Effects of hydroxocobalamin and carboxy-PTIO on nitrergic transmission in porcine anococcygeus and retractor penis muscles.
The effects of carboxy-PTIO and hydroxocobalamin were studied on nitrergic transmission in anococcygeus and retractor penis muscles taken during post mortem examination from young male pigs. In both muscles under resting conditions, electrical field stimulation (EFS) caused contractions that were sensitive to tetrodotoxin (1 microM) and were greatly inhibited by prazosin (1 microM) and guanethidine (10-30 microM), but were not significantly affected by atropine (1 microM). In the anococcygeus muscle, but not in the retractor penis muscle, guanethidine produced a prolonged contraction. After tone was raised by guanethidine in the anococcygeus or by phenylephrine (1 microM) in the presence of guanethidine in the retractor penis, EFS caused tetrodotoxin-sensitive relaxations. The EFS-induced relaxations were abolished by the NO synthase inhibitor N(G)-L-nitro-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME; 100 microM) and its effect was partly overcome by L-arginine (1 mM), indicating it was mediated by nitrergic nerves. Carboxy-PTIO (0.1-1 mM) had no significant effect in reducing stimulation-induced nitrergic relaxations in either muscle. However, hydroxocobalamin (0.1-1 mM) caused concentration-dependent reductions of nitrergic relaxations in both muscles. Relaxations to exogenous nitric oxide (1 microM) in both muscles were abolished by carboxy-PTIO (0.3 mM) and hydroxocobalamin (0.1 mM). There were no differences in reactivity to carboxy-PTIO or hydroxocobalamin between anococcygeus and retractor penis muscles from the same species (pig). The finding also confirms earlier observations that the nitrergic transmitter is generally resistant to the NO-scavenger carboxy-PTIO. (+info)
Comparison of the redox forms of nitrogen monoxide with the nitrergic transmitter in the rat anococcygeus muscle.
1. A sustained tone was produced in rat isolated anococcygeus muscles with guanethidine and clonidine and relaxant responses were elicited by electrical stimulation of its nitrergic nerves and by the three redox forms of nitrogen monoxide. 2. The nitroxyl anion (NO ) was donated by dissociation of Angeli's salt; the free radical (NO*) was from an aqueous solution of nitric oxide gas; the nitrosonium cation (NO+) was donated by dissociation of nitrosonium tetrafluoroborate. 3. The concentrations producing approximately 50% relaxations of the anococcygeus muscle were 0.3 microM for Angeli's salt (nitroxyl), 0.5 microM for NO* and 100 microM for nitrosonium tetrafluoroborate. Nitrergic nerve stimulation at 1 Hz for 10 s produced equivalent relaxant responses. 4. The superoxide generator pyrogallol (100 microM) had no effect on responses to nitrergic nerve stimulation or Angeli's salt but significantly reduced responses to NO* and nitrosonium tetrafluoroborate. 5. The NO* scavenger carboxy-PTIO (100 microM) had no effect on responses to nitrergic nerve stimulation or Angeli's salt but significantly reduced responses to NO* and nitrosonium tetrafluoroborate. 6. Hydroxocobalamin (30 microM) had no significant effect on responses to the nitrergic transmitter, enhanced the response to Angeli's salt, and significantly reduced responses to NO* and nitrosonium tetrafluoroborate. 7. The findings suggest that the nitroxyl anion donated by Angeli's salt is a better candidate than NO* to serve as the nitrergic transmitter in the rat anococcygeus muscle, although it still does not behave exactly like the transmitter. (+info)
Enhanced biotransformation of carbon tetrachloride by Acetobacterium woodii upon addition of hydroxocobalamin and fructose.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of hydroxocobalamin (OH-Cbl) on transformation of high concentrations of carbon tetrachloride (CT) by Acetobacterium woodii (ATCC 29683). Complete transformation of 470 microM (72 mg/liter [aqueous]) CT was achieved by A. woodii within 2.5 days, when 10 microM OH-Cbl was added along with 25.2 mM fructose. This was approximately 30 times faster than A. woodii cultures (live or autoclaved) and medium that did not receive OH-Cbl and 5 times faster than those controls that did receive OH-Cbl, but either live A. woodii or fructose was missing. CT transformation in treatments with only OH-Cbl was indicative of the important contribution of nonenzymatic reactions. Besides increasing the rate of CT transformation, addition of fructose and OH-Cbl to live cultures increased the percentage of [(14)C]CT transformed to (14)CO(2) (up to 31%) and (14)C-labeled soluble materials (principally L-lactate and acetate), while decreasing the percentage of CT reduced to chloroform and abiotically transformed to carbon disulfide. (14)CS(2) represented more than 35% of the [(14)C]CT in the presence of reduced medium and OH-Cbl. Conversion of CT to CO was a predominant pathway in formation of CO(2) in the presence of live cells and added fructose and OH-Cbl. These results indicate that the rate and distribution of products during cometabolic transformation of CT by A. woodii can be improved by the addition of fructose and OH-Cbl. (+info)
Influence of bilirubin and other antioxidants on nitrergic relaxation in the pig gastric fundus.
1. The influence of several antioxidants (bilirubin, urate, ascorbate, alpha-tocopherol, glutathione (GSH), Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD) and the manganese SOD mimic EUK-8) on nitrergic relaxations induced by either exogenous nitric oxide (NO; 10(-5) M) or electrical field stimulation (4 Hz; 10 s and 3 min) was studied in the pig gastric fundus. 2. Ascorbate (5x10(-4) M), alpha-tocopherol (4x10(-4) M), SOD (300 - 1000 u ml(-1)) and EUK-8 (3x10(-4) M) did not influence the relaxations to exogenous NO. In the presence of GSH (5x10(-4) M), the short-lasting relaxation to NO became biphasic, potentiated and prolonged. Urate (4x10(-4) M) and bilirubin (2x10(-4) M) also potentiated the relaxant effect of NO. None of the antioxidants influenced the electrically evoked relaxations. 3. 6-Anilino-5,8-quinolinedione (LY83583; 10(-5) M) had no influence on nitrergic nerve stimulation but nearly abolished the relaxant response to exogenous NO. Urate and GSH completely prevented this inhibitory effect, while it was partially reversed by SOD and bilirubin. Ascorbate, alpha-tocopherol and EUK-8 were without effect. 4. Hydroquinone (10(-4) M) did not affect the electrically induced nitrergic relaxations, but markedly reduced NO-induced relaxations. The inhibition of exogenous NO by hydroquinone was completely prevented by urate and GSH. SOD and ascorbate afforded partial protection, while bilirubin, EUK-8 and alpha-tocopherol were ineffective. 5. Hydroxocobalamin (10(-4) M) inhibited relaxations to NO by 50%, but not the electrically induced responses. Full protection versus this inhibitory effect was obtained with urate, GSH and alpha-tocopherol. 6. These results strengthen the hypothesis that several endogenous antioxidant defense mechanisms, enzymatic as well as non-enzymatic, might play a role in the nitrergic neurotransmission process. (+info)
A new spectrophotometric method for the toxicological diagnosis of cyanide poisoning.
A spectrophotometric method for the determination of hydrogen cyanide in biological fluids based on the release of cyanide ion by the addition of a strong acid and its subsequent specific reaction with hydroxocobalamin to give cyanocobalamin is proposed. The release of cyanide ion is accelerated by aeration with a stream of an inert gas (nitrogen) that carries it into the hydroxocobalamin solution. Although the in vitro reaction develops to completion within 20 min, reproducible quantitation in biological media takes 45 min. The cyanocobalamin formed is quantitated by second-derivative visible spectrophotometry from the absorbance difference between 333 and 361 nm, the measured signal being proportional to the cyanide ion concentration in the sample. (+info)
Inhibitory actions of hydroxocobalamin, cyanocobalamin, and folic acid on the ultraviolet light-induced relaxation of the frog upper oesophageal strip.
The applications of ultraviolet (UV) light (336 nm) on the upper oesophageal strips of frog elicited relaxant responses in the presence of NaNO2 (50 microM). The tissues were mounted under the tension 0.5 g in an organ bath containing Ringer solution, maintained at 25 degrees C and gassed with 100% O2. The responses were recorded on a kymograph via an isotonic lever. Antimegaloblastic agents, including hydroxocobalamin (1, 10, and 100 microM), cyanocobalamin (1, 10, 25, and 100 microM), and folic acid (1, 10, 50, 100, and 200 microM), significantly attenuated the relaxation response to UV light. Folinic acid (1, 10, 25, and 100 microM), however, enhanced the relaxation. Pyrogallol (50 microM), hydroquinone (50 microM), and diethyldithiocarbamic acid (8 mM) were found ineffective for attenuation, though FeSO4 (200, 400, and 500 microM) and hemoglobin (50 microM), respectively, exerted significant inhibition. L-arginine methylester (500 microM) did not impair UV-induced relaxation. Based on these results, we concluded that a mechanism involving undefined action(s) of antimegaloblastic drugs may cause alterations in the UV light-induced relaxation of the tissue used. (+info)
Characterization of a three-component vanillate O-demethylase from Moorella thermoacetica.
The Moorella thermoacetica aromatic O-demethylase was characterized as an inducible three-component system with similarity to the methanogenic methanol, methylamine, and methanethiol methyltransferases and to the O-demethylase system from Acetobacterium dehalogenans. MtvB catalyzes methyl transfer from a phenylmethylether to the cobalt center of MtvC, a corrinoid protein. MtvA catalyzes transmethylation from MtvC to tetrahydrofolate, forming methyltetrahydrofolate. Cobalamin can substitute for MtvC. (+info)
Effects of agents that inactivate free radical NO (NO*) on nitroxyl anion-mediated relaxations, and on the detection of NO* released from the nitroxyl anion donor Angeli's salt.
1. The effects of agents that inactivate free radical nitric oxide (carboxy-PTIO, hydroxocobalamin and pyrogallol) were tested on relaxations produced by the nitroxyl anion (NO(-)) donor Angeli's salt in rat aortic rings and anococcygeus muscles. The amount of NO(*) generated from Angeli's salt in the presence of these agents was measured using a NO(*)-selective electrode sensor. 2. Carboxy-PTIO (100, 300 microM), hydroxocobalamin (30, 100 microM) and pyrogallol (10, 30 microM) significantly reduced relaxations produced by Angeli's salt (0.3 microM) in aortic rings but not in anococcygeus muscles. 3. NO(*) generated from Angeli's salt (0.1 - 10 microM), as detected by the sensor electrode, was less than 0.5% of the amount of Angeli's salt added. Carboxy-PTIO (100 microM) and hydroxocobalamin (30 microM), but not pyrogallol significantly increased the amount of NO(*) detected. 4. In the presence of an oxidizing agent copper [II] (as CuSO(4) 100 microM), the amount of NO(*) detected from 0.3 microM of Angeli's salt increased from an undetectable level of 142.7+/-15.7 nM (equivalent to 47.6% of Angeli's salt added). Under these conditions, carboxy-PTIO, hydroxocobalamin and pyrogallol significantly reduced the amount of NO(*) detected from Angeli's salt as well as the signal generated by an equivalent amount of authentic NO (0.33 microM). 5. The difference in effects of these agents on relaxations to Angeli's salt in the aorta and the anococcygeus muscle may be explained by the ready conversion of NO(-) to NO(*) in the aorta through an unidentified mechanism, which makes NO(-) susceptible to inactivation by these agents. Furthermore, in addition to inactivating NO(*), carboxy-PTIO and hydroxocobalamin may themselves oxidize NO(-) to NO(*), albeit slightly. (+info)