protected 2-deoxyribose against oxidative degradation induced by Fe(II) and H2O2. The protective effect of PIH against both DMPO hydroxylation and 2-deoxyribose degradation was inversely proportional to Fe(II) concentration. However, PIH did not change the primary products of the Fenton reaction as indicated by EPR experiments on *OH-mediated ethanol radical formation. Furthermore, PIH dramatically enhanced the rate of Fe(II) oxidation to Fe(III) in the presence of oxygen, suggesting that PIH decreases the concentration of Fe(II) available for the Fenton reaction. These results suggest that PIH and SIH deserve further investigation as inhibitors of free-radical mediated tissue damage. (+info)
Methamphetamine (METH) is a powerful psychostimulant that is increasingly abused worldwide. Although it is commonly accepted that the dopaminergic system and oxidation of dopamine (DA) play pivotal roles in the neurotoxicity produced by this phenylethylamine, the primary source of DA responsible for this effect has remained elusive. In this study, we used mice heterozygous for vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2 +/- mice) to determine whether impaired vesicular function alters the effects of METH. METH-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity was increased in striatum of VMAT2 +/- mice compared with wild-type mice as revealed by a more consistent DA and metabolite depletion and a greater decrease in dopamine transporter expression. Interestingly, increased METH neurotoxicity in VMAT2 +/- mice was accompanied by less pronounced increase in extracellular DA and indices of free radical formation compared with wild-type mice. These results indicate that disruption of vesicular monoamine transport potentiates METH-induced neurotoxicity in vivo and point, albeit indirectly, to a greater contribution of intraneuronal DA redistribution rather than extraneuronal overflow on mediating this effect. (+info)
Release of copper ions from the familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-associated Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase mutants.
Point mutations of Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD) have been linked to familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (FALS). We reported that the Swedish FALS Cu,Zn-SOD mutant, D90A, exhibited an enhanced hydroxyl radical-generating activity, while its dismutation activity was identical to that of the wild-type enzyme (Kim et al. 1998a; 1998b). Transgenic mice that express a mutant Cu,Zn-SOD, Gly93 --> Ala (G93A), have been shown to develop amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) symptoms. We cloned the cDNA for the FALS G93A mutant, overexpressed the protein in E. coli cells, purified the protein, and studied its enzymic activities. Our results showed that the G93A, the D90A, and the wild-type enzymes have identical dismutation activity. However, the hydroxyl radical-generating activity of the G93A mutant was enhanced relative to those of the D90A and the wild-type enzyme (wild-type < D90A < G93A). These higher free radical-generating activities of mutants facilitated the release of copper ions from their own molecules (wild-type < D90A < G93A). The released copper ions can enhance the Fenton-like reaction to produce hydroxyl radicals and play a major role in the oxidative damage of macromolecules. Thus, the FALS symptoms may be associated with the enhancements in both the free radical-generating activity and the releasing of copper ions from the mutant enzyme. (+info)
Hydroxyl-radical production in physiological reactions. A novel function of peroxidase.
Peroxidases catalyze the dehydrogenation by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) of various phenolic and endiolic substrates in a peroxidatic reaction cycle. In addition, these enzymes exhibit an oxidase activity mediating the reduction of O2 to superoxide (O2.-) and H2O2 by substrates such as NADH or dihydroxyfumarate. Here we show that horseradish peroxidase can also catalyze a third type of reaction that results in the production of hydroxyl radicals (.OH) from H2O2 in the presence of O2.-. We provide evidence that to mediate this reaction, the ferric form of horseradish peroxidase must be converted by O2.- into the perferryl form (Compound III), in which the haem iron can assume the ferrous state. It is concluded that the ferric/perferryl peroxidase couple constitutes an effective biochemical catalyst for the production of .OH from O2.- and H2O2 (iron-catalyzed Haber-Weiss reaction). This reaction can be measured either by the hydroxylation of benzoate or the degradation of deoxyribose. O2.- and H2O2 can be produced by the oxidase reaction of horseradish peroxidase in the presence of NADH. The .OH-producing activity of horseradish peroxidase can be inhibited by inactivators of haem iron or by various O2.- and .OH scavengers. On an equimolar Fe basis, horseradish peroxidase is 1-2 orders of magnitude more active than Fe-EDTA, an inorganic catalyst of the Haber-Weiss reaction. Particularly high .OH-producing activity was found in the alkaline horseradish peroxidase isoforms and in a ligninase-type fungal peroxidase, whereas lactoperoxidase and soybean peroxidase were less active, and myeloperoxidase was inactive. Operating in the .OH-producing mode, peroxidases may be responsible for numerous destructive and toxic effects of activated oxygen reported previously. (+info)
Cytosolic Ca2+ movements of endothelial cells exposed to reactive oxygen intermediates: role of hydroxyl radical-mediated redox alteration of cell-membrane Ca2+ channels.
1. The mode of action of reactive oxygen intermediates in cysosolic Ca2+ movements of cultured porcine aortic endothelial cells exposed to xanthine/xanthine oxidase (X/XO) was investigated. 2. Cytosolic Ca2+ movements provoked by X/XO consisted of an initial Ca2+ release from thapsigargin-sensitive intracellular Ca2+ stores and a sustained Ca2+ influx through cell-membrane Ca2+ channels. The Ca2+ movements from both sources were inhibited by catalase, cell-membrane permeable iron chelators (o-phenanthroline and deferoxamine), a *OH scavenger (5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide), or an anion channel blocker (disodium 4, 4'-diisothiocyano-2, 2'-stilbenedisulphonic acid), suggesting that *O2- influx through anion channels was responsible for the Ca2+ movements, in which *OH generation catalyzed by intracellular transition metals (i.e., Haber-Weiss cycle) was involved. 3. After an initial Ca2+ elevation provoked by X/XO, cytosolic Ca2+ concentration decreased to a level higher than basal levels. Removal of X/XO slightly enhanced the Ca2+ decrease. Extracellular addition of sulphydryl (SH)-reducing agents, dithiothreitol or glutathione, after the removal of X/XO accelerated the decrement. A Ca2+ channel blocker, Ni2+, abolished the sustained increase in Ca2+, suggesting that Ca2+ influx through cell-membrane Ca2+ channels was extracellularly regulated by the redox state of SH-groups. 4. The X/XO-provoked change in cellular respiration was inhibited by Ni2+ or dithiothreitol as well as inhibitors of Haber-Weiss cycle, suggesting that Ca2+ influx was responsible for *OH-mediated cytotoxicity. We concluded that intracellular *OH generation was involved in the Ca2+ movements in endothelial cells exposed to X/XO. Cytosolic Ca2+ elevation was partly responsible for the oxidants-mediated cytotoxicity. (+info)
Directional binding of HMG-I(Y) on four-way junction DNA and the molecular basis for competitive binding with HMG-1 and histone H1.
Histone H1, HMG-1 and HMG-I(Y) are mammalian nuclear proteins possessing distinctive DNA-binding domain structures that share the common property of preferentially binding to four-way junction (4H) DNA, an in vitro mimic of the in vivo genetic recombination intermediate known as the Holliday junction. Nevertheless, these three proteins bind to 4H DNA in vitro with very different affinities and in a mutually exclusive manner. To investigate the molecular basis for these distinctive binding characteristics, we employed base pair resolution hydroxyl radical footprinting to determine the precise sites of nucleotide interactions of both HMG-1 and histone H1 on 4H DNA and compared these contacts with those previously described for HMG-I(Y) on the same substrate. Each of these proteins had a unique binding pattern on 4H DNA and yet shared certain common nucleotide contacts on the arms of the 4H DNA molecule near the branch point. Both the HMG-I(Y) and HMG-1 proteins made specific contacts across the 4H DNA branch point, as well as interacting at discrete sites on the arms, whereas the globular domain of histone H1 bound exclusively to the arms of the 4H DNA substrate without contacting nucleotides at the crossover region. Experiments employing the chemical cleavage reagent 1, 10-orthophenanthroline copper(II) attached to the C-terminal end of a site-specifically mutagenized HMG-I(Y) protein molecule demonstrated that this protein binds to 4H DNA in a distinctly polar, direction-specific manner. Together these results provide an attractive molecular explanation for the observed mutually exclusive 4H DNA-binding characteristics of these proteins and also allow for critical assessment of proposed models for their interaction with 4H DNA substrates. The results also have important implications concerning the possible in vivo roles of HMG-I(Y), histone H1 and HMG-1 in biological processes such as genetic recombination and retroviral integration. (+info)
Vanadate-induced activation of activator protein-1: role of reactive oxygen species.
The present study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that the toxicity and carcinogenicity of vanadium might arise from elevation of reactive oxygen species leading to activation of the transcription factor activator protein-1 (AP-1). The AP-1 transactivation response has been implicated as causal in transformation responses to phorbol esters and growth factors. To investigate the possible activity of vanadium in the activation of AP-1, we treated mouse epidermal JB6 P+ cells stably transfected with an AP-1 luciferase reporter plasmid with various concentrations of vanadate. This resulted in concentration-dependent transactivation of AP-1. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase inhibited AP-1 activation induced by vanadate, indicating the involvement of superoxide anion radical (O2-*), hydroxyl radical (*OH) and/or H2O2 in the mechanism of vanadate-induced AP-1 activation. However, sodium formate, a specific *OH scavenger, did not alter vanadate-induced AP-1 activation, suggesting a minimal role for the *OH radical. NADPH enhanced AP-1 activation by increasing vanadate-mediated generation of O2-*. N-acetylcysteine, a thiol-containing antioxidant, decreased activation, further showing that vanadate-induced AP-1 activation involved redox reactions. Calphostin C, a specific inhibitor of protein kinase C (PKC), inhibited activation of AP-1, demonstrating that PKC is involved in the cell signal cascades leading to vanadate-induced AP-1 activation. Electron spin resonance (ESR) measurements show that JB6 P+ cells are able to reduce vanadate to generate vanadium(IV) in the presence of NADPH. Molecular oxygen was consumed during the vanadate reduction process to generate O2-* as measured by ESR spin trapping using 5,5-dimethyl-L-pyrroline N-oxide as the spin trapping agent. SOD inhibited the ESR spin adduct signal, further demonstrating the generation of O2-* in the cellular reduction of vanadate. These results provide support for a model in which vanadium, like other classes of tumor promoters, transactivates AP-1-dependent gene expression. In the case of vanadium, AP-1 transactivation is dependent on the generation of O2-* and H2O2, but not *OH. (+info)