Role of wall phosphomannan in flocculation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
Treatment with 60% hydrofluoric acid (HF) removed most of the phosphorus and small amounts of mannan, glucan and protein from walls of two non-flocculent strains (NCYC366 and NCYC1004) and two flocculent strains (NCYC1005 and NCYC1063) of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Organisms of all strains showed increased flocculating ability following HF treatment. Flocculation of untreated organisms of NCYC1005 and NCYC1063, and of HF-treated organisms of all four strains, declined appreciably when they were washed in deionized water, with or without EDTA, and the flocculation was measured in deionized water instead of in 0-05 M-sodium acetate containing Ca2+. Treatment with 1,2-epoxypropane also caused a decrease in the flocculating ability of these organisms. Extracting the lipids from organisms of strains NCYC366 and NCYC1004 had no effect on their flocculating ability, but decreased the flocculating ability of organisms of strains NCYC1005 and NCYC1063. pH-electrophoretic mobility curves of untreated and HF-treated organisms confirmed the loss of wall phosphate by HF treatment, and indicated that HF treatment had little effect on the content of protein carboxyl groups in the outer wall layers. Mannose at 0-22 M completely prevented floc formation by organisms of strain NCYC1063; but, even at 0-33 M, it had very little effect on floc formation by HF-treated organisms of strains NCYC366 and NCYC1063. Organisms of all four strains bound fluorescein-conjugated concanavalin A to the same extent after treatment with HF as before, but this treatment led to a greatly diminished binding of of fluorescein-conjugated antiserum raised against organisms of strain NCYC366. The results indicate that phosphodiester linkages in yeast-wall mannan are not involved in bride formation through Ca2+ during floc formation and that this arises principally through carboxyl groups. (+info)
Increased CD3 positive cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid after hydrogen fluoride inhalation.
OBJECTIVES: This study examined whether experimental hydrogen fluoride exposure for 1 hour induces an inflammatory response in the lower respiratory tract that is detectable in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. METHODS: Nineteen healthy, nonsmoking men were exposed for 1 hour to constant low (<0.6 mg/m3), intermediate (0.7-2.4 mg/m3), or high (2.5-5.2 mg/m3) concentrations of hydrogen fluoride. Bronchoalveolar lavage was performed at least 3 weeks before and 24 hours after the exposure. For 15 subjects differential countings were performed. RESULTS: There was a significant increase in the percentage of CD3 positive cells in the bronchial portion for those exposed to "intermediate" and "high" concentrations. For the "high" exposure group the increase in the bronchoalveolar portion was also significant. A significant correlation was found between the increase in the percentage of lymphocytes and CD3 positive cells in the bronchoalveolar portion (Spearman's coefficient r=0.68, P=0.008). Myeloperoxidase and interleukin-6 increased significantly in the bronchial portion for those exposed to "high" concentrations. There was a significant increase in myeloperoxidase (P=0.005) for all the exposures, while there was a decrease in E-selectin (P=0.007). CONCLUSIONS: Hydrogen fluoride may induce an inflammatory reaction in the airways at concentrations that can occur in the ambient air in the primary aluminum industry. (+info)
Factors affecting the shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets to porcelain.
The aim of this investigation was to establish a regime for orthodontic bonding to feldspathic porcelain, which ensures adequate bond strength (6-8 MPa) with minimal damage on debond and consisted of an ex vivo investigation measuring the effects of porcelain surface preparation and thermocycling on shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets. One-hundred-and-twenty feldspathic porcelain bonded crown surfaces were divided into 12 equally-sized groups to assess the effects of: (1) glaze removal, (2) application of hydrofluoric acid, phosphoric acid, or omission of acid treatment, and (3) silane priming upon the bond strength of premolar brackets bonded with Right-on (TM) composite resin adhesive. Specimens were subjected to thermocycling and then to shear debonding forces on an Instron machine. Removal of the porcelain glaze, or use of hydrofluoric acid, prior to bonding were found to be unnecessary to secure the target bond strength. Hydrofluoric acid application was associated with increased porcelain surface damage. Thermocycling caused a significant reduction in shear bond strength to porcelain (P < 0*001). The best regime for orthodontic bonding to feldspathic porcelain was to apply phosphoric acid for 60 seconds, and prime with silane prior to bonding. Usually the porcelain surfaces could be repolished. Refereed Paper (+info)
Phosphorylcholine-containing N-glycans of Trichinella spiralis: identification of multiantennary lacdiNAc structures.
Although the presence of phosphorylcholine (PC) in Trichinella spiralis is well established, the precise structure of the PC-bearing molecules is not known. In this paper, we report structural studies of N-glycans released from T.spiralis affinity-purified antigens by peptide N-glycosidase F. Three classes of N-glycan structures were observed: high mannose type structures; those which had been fully trimmed to the trimannosyl core and were sub-stoichiometrically fucosylated; and those with a trimannosyl core, with and without core fucosylation, carrying between one and eight N-acetylhexosamine residues. Of the three classes of glycans, only the last was found to be substituted with detectable levels of phosphorylcholine. (+info)
Characterization of group N streptococcus lipoteichoic acid.
Lipoteichoic acid was extracted from the group N organism Streptococcus lactis ATCC 9936 with hot aqueous phenol and purified by gel chromatography followed by affinity chromatography using Ricinus communis lectin as the specific absorbent. The teichoic acid moiety of the lipoteichoic acid was calculated to contain 16 to 17 glycerol phosphate units, approximately half of which were substituted with alpha-D-galactosyl residues; the glycolipid moiety contained O-alpha-D-glucosyl-1 yields 2-O-alpha-D-glucosyl-1 yields 1-glycerol. The finding of 2-O-alpha-D-galactosyl glycerol in the lipid fraction of hydrofluoric acid hydrolysates suggests that fatty acids also occur as substituents on the main chain of the lipoteichoic acid. The reactivity of the lipoteichoic acid with R. communis lectin was studied by the quantitative precipitin method and compared with the reactivity of Lactobacillus fermenti lipoteichoic acid, which has a lower degree of alpha-D-galactosyl substitution. Group N antiserum reacted strongly with the S. lactis lipoteichoic acid and cross-reacted with L. fermenti lipoteichoic acid. From inhibition studies it is concluded that the antibodies are specific for alpha-D-galactosyl substituents. In addition to lipoteichoic acid, a fraction was obtained by gel chromatography which contained galactose and reacted with group N antiserum but could be distinguished from the lipoteichoic acid by immunoelectrophoresis. (+info)
Hypocalcaemia and hypomagnesaemia due to hydrofluoric acid.
Hydrofluoric acid readily penetrates the skin and mucous membranes, causing deep tissue layer destruction. Dermal exposure can produce hypocalcaemia, hypomagnesaemia, hyperkalaemia, cardiac dysrhythmias and death. We report the case of a 52-year-old man who presented hypocalcaemia and hypomagnesaemia due to occupational dermal contact with hydrofluoric acid. Hypocalcaemia and hypomagnesaemia were corrected by i.v. administration of calcium gluconate and magnesium sulphate. (+info)
The shear bond strength of composite brackets on porcelain teeth.
Recent advances in materials and techniques suggest that direct bonding of orthodontic attachments to surfaces other than enamel may now be possible. To test the effectiveness of bonding orthodontic attachments to porcelain teeth, composite brackets (Spirit MB) were bonded to 64 porcelain teeth by means of a self-cure non-mixed resin system (Unite). The 64 porcelain teeth were divided into groups of eight and after roughening with a green stone they were subjected to a combination of treatments. Some were etched, some primed with a silane coupling agent and some received both treatments before the brackets were bonded to them. Half of the teeth were then thermally-cycled 500 times between 4 and 60 degrees C before all the brackets were removed in a shear test. The shear data was analysed by one way analysis of variance and the Student-Newman-Keul test. The results showed that the highest bond strength existed in the group which had been both etched and primed but not thermocycled (P < 0.05). The factors that affected the bond strength, beginning with the most significant, were acid etching, primer application, and then thermocycling. A mechanical based composite bracket can offer good bond strength to porcelain teeth. (+info)
Effect of hydrofluoric acid on glucose metabolism of the mouse studied by whole-body autoradiography.
Distribution of radioactive carbon from [U-14C]glucose in the mouse poisoned by hydrofluoric acid has been studied by whole-body autoradiography. Under normal conditions, the highest autoradiographic density was found in the Harder's gland, palatine gland, sublingual gland, large intestinal mucosa, and many regions of the central nervous system 30 minutes after intraperitoneal injection of [U-14C]glucose. On the other hand, after hydrofluoric acid poisoning, it was found that (1) the radioactivity of brain was unchanged throughout all the poisoning; (2) the liver, renal cortex, lung, and blood showed an increase in radioactivity at 180 minutes of poisoning; (3) the abdominal cavity showed a tendency to residual radioactivity with the poisoning; (4) by contrast, Harder's gland, the palatine gland, sublingual gland, and large intestinal mucosa showed a decrease in radioactivity at 180 minutes of poisoning. (+info)