Fetal tachycardias: management and outcome of 127 consecutive cases.
OBJECTIVE: To review the management and outcome of fetal tachycardia, and to determine the problems encountered with various treatment protocols. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective analysis. SUBJECTS: 127 consecutive fetuses with a tachycardia presenting between 1980 and 1996 to a single tertiary centre for fetal cardiology. The median gestational age at presentation was 32 weeks (range 18 to 42). RESULTS: 105 fetuses had a supraventricular tachycardia and 22 had atrial flutter. Overall, 52 fetuses were hydropic and 75 non-hydropic. Prenatal control of the tachycardia was achieved in 83% of treated non-hydropic fetuses compared with 66% of the treated hydropic fetuses. Digoxin monotherapy converted most (62%) of the treated non-hydropic fetuses, and 96% survived through the neonatal period. First line drug treatment for hydropic fetuses was more diverse, including digoxin (n = 5), digoxin plus verapamil (n = 14), and flecainide (n = 27). The response rates to these drugs were 20%, 57%, and 59%, respectively, confirming that digoxin monotherapy is a poor choice for the hydropic fetus. Response to flecainide was faster than to the other drugs. Direct fetal treatment was used in four fetuses, of whom two survived. Overall, 73% (n = 38) of the hydropic fetuses survived. Postnatally, 4% of the non-hydropic group had ECG evidence of pre-excitation, compared with 16% of the hydropic group; 57% of non-hydropic fetuses were treated with long term anti-arrhythmics compared with 79% of hydropic fetuses. CONCLUSIONS: Non-hydropic fetuses with tachycardias have a very good prognosis with transplacental treatment. Most arrhythmias associated with fetal hydrops can be controlled with transplacental treatment, but the mortality in this group is 27%. At present, there is no ideal treatment protocol for these fetuses and a large prospective multicentre trial is required to optimise treatment of both hydropic and non-hydropic fetuses. (+info)
Intrauterine management of fetal parvovirus B19 infection.
OBJECTIVES: The aim of our study was to determine the outcome of pregnancies after intrauterine management of fetal parvovirus B19 infection. DESIGN: Retrospective study. SUBJECTS: A total of 37 cases of maternofetal parvovirus B19 infection, 35 of which were associated with hydrops fetalis, were referred to our tertiary level center between 1989 and 1996. With regard to fetal hydrops, no apparent cause other than parvovirus B19 infection was found in any patient. METHODS: In all patients, cordocentesis was performed to assess the degree of fetal anemia. When anemia was present, cordocentesis was followed by intrauterine transfusion with packed red cells into the umbilical vein. Further management depended on the degree of fetal anemia and gestational age and included follow-up fetal blood sampling/transfusion as well as ultrasound examinations as deemed appropriate. RESULTS: Packed red cell transfusion was performed in 30 patients with significant fetal anemia (Z-score 1.6-7.8 below the mean for gestational age). The fetal hemoglobin values ranged from 2.1 to 9.6 g/dl. Serum levels of platelets in the transfusion group were 9-228 x 10(9)/l with Z-scores in the range of < 1 to 3.8 below the mean. During treatment and follow-up, there were five intrauterine deaths (13.5%), one neonatal death (2.7%) and 31 live births (83.8%). CONCLUSIONS: Fetal parvovirus infection can lead to marked anemia and hydrops formation. Cordocentesis allows precise assessment of fetal anemia which can then be corrected by intravenous transfusion. Under this regimen, the outcome proved favorable in the majority of fetuses, even those that were severely anemic. (+info)
Direct intrauterine fetal therapy in a case of bronchopulmonary sequestration associated with non-immune hydrops fetalis.
Bronchopulmonary sequestration associated with non-immune hydrops fetalis is generally recognized as a uniformly fatal fetal condition without fetal surgical intervention. We describe here the first case of such a condition treated successfully with direct intrauterine fetal therapy using digoxin and frusemide. (+info)
Endothelin concentrations in monochorionic twins with severe twin-twin transfusion syndrome.
The objective of this study was to determine endothelin (ET-1) concentrations in monochorionic twin fetuses with and without twin-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS). Fourteen monochorionic twin pregnancies complicated by TTTS and six without TTTS were studied. Matched maternal and fetal blood samples were obtained both in utero and at birth. Amniotic fluid samples were also collected from twin pairs. ET-1 concentrations were measured by radio-immunoassay. ET-1 concentrations in recipient fetuses were higher than in the donors both in utero(P < 0.001) and at birth (P < 0.01). Fetal concentrations of ET-1 in donors were similar to non-TTTS twins. Plasma ET-1 concentrations were significantly higher (P < 0.01) in recipient fetuses with severe hydrops than those with mild/no hydrops. Maternal concentrations of ET-1 were comparable in the two groups. Endothelin concentrations in recipient twins were 2(1/2) times higher than in their co-twins and this was related to the severity of hydrops. (+info)
Prenatal diagnosis of parvovirus B19-induced hydrops fetalis by chemiluminescence in situ hybridization.
Parvovirus B19 can be transmitted transplacentally from the infected mother to the fetus during pregnancy, and hydrops fetalis, abortion, or stillbirth can result. In our study we explored the use of chemiluminescence in situ hybridization to detect B19 DNA on cord blood cells, amniotic fluid cells, and pleuric fluid cells from several cases of hydrops fetalis. B19 DNA was detected by using digoxigenin-labeled probes immunoenzymatically visualized with the chemiluminescent adamantil-1,2-dioxetane phenyl phosphate substrate for alkaline phosphatase. The luminescent signal emitted from the hybridized probes was detected, analyzed, and measured with a high-performance, low-light-level imaging luminograph connected to an optical microscope and to a personal computer for the quantification and localization of the chemiluminescent emission inside individual cells. (+info)
Mapping of a new SGBS locus to chromosome Xp22 in a family with a severe form of Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome.
Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome (SGBS) is an X-linked overgrowth syndrome with associated visceral and skeletal abnormalities. Alterations in the glypican-3 gene (GPC3), which is located on Xq26, have been implicated in the etiology of relatively milder cases of this disorder. Not all individuals with SGBS have demonstrated disruptions of the GPC3 locus, which raises the possibility that other loci on the X chromosome could be responsible for some cases of this syndrome. We have previously described a large family with a severe form of SGBS that is characterized by multiple anomalies, hydrops fetalis, and death within the first 8 wk of life. Using 25 simple tandem-repeat polymorphism markers spanning the X chromosome, we have localized the gene for this disorder to an approximately 6-Mb region of Xp22, with a maximum LOD score of 3.31 and with LOD scores <-2.0 for all of Xq. These results demonstrate that neither the GPC3 gene nor other genes on Xq26 are responsible for all cases of SGBS and that a second SGBS locus resides on Xp22. (+info)
Parvovirus B19 infections.
Infections caused by human parvovirus B19 can result in a wide spectrum of manifestations, which are usually influenced by the patient's immunologic and hematologic status. In the normal host, parvovirus infection can be asymptomatic or can result in erythema infectiosum or arthropathy. Patients with underlying hematologic and immunologic disorders who become infected with this virus are at risk for aplastic anemia. Hydrops fetalis and fetal death are complications of intrauterine parvovirus B19 infection. (+info)
Atrial flutter in the perinatal age group: diagnosis, management and outcome.
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate perinatal atrial flutter (AF) and the efficacy of maternally administered antiarrhythmic agents, postpartum management and outcome. BACKGROUND: Perinatal AF is a potentially lethal arrhythmia, and management of this disorder is difficult and controversial. METHODS: Forty-five patients with documented AF were studied retrospectively. RESULTS: Atrial flutter was diagnosed prenatally in 44 fetuses and immediately postnatally in 1 neonate. Fetal hydrops was seen in 20 patients; 17 received maternal therapy, 2 were delivered and 1 was not treated because it had a severe nontreatable cardiac malformation. In the nonhydropic group of 24 patients, 18 were treated and the remaining 6 were delivered immediately. In the hydropic group, 10 received single-drug therapy (digoxin or sotalol) and 7 received multidrug therapy. In the nonhydropic group, 13 received a single drug (digoxin or sotalol) and 5 received multiple drugs. One patient with rapid 1:1 atrioventricular conduction (heart rate 480 beats/min) died in utero and another died due to a combination of severe hydrops because of the AF, sotalol medication, stenosis of the venous duct and hypoplastic placenta. Of the 43 live-born infants, 12 were in AF at birth. Electrical cardioversion was successful in eight of nine patients. No recurrences in AF have occurred beyond the neonatal period. Four patients with fetal flutter and hydrops showed significant neurological pathology immediately after birth. CONCLUSIONS: Fetal AF is a serious and threatening rhythm disorder, particularly when it causes hydrops, it may be associated with fetal death or neurological damage. Treatment is required and primarily aimed at reaching an adequate ventricular rate and preferably conversion to sinus rhythm. Digoxin failed in prevention of recurrence at time of delivery in a quarter of our patients, whereas with sotalol no recurrence of AF has been reported, suggesting that class III agents may be the future therapy. Once fetuses with AF survive without neurological pathology, their future is good and prophylaxis beyond the neonatal period is unnecessary. (+info)