A simple hydroponic culture method for the development of a highly viable root system in Arabidopsis thaliana.
In the studies of nutritional absorption and metal toxicity in the root, it is important to grow plants without technical damage. We established a simple hydroponic culture system for Arabidopsis thaliana to obtain a healthy plant having a well-developed root system with many lateral roots. The phytotoxic effects of Cr, Cu, and Al ions were examined by FDA-PI staining using this culture system. The pattern of root inhibition varied with the ion, suggesting the usefulness of this culture system. (+info)
Nanogram amounts of salicylic acid produced by the rhizobacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa 7NSK2 activate the systemic acquired resistance pathway in bean.
Root colonization by specific nonpathogenic bacteria can induce a systemic resistance in plants to pathogen infections. In bean, this kind of systemic resistance can be induced by the rhizobacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa 7NSK2 and depends on the production of salicylic acid by this strain. In a model with plants grown in perlite we demonstrated that Pseudomonas aeruginosa 7NSK2-induced resistance is equivalent to the inclusion of 1 nM salicylic acid in the nutrient solution and used the latter treatment to analyze the molecular basis of this phenomenon. Hydroponic feeding of 1 nM salicylic acid solutions induced phenylalanine ammonia-lyase activity in roots and increased free salicylic acid levels in leaves. Because pathogen-induced systemic acquired resistance involves similar changes it was concluded that 7NSK2-induced resistance is mediated by the systemic acquired resistance pathway. This conclusion was validated by analysis of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase activity in roots and of salicylic acid levels in leaves of soil-grown plants treated with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The induction of systemic acquired resistance by nanogram amounts of salicylic acid is discussed with respect to long-distance signaling in systemic acquired resistance. (+info)
Mutants with enhanced nitrogenase activity in hydroponic Azospirillum brasilense-wheat associations.
The effect of a mutation affecting flocculation, differentiation into cyst-like forms, and root colonization on nitrogenase expression by Azospirillum brasilense is described. The gene flcA of strain Sp7 restored these phenotypes in spontaneous mutants of both strains Sp7 and Sp245. Employing both constitutive pLA-lacZ and nifH-lacZ reporter fusions expressed in situ, the colony morphology, colonization pattern, and potential for nitrogenase activity of spontaneous mutants and flcA Tn5-induced mutants were established. The results of this study show that the ability of Sp7 and Sp245 mutant strains to remain in a vegetative form improved their ability to express nitrogenase activity in association with wheat in a hydroponic system. Restoring the cyst formation and colonization pattern to the spontaneous mutant Sp7-S reduced nitrogenase activity rates in association with plants to that of the wild-type Sp7. Although Tn5-induced flcA mutants showed higher potentials for nitrogenase expression than Sp7, their potentials were lower than that of Sp7-S, indicating that other factors in this strain contribute to its exceptional nitrogenase activity rates on plants. The lack of lateral flagella is not one of these factors, as Sp7-PM23, a spontaneous mutant impaired in swarming and lateral-flagellum production but not in flocculation, showed wild-type nitrogenase activity and expression. The results also suggest factors of importance in evolving an effective symbiosis between Azospirillum and wheat, such as increasing the availability of microaerobic niches along the root, increased supply of carbon sources by the plant, and the retention of the bacterial cells in vegetative form for faster metabolism. (+info)
Auxin-induced ethylene triggers abscisic acid biosynthesis and growth inhibition.
The growth-inhibiting effects of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) at high concentration and the synthetic auxins 7-chloro-3-methyl-8-quinolinecarboxylic acid (quinmerac), 2-methoxy-3,6-dichlorobenzoic acid (dicamba), 4-amino-3,6, 6-trichloropicolinic acid (picloram), and naphthalene acetic acid, were investigated in cleavers (Galium aparine). When plants were root treated with 0.5 mM IAA, shoot epinasty and inhibition of root and shoot growth developed during 24 h. Concomitantly, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) synthase activity, and ACC and ethylene production were transiently stimulated in the shoot tissue within 2 h, followed by increases in immunoreactive (+)-abscisic acid (ABA) and its precursor xanthoxal (xanthoxin) after 5 h. After 24 h of treatment, levels of xanthoxal and ABA were elevated up to 2- and 24-fold, relative to control, respectively. In plants treated with IAA, 7-chloro-3-methyl-8-quinolinecarboxylic acid, naphthalene acetic acid, 2-methoxy-3,6-dichlorobenzoic acid, and 4-amino-3,6,6-trichloropicolinic acid, levels of ethylene, ACC, and ABA increased in close correlation with inhibition of shoot growth. Aminoethoxyvinyl-glycine and cobalt ions, which inhibit ethylene synthesis, decreased ABA accumulation and growth inhibition, whereas the ethylene-releasing ethephon promoted ABA levels and growth inhibition. In accordance, tomato mutants defective in ethylene perception (never ripe) did not produce the xanthoxal and ABA increases and growth inhibition induced by auxins in wild-type plants. This suggests that auxin-stimulated ethylene triggers ABA accumulation and the consequent growth inhibition. Reduced catabolism most probably did not contribute to ABA increase, as indicated by immunoanalyses of ABA degradation and conjugation products in shoot tissue and by pulse experiments with [(3)H]-ABA in cell suspensions of G. aparine. In contrast, studies using inhibitors of ABA biosynthesis (fluridone, naproxen, and tungstate), ABA-deficient tomato mutants (notabilis, flacca, and sitiens), and quantification of xanthophylls indicate that ABA biosynthesis is influenced, probably through stimulated cleavage of xanthophylls to xanthoxal in shoot tissue. (+info)
Rapid disruption of nitrogen metabolism and nitrate transport in spinach plants deprived of sulphate.
Hydroponically grown spinach plants were deprived of an external source of sulphate after an initial period when the S-supply was sufficient. The time-course of events following this treatment was monitored. The first responses were found in the uptake and translocation of NO(3)(-) and the uptake of SO(4)(2-). The former declined by approximately 50%, the effect being most significant at higher [NO(3)(-)](ext.) while the latter increased 6-fold over a 4 d period. Growth in the absence of external SO(4)(2-) resulted in exhaustion of internal SO(4)(2-) pools, the effect being seen first in roots, then in young leaves and, after a marked delay, in mature leaves. In young leaves, there were dramatic increases in the [NO(3)(-)] and the content of arginine in the first 2 d of S-deprivation. The concentration of glutamine, the most abundant amino acid in S-sufficient conditions, also more than doubled in S-deficient young leaves. The changes in arginine levels were also found in older leaves, but the change in glutamine level was not seen. Assays of nitrate reductase activity (NRA) and nitrate reductase (NR) mRNA from young leaves of S-replete and S-deprived plants revealed a divergence in activity and content only late in the experiments (between days 4 and 8) when results were expressed on a unit leaf basis. However, there were also time-dependent changes in the protein content that kept the specific activities (NRA:protein and RNA:protein) more or less unchanged. The results imply that the impact of S-deficiency on N-utilization are more sensitively monitored by simple measurements of the chemical composition of young leaves than by measurements of NRA or NR transcript abundance. They also suggest that protein synthesis in young leaves is strongly dependent on a continuous supply of SO(4)(2-) from outside the plant. (+info)
Leaf ureide degradation and N(2) fixation tolerance to water deficit in soybean.
Accumulation of ureides in leaves is associated with the sensitivity of N(2) fixation in soybean to soil water deficit. Consequently, ureide degradation in leaves may be a key to increasing soybean tolerance to dry soils. Previous research indicated that allantoic acid degradation is catalysed by different enzymes in cultivars Maple Arrow and Williams. The enzyme found in Williams requires manganese as a cofactor. The first objective of this study was to determine if the two degradation pathways were associated with differences in N(2) sensitivity to soil water deficits. N(2) fixation of Williams grown on low-Mn soil was sensitive to stress, but it was relatively tolerant when grown on soil amended with Mn. N(2) fixation in Maple Arrow was relatively tolerant of soil drying regardless of the Mn treatment. The second objective of this study was to expand the study of the degradation pathway to nine additional genotypes. Based on ureide degradation in the presence and absence of Mn, these genotypes also segregated for the two degradation pathways. Those genotypes with the Mn-dependent pathway tended to have drought-sensitive N(2) fixation, but there was one exception. The genotypes not requiring Mn for ureide degradation were drought-tolerant except for one genotype. These results demonstrated the possibility for increasing N(2) fixation tolerance to soil water deficits in soybean by selection of lines with high ureide degradation rates, which were commonly associated with the Mn-independent pathway. (+info)
Rapid N transport to pods and seeds in N-deficient soybean plants.
Non-nodulated soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) plants were cultivated hydroponically under N-sufficient (5 mM NaNO(3)) or N-deficient (0.5 mM NaNO(3)) conditions. (13)N- or (15)N- labelled nitrate was fed to the cut end of the stems, and the accumulation of nitrate-derived N in the pods, nodes and stems was compared. Real-time images of (13)N distribution in stems, petioles and pods were obtained using a Positron Emitting Tracer Imaging System for a period of 40 min. The results indicated that the radioactivity in the pods of N-deficient plants was about 10 times higher than that of N-sufficient plants, although radioactivity in the stems and nodes of N-deficient versus N-sufficient plants was not different. A similar result was obtained by supplying (15)NO(3) to cut soybean shoots for 1 h. The fact that the N translocation into the pods from NO(3) fed to the stem base was much faster in N-deficient plants may be due to the strong sink activity of the pods in N-deficient plants. Alternatively, the redistribution of N from the leaves to the pods via the phloem may be accelerated in N-deficient plants. The temporal accumulation of (13)NO(3) in nodes was suggested in both N-sufficient and N-deficient plants. In one (13)NO(3) pulse-chase experiment, radioactivity in the stem declined rapidly after transferring the shoot from the (13)NO(3) solution to non-labelled NO(3); in contrast, the radioactivity in the node declined minimally during the same time period. (+info)
Relationship between changes in the guard cell abscisic-acid content and other stress-related physiological parameters in intact plants.
The relationships of guard cell ABA content to eight stress-related physiological parameters were determined on intact Vicia faba L. plants that were grown hydroponically with split-root systems. Continuous stress was imposed by the addition of PEG to part of the root system. The water potentials of roots sampled after the addition of PEG were 0.25 MPa lower than the water potentials of other roots of the same plant, which were similar to the roots of untreated plants. The leaflet water potentials of plants sampled within 2 h of stress imposition were similar to those of control plants. However, leaf conductance was lower in plants sampled after only 20 min of stress imposition, and the root- and leaflet apoplastic ABA concentrations of these plants were higher than those of untreated plants. As the essence of this report, there was a linear relationship between guard cell ABA content and leaf conductance. Leaflet apoplastic ABA concentrations <150 nM were also linearly related to leaf conductance, but higher leaflet apoplastic ABA concentration did not cause equally large further declines in leaf conductance. It is suggested that evaporation from guard cell walls caused ABA to accumulate in the guard cell apoplast and this pool was saturated at high leaflet apoplastic ABA concentrations. (+info)