Effects of different forms of dietary hydrogenated fats on serum lipoprotein cholesterol levels.
BACKGROUND: Metabolic studies suggest that fatty acids containing at least one double bond in the trans configuration, which are found in hydrogenated fat, have a detrimental effect on serum lipoprotein cholesterol levels as compared with unsaturated fatty acids containing double bonds only in the cis configuration. We compared the effects of diets with a broad range of trans fatty acids on serum lipoprotein cholesterol levels. METHODS: Eighteen women and 18 men consumed each of six diets in random order for 35-day periods. The foods were identical in each diet, and each diet provided 30 percent of calories as fat, with two thirds of the fat contributed as soybean oil (<0.5 g of trans fatty acid per 100 g of fat), semiliquid margarine (<0.5 g per 100 g), soft margarine (7.4 g per 100 g), shortening (9.9 g per 100 g), or stick margarine (20.1 g per 100 g). The effects of those diets on serum lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride, and apolipoprotein levels were compared with those of a diet enriched with butter, which has a high content of saturated fat. RESULTS: The mean (+/-SD) serum low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol level was 177+/-32 mg per deciliter (4.58+/-0.85 mmol per liter) and the mean high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol level was 45+/-10 mg per deciliter (1.2+/-0.26 mmol per liter) after subjects consumed the butter-enriched diet. The LDL cholesterol level was reduced on average by 12 percent, 11 percent, 9 percent, 7 percent, and 5 percent, respectively, after subjects consumed the diets enriched with soybean oil, semiliquid margarine, soft margarine, shortening, and stick margarine; the HDL cholesterol level was reduced by 3 percent, 4 percent, 4 percent, 4 percent, and 6 percent, respectively. Ratios of total cholesterol to HDL cholesterol were lowest after the consumption of the soybean-oil diet and semiliquid-margarine diet and highest after the stick-margarine diet. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that the consumption of products that are low in trans fatty acids and saturated fat has beneficial effects on serum lipoprotein cholesterol levels. (+info)
Purification and characterization of D-glucosaminitol dehydrogenase from Agrobacterium radiobacter.
D-Glucosaminitol dehydrogenase, which catalyzes the conversion of D-glucosaminitol to 3-keto-D-glucosaminitol, was purified to apparent homogeneity from extracts of Agrobacterium radiobacter. This organism has constitutively depressed levels of the enzyme but expression of the enzyme is induced by addition of D-glucosamine to the medium. Purification included ammonium sulfate fractionation and chromatography on columns of DEAE-Sephacel, Octyl-Sepharose CL-4B, and Cellulofine. The purified enzyme migrated as a single band, coinciding with dehydrogenase activities specific for D-glucosaminitol and ethanol, when electrophoresed on a 7.5% polyacrylamide gel at pH 8.0. Electrophoresis on a 12.5% PAGE in the presence of 1% SDS also yielded a single band. The enzyme had an apparent molecular mass of 79 kDa, as measured by the pattern of elution from a column of Cellulofine. The results indicated that the enzyme was a dimer of identical (or nearly identical) subunits of 39.5 kDa. D-Glucosaminitol dehydrogenase required NAD+ as a cofactor and used ethanol as the preferred substrate, as well as aliphatic alcohols with 2 to 4 carbon atoms, D-glucosaminitol, D-glucosaminate, DL-allothreonine, glycerol, and erythritol as additional substrates. In 50 mM Tris-HCl buffer (pH 9.0) at 25 degrees C, the K(m) for D-glucosaminitol, ethanol, and NAD+ were 2.2, 2.0, and 0.08 mM, respectively. The enzyme had a pH optimum of 10 for D-glucosaminitol and 8.5 for ethanol. The enzyme lost substantial activity when treated with pyrazole, with certain reagents that react with sulfhydryl groups and with Zn2+ ion. The various results together suggest that the enzyme exploits different amino acid residues for the dehydrogenation of ethanol and of D-glucosaminitol. (+info)
Specific dehydrogenation of 3-methylindole and epoxidation of naphthalene by recombinant human CYP2F1 expressed in lymphoblastoid cells.
3-Methylindole (3MI) is a naturally occurring pulmonary toxin that requires metabolic activation. Previous studies have shown that 3MI-induced pneumotoxicity resulted from cytochrome P-450-catalyzed dehydrogenation of 3MI to an electrophilic methylene imine (3-methyleneindolenine), which covalently bound to cellular macromolecules. Multiple cytochrome P-450s are capable of metabolizing 3MI to several different metabolites, including oxygenated products. In the present study, the role of human CYP2F1 in the metabolism of 3MI was examined to determine whether it catalyzes dehydrogenation rather than hydroxylation or ring oxidation. Metabolism was examined using microsomal fractions from human lymphoblastoid cells that expressed the recombinant human CYP2F1 P-450 enzyme. Expression of CYP2F1 in the lymphoblastoid cells proved to be an appropriate expression system for this enzyme. Products were analyzed using HPLC and the mercapturate, 3-[(N-acetylcystein-S-yl)methyl]indole, of the reactive intermediate was identified and quantified. Product analysis showed that human CYP2F1 efficiently catalyzed the dehydrogenation of 3MI to the methylene imine without detectable formation of indole-3-carbinol or 3-methyloxindole. High substrate concentrations of 3MI strongly inhibited production of the dehydrogenated product, a result that may indicate the existence of mechanism-based inhibition of CYP2F1 by 3MI. Recombinant CYP2F1 demonstrated remarkable selectivity for the bioactivation of 3MI to the putative dehydrogenated reactive electrophile. Bioactivation of naphthalene to its pneumotoxic epoxide by CYP2F1 was also demonstrated. (+info)
A case-control study of colorectal adenomatous polyps and consumption of foods containing partially hydrogenated oils.
The trans fatty acids produced by partially hydrogenating vegetable oils may cause colorectal neoplasia by interfering with cell membrane function or eicosanoid synthesis. This possibility provides a rationale for looking at the relation between colorectal adenomatous polyps and consumption of foods containing partially hydrogenated vegetable oils (PHVOs). A total of 516 cases and 551 controls who underwent screening sigmoidoscopy from 1991-1993 were recruited from a prepaid Los Angeles health plan. Subjects were interviewed and given a self-administered food frequency questionnaire. Food items containing PHVOs were divided into four groups characterized by principal ingredients and preparation methods: sweetened baked goods, candy bars, oils and condiments, and french fries and chips. After adjusting for age, sex, physical activity, body mass index, smoking, total energy, and red meat and vegetable intake, there was a positive association between polyps and sweetened baked goods [350+ versus <50 kcal/day (odds ratio, 2.1; 95% confidence interval, 1.3-3.5)]. No association was found with the other food groups after adjustment for dietary and nondietary covariates. Neither was total dietary trans fatty acid associated with adenomas after adjustment for sweetened baked goods and other covariates. These results do not support the hypothesis that eating foods containing PHVOs increases the risk of colorectal adenomas, but they are consistent with the hypothesis that foods high in fat and sugar and low in fiber and correlated micronutrients increase the risk of adenomas. (+info)
Effects of saturation and esterification of fat sources on site and extent of digestion in steers: digestion of fatty acids, triglycerides, and energy.
Five steers (mean BW 526 kg) fitted with ruminal, duodenal, and ileal cannulas were used in a 5 x 6 Youden square design with 14-d periods. Diets contained chopped alfalfa hay, corn silage, and concentrate (25:35:40, DM basis). Treatments were 1) control (no added fat); 2) tallow (T), iodine value (IV) = 51.5; 3) partially hydrogenated tallow (PHT), IV = 30.7; 4) hydrogenated tallow (HT), IV = 6.9; 5) blend (1: 1) of HT and hydrogenated free fatty acids (HTHFA), IV = 9.0; and 6) hydrogenated free fatty acids (HFA), IV = 11.2. Fats replaced cornstarch in the control diet to supply 5% added fatty acids. Intake was restricted to 90% of ad libitum; DMI was similar among diets (mean 9 kg/d). Total fatty acid intake averaged 170, 500, 506, 525, 489, and 491 g/d for treatments 1 to 6, respectively. Flows of total C16, total C18, and total fatty acids to the duodenum were increased by supplemental fat; flows of total C18 and total fatty acids were greater than their intake for all treatments. Flow of total fatty acids associated with ruminal bacteria accounted for 50 and 17% of the total duodenal fatty acid flow for the control and fat-supplemented diets, respectively. Digestibility of total fatty acids entering the small intestine (74, 71, 62, 39, 53, and 63% for treatments 1 to 6, respectively) was greater for the control diet than for fat-supplemented diets and decreased as either saturation (T < PHT < HT) or esterification (HFA < HTHFA < HT) increased. Digestibilities of fatty acids in the total tract followed similar patterns. Ruminal lipolysis of dietary triglycerides decreased linearly as the degree of saturation of fat sources increased. Small intestinal disappearance of triglycerides (89, 75, 51, 44, 64, and 73% of duodenal flow for treatments 1 to 6, respectively) decreased linearly as either saturation or esterification increased. Flows and digestion of gross energy followed patterns similar to those for fatty acids and triglycerides. Resistance to ruminal and small intestinal lipolysis is a major factor contributing to the poor digestibility of highly saturated triglycerides. (+info)
Digestibility of the hydrogenated derivative of an isomaltooligosaccharide mixture by rats.
The digestibility of the hydrogenated derivative of an isomaltooligosaccharide mixture (IMO-H) was investigated. In an in vitro experiment, the digestibility of IMO-H was examined by models of the digestive system. IMO-H was resistant to two types of alpha-amylase and to artificial gastric juice. Enzymes in the rat small intestinal mucosa hydrolyzed tri-, tetra- and higher saccharide alcohols to disaccharide alcohol, removing successive glucose units from the non-reducing ends of the chains. The hydrolysis ratio for IMO-H was intermediate between the values for maltose and maltitol. In an in vivo study, growing rats were fed on an experimental diet containing IMO-H, maltitol, or hydrogenated palatinose in the range from 5% to 20%. The growth parameters of the rats fed on the test sugar show that the availability of IMO-H was about 1.2 to 1.25 times that of maltitol or hydrogenated palatinose. (+info)
A method for the modulation of membrane fluidity: homogeneous catalytic hydrogenation of phospholipids and phospholipids and phospholipid-water model biomembranes.
The fatty acids associated with phospholipids of cell membranes, and particularly their degree of unsaturation, contribute to the fluidity of their structure and hance determine many of their biological properties. We describe a technique for modulating membrane fluidity which consists of hydrogenating the unsaturated double bonds of membrane phospholipids. This has been accomplished using a homogeneous catalyst. The process has been applied to phospholipids in organic solvents, to phospholipids dispersed as multibilayers in aqueous systems, and also to sonicated preparations of phospholipids arranged as single bilayer vesicles. Preliminary experiments have also been performed with biological membranes. These results indicate that the process of homogeneous catalysis for the modulation of lipid fluidity of biological cell membranes may have considerable future biological and biochemical application. (+info)
Incorporation of long-chain fatty acids of the substrate organism by Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus during intraperiplasmic growth.
Data are presented showing that a large proportion of the fatty acids of Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus grown intraperiplasmically are derived unaltered from the fatty acids of its substrate organism. Those fatty acids of the bdellovibrio not homologous with those of the substrate organism are derived mainly by metabolic alteration of preexisting fatty acids in the latter. De novo synthesis from acetate occurs only to a small extent. These characteristics of bdellovibrio physiology are in part responsible for its minimal energy expenditure for intraperiplasmic growth. The data presented also indicate that B. bacteriovorus is capable of hydrogenating unsaturated fatty acids, of beta-oxidation of fatty acids, and of regulating the proportion of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids in the lipids. (+info)