(1/637) Luteinizing hormone inhibits conversion of pregnenolone to progesterone in luteal cells from rats on day 19 of pregnancy.
We have previously reported that intrabursal ovarian administration of LH at the end of pregnancy in rats induces a decrease in luteal progesterone (P4) synthesis and an increase in P4 metabolism. However, whether this local luteolytic effect of LH is exerted directly on luteal cells or on other structures, such as follicular or stromal cells, to modify luteal function is unknown. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of LH on isolated luteal cells obtained on Day 19 of pregnancy. Incubation of luteal cells with 1, 10, 100, or 1000 ng/ml of ovine LH (oLH) for 6 h did not modify basal P4 production. The addition to the culture medium of 22(R)-hydroxycholesterol (22R-HC, 10 microgram/ml), a membrane-permeable P4 precursor, or pregnenolone (10(-2) microM) induced a significant increase in P4 accumulation in the medium in relation to the control value. When luteal cells were preincubated for 2 h with oLH, a significant (p < 0.01) reduction in the 22R-HC- or pregnenolone-stimulated P4 accumulation was observed. Incubation of luteal cells with dibutyryl cAMP (1 mM, a cAMP analogue) plus isobutylmethylxanthine (1 mM, a phosphodiesterase inhibitor) also inhibited pregnenolone-stimulated P4 accumulation. Incubation with an inositol triphosphate synthesis inhibitor, neomycin (1 mM), or an inhibitor of intracellular Ca2+ mobilization, (8,9-N, N-diethylamino)octyl-3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoate (1 mM), did not prevent the decrease in pregnenolone-stimulated P4 secretion induced by oLH. It was concluded that the luteolytic action of LH in late pregnancy is due, at least in part, to a direct action on the luteal cells and that an increase in intracellular cAMP level might mediate this effect. (+info)
(2/637) Identification of 17-methyl-18-norandrosta-5,13(17-dien-3beta-ol, the C19 fragment formed by adrenal side chain cleavage of a 20-aryl analog of (20S)-20-hydroxycholesterol.
Incubation of (20R)-20-phenyl-5-pregnene-3beta,20-diol, an aromatic analog of (23S)-20-hydroxycholesterol, with an adrenal mitochondrial preparation leads to the formation of four compounds: pregnenolone, phenol, a C8 ketone, acetophenone, and a nonpolar C19 compound. This latter compound has now been identified by reverse isotope dilution analysis and by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry as 17-methyl-18-norandrosta-5,13(17)-dien-3beta-ol. From these results it is evident that enzymatic fission of the C-17,20 bond of this synthetic derivative occurs. On the other hand, when (20S)-20-hydroxy[21-14C]cholesterol was used as substrate, the analogous cleavage did not take place. Thus, substitution of an aromatic group on C-20 facilitates side chain cleavage between that carbon atom and the nucleus whereas neither of the naturally occuring precursors, cholesterol or its 20-hydroxylated counterpart, are metabolized to a C8 fragment. (+info)
(3/637) Distribution of exogenous 25-hydroxycholesterol in Hep G2 cells between two different pools.
Binding of [26,27-(3)H]25-hydroxycholesterol (25HC) to human hepatoma Hep G2 cells was saturated within 120 min. Two intracellular pools of 25HC were identified in a pulse-chase experiment: (i) an exchangeable pool which was in dynamic equilibrium with 25HC in the medium (t(1/2) of reversible exchange 15 min) and (ii) an unexchangeable pool which remained in cells during incubation in medium containing LPDS. 25HC from the exchangeable pool inhibits cholesterol biosynthesis, decreases the HMG CoA reductase mRNA level and stimulates cholesterol acylation. 25HC from the unexchangeable pool was partially bound to cytosolic proteins and apparently utilized for metabolic transformation. Incubation of Hep G2 cells with [26,27-(3)H]25HC in the presence of a 30-fold molar excess of 3beta-hydroxy-5alpha-cholest-8(14)-en-15-one was found to cause (i) 2-fold decrease in the binding of [26,27-(3)H]25HC to cytosolic proteins (sedimentation constant of radioactive complex was 4-5 S) and (ii) the 35% inhibition of 25HC transformation to polar metabolites. (+info)
(4/637) Increased plasma 7 beta-hydroxycholesterol concentrations in a population with a high risk for cardiovascular disease.
The mortality in coronary heart disease among 50- to 54-year-old men is 4 times higher in Lithuania than in Sweden. It was recently suggested that traditional risk factors could not explain this mortality difference. LDL of Lithuanian men showed, however, a lower resistance to oxidation than that of Swedish men. In addition, the plasma concentration of gamma-tocopherol, lycopene, and beta-carotene were lower in Lithuanian men. In the present investigation, we determined plasma oxysterols in men from Lithuania and Sweden and found that the plasma concentration of 7 beta-hydroxycholesterol was higher in Lithuanian men, 12+/-5 versus 9+/-8 (SD) ng/mL (P=0.0011). This oxysterol is a cholesterol autoxidation product and there is no indication that it should have an enzymatic origin. Mean LDL oxidation lag time was shorter in Lithuanian men (75+/-14 versus 90+/-13 minutes, P<0.0001) and the concentration of LDL linoleic acid was lower (249+/-56 versus 292+/-54 microgram/mg of LDL protein, P<0.0001). Lipid corrected gamma-tocopherol was 0.07+/-0.02 mg/mL in Vilnius men and 0.12+/-0. 04 mg/mL (P<0.0001) in Linkoping men. There was a negative correlation between the concentration of 7 beta-hydroxycholesterol and lag time (R=-0.31, P=0.0023). It is suggested that the higher 7 beta-hydroxycholesterol concentration in Lithuanian men is an indication of an increased in vivo lipid peroxidation. (+info)
(5/637) Effects of NTE-122, a novel acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase inhibitor, on cholesterol esterification and secretions of apolipoprotein B-containing lipoprotein and bile acids in HepG2.
We studied the effect of NTE-122 (trans-1,4-bis[[1-cyclohexyl-3-(4-dimethylamino phenyl) ureido]methyl]cyclohexane), a novel acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) inhibitor, on intracellular cholesterol esterification and the secretion of apolipoprotein B100 (apoB)-containing lipoprotein and bile acids in the human hepatoma cell line HepG2. NTE-122 markably inhibited [3H]oleate incorporation into cholesteryl esters in HepG2 cells incubated with 5 microg/ml 25-hydroxycholesterol as a stimulus for ACAT (IC50=6.0 nM). On the other hand, NTE-122 did not affect [3H]oleate incorporation into triglycerides and phospholipids and [14C]acetate incorporation into cholesterol. The stimulation of ACAT by 25-hydroxycholesterol caused significant increases in the secretion of radiolabeled cholesteryl esters, radiolabeled triglycerides and apoB mass. NTE-122 pronouncedly inhibited the secretion of radiolabeled cholesteryl esters in proportion to the inhibition of cellular cholesterol esterification, and it significantly reduced the secretion of radiolabeled triglycerides and apoB mass in HepG2 cells incubated with 25-hydroxycholesterol. Furthermore, NTE-122 increased the secretion of bile acids synthesized from [14C]-cholesterol. These results suggest that NTE-122 is capable of exhibiting anti-hyperlipidemic effects by reducing both the cholesterol content and the amount of secreted very low-density lipoprotein and enhancing the excretion of bile acid from the liver. (+info)
(6/637) Characterization and comparison of the mode of cell death, apoptosis versus necrosis, induced by 7beta-hydroxycholesterol and 7-ketocholesterol in the cells of the vascular wall.
Oxidized low density lipoproteins (LDLs) play a central role in atherosclerosis, and their toxicity is due, at least in part, to the formation of oxysterols that have been shown to induce apoptosis in various cell types. As 7beta-hydroxycholesterol and 7-ketocholesterol are the major oxysterols found in oxidized LDLs, we have investigated and compared the mode of cell death, apoptosis versus necrosis, that they induce in the cells of the vascular wall, ie, endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, and fibroblasts. To this end, human vascular endothelial cells from umbilical cord veins (HUVECs), human artery smooth muscle cells, A7R5 rat smooth muscle cells, MRC5 human fibroblasts, and human fibroblasts isolated from umbilical cord veins were taken at confluence and incubated for 48 hours with 7beta-hydroxycholesterol or 7-ketocholesterol (concentration range, 5 to 80 microg/mL). In all cells, both 7beta-hydroxycholesterol and 7-ketocholesterol exhibited toxic effects characterized by a loss of cell adhesion and an increased permeability to propidium iodide. In oxysterol-treated endothelial and smooth muscle cells, typical features of apoptosis were revealed: condensed and/or fragmented nuclei were detected by fluorescence microscopy after staining with Hoechst 33342, oligonucleosomal DNA fragments were visualized in situ in the cell nuclei by the TdT-mediated dUTP-biotin nick-end labeling (TUNEL) method, and internucleosomal DNA fragmentation was found on agarose gel. In contrast, in oxysterol-treated fibroblasts, fragmented and/or condensed nuclei were never revealed, and no DNA fragmentation was observed either by the TUNEL method or by DNA analysis on agarose gel, indicating that these oxysterols induced necrosis in these cells but not apoptosis. In addition, acetylated Asp-Glu-Val-L-aspartic acid aldehyde (an inhibitor of Asp-Glu-Val-L-aspartic acid-sensitive caspases) prevented 7beta-hydroxycholesterol- and 7-ketocholesterol-induced cell death in HUVECs and smooth muscle cells but not in fibroblasts. Thus, 7beta-hydroxycholesterol and 7-ketocholesterol have dual cytotoxic effects on the cells of the vascular wall by their ability to induce apoptosis in endothelial and smooth muscle cells and necrosis in fibroblasts. (+info)
(7/637) Major differences in oxysterol formation in human low density lipoproteins (LDLs) oxidized by *OH/O2*- free radicals or by copper.
The aim of our study was to determine the oxysterol formation in low density lipoproteins (LDLs) oxidized by defined oxygen free radicals (*OH/O2*-). This was compared to the oxysterol produced upon the classical copper oxidation procedure. The results showed a markedly lower formation of oxysterols induced by *OH/O2*- free radicals than by copper and thus suggested a poor ability of these radicals to initiate cholesterol oxidation in LDLs. Moreover, the molecular species of cholesteryl ester hydroperoxides produced by LDL copper oxidation seemed more labile than those formed upon *OH/O2*(-)-induced oxidation, probably due to their degradation by reaction with copper ions. (+info)
(8/637) 27-hydroxycholesterol: production rates in normal human subjects.
We attempted to quantitate production of bile acid via the 27-hydroxylation pathway in six human subjects. After bolus intravenous injection of known amounts of [24-14C]cholic acid and [24-14C]chenodeoxycholic acid, each subject underwent a constant intravenous infusion of a mixture of [22, 23-3H]-27-hydroxycholesterol and [2H]-27-hydroxycholesterol for 6;-10 h. Production rate of 27-hydroxycholesterol was calculated from the infusion rate of [2H]-27-hydroxycholesterol and the serum ratio of deuterated/protium 27-hydroxycholesterol, which reached a plateau level by 4 h of infusion. Conversion of 27-hydroxycholesterol to cholic and chenodeoxycholic acids was determined from the 3H/14C ratio of these two bile acids in bile samples obtained the day after infusion. In five of the six subjects, independent measurement of bile acid synthesis by fecal acidic sterol output was available from previous studies. Endogenous production of 27-hydroxycholesterol averaged 17.6 mg/day and ranged from 5.0 to 28.2 mg/day, which amounted to 8.7% (range 3.0;-17.9%) of total bile acid synthesis. On average 66% of infused 27-hydroxycholesterol was converted to bile acid, of which 72.6% was chenodeoxycholic acid. These data suggest that relatively little bile acid synthesis takes place via the 27-hydroxylation pathway in healthy humans. Nevertheless, even this amount, occurring predominantly in vascular endothelium and macrophages, could represent an important means for removal of cholesterol deposited in endothelium. (+info)