Use of methyl iodide for probing the polarity of the immediate environment of --SH groups in thiolenzymes. Reaction of methyl iodide with thiosubtilisin.
A new approach is proposed for probing the polarity of the immediate environment of -SH groups in thiolenzymes, based on the alkylation of the -SH group with methyl iodide, a relatively small and non-polar molecule. Rate and activation parameters (delta H*, delta S*) for the reaction of the enzyme are compared to those of glutathione, a simple -SH compound alkylated in aqueous medium. The enzyme and model compound are also reacted with iodoacetamide, a polar counterpart of the non-polar methyl iodide. The above method was applied to thiolsubtilisin, an artificial thiolenzyme. 1. The ratio of the rates of alkylation of thiolsubtilisin and glutathione is about 20 times as high with methyl iodide as with iodoacetamide. 2. delta H* and delta S* for enzyme alkylation, as compared to those for glutathione, are remarkably lower with methyl iodide whereas they are slightly higher with iodoacetamide. 3. delta H* and delta S* for alkylation of thiolsubtilisin with methyl iodide are similar to those found with glutathione in 40% dioxane/water mixture. 4. The activation enthalpy and entropy values for the reaction of thiolsubtilisin with D-2-bromo-n-valeramide are lower than those for glutathione reaction. Consequently, in this respect, D-2-bromo-n-valeramide is similar to methyl iodide rather than to iodoacetamide. It is concluded that the -SH group of thiolsubtilisin is located in an environment less polar than water. The concentration of methyl iodide in this non-polar layer is higher than in the bulk solution, which results in an enhanced reaction rate. (+info)
Oxidation of methyl halides by the facultative methylotroph strain IMB-1.
Washed cell suspensions of the facultative methylotroph strain IMB-1 grown on methyl bromide (MeBr) were able to consume methyl chloride (MeCl) and methyl iodide (MeI) as well as MeBr. Consumption of >100 microM MeBr by cells grown on glucose, acetate, or monomethylamine required induction. Induction was inhibited by chloramphenicol. However, cells had a constitutive ability to consume low concentrations (<20 nM) of MeBr. Glucose-grown cells were able to readily oxidize [(14)C]formaldehyde to (14)CO(2) but had only a small capacity for oxidation of [(14)C]methanol. Preincubation of cells with MeBr did not affect either activity, but MeBr-induced cells had a greater capacity for [(14)C]MeBr oxidation than did cells without preincubation. Consumption of MeBr was inhibited by MeI, and MeCl consumption was inhibited by MeBr. No inhibition of MeBr consumption occurred with methyl fluoride, propyl iodide, dibromomethane, dichloromethane, or difluoromethane, and in addition cells did not oxidize any of these compounds. Cells displayed Michaelis-Menten kinetics for the various methyl halides, with apparent K(s) values of 190, 280, and 6,100 nM for MeBr, MeI, and MeCl, respectively. These results suggest the presence of a single oxidation enzyme system specific for methyl halides (other than methyl fluoride) which runs through formaldehyde to CO(2). The ease of induction of methyl halide oxidation in strain IMB-1 should facilitate its mass culture for the purpose of reducing MeBr emissions to the atmosphere from fumigated soils. (+info)
Validation of a new procedure to determine plasma fatty acid concentration and isotopic enrichment.
Assessment of free fatty acid (FFA) concentration and isotopic enrichment is useful for studies of FFA kinetics in vivo. A new procedure to recover the major FFA from plasma for concentration and isotopic enrichment measurements is described and validated. The procedure involves extraction of plasma lipids with hexane, methylation with iodomethane (CH(3)I) to form fatty acid methyl esters (FAME), and subsequent purification of FAME by solid phase extraction (SPE) chromatography. The new method was compared with a traditional method using thin-layer chromatography (TLC) to recover plasma FFA, with subsequent methylation by BF(3)/methanol. The TLC method was found to be less reliable than the new CH(3)I method because of contamination with extraneous fatty acids, chemical fractionation of FFA species, and incomplete recovery of FFA associated with TLC. In contrast, the CH(3)I/SPE method was free of contamination, did not exhibit chemical fractionation, and had higher recovery. The iodomethane reaction was specific for free fatty acids; no FAME were formed when esterified fatty acids (triglycerides, cholesteryl esters, phospholipids) were subjected to the methylation reaction. We conclude that the CH(3)I/SPE method provides rapid and convenient recovery of plasma fatty acids for quantification or GC/MS analysis as methyl esters, and is not subject to the problems of contamination, reduced recovery, and chemical fractionation associated with recovery of FFA by TLC. (+info)
The effects of diphenyleneiodonium and of 2,4-dichlorodiphenyleneiodonium on mitochondrial reactions. Mechanism of the inhibition of oxygen uptake as a consequence of the catalysis of the chloride/hydroxyl-ion exchange.
1. Increasing the substrate concentration only decreased the inhibition of mitochondrial oxidations by diphenyleneiodonium or by 2,4-dichlorophenyleneiodonium by a small amount. 2. Diphenyleneiodonium and 2,4-dichlorodiphenyleneiodonium lowered the amounts of succinate, citrate and glutamate accumulated in the matrix of mitochondria in the presence of Cl-, but not in its absences. 2,4-Dichlorodiphenyleneiodonium decreased the accumulation of substrates by mitochondria oxidizing glycerol 3-phosphate. 3. Diphenyleneiodonium caused an alkalinization of the medium with an anaerobic suspension of mitochondria, which was only partly reversed by Triton X-100. 4. The rate of proton extrusion by mitochondria oxidizing succinate was not altered by diphenyleneiodonium or by 2,4-dichlorodiphenyleneiodium, although the rate of decay of proton pulses was increased. 5. 2,4-Dichlorodiphenyleneiodonium shifted the pH optimum for succinate oxidation by intact mitochondria from pH 7.2 to 8.0, whereas there was no effect on that of freeze-thawed mitochondria, which was pH 8.0. 6. The concentration of 2,4-dichlorophenyleneiodonium required to inhibit respiration by 50% is less the higher the absolute rate of oxygen uptake. 7. EDTA, but not EGTA [ethanedioxybis(ethylamine)-tetra-acetic acid] increased the inhibition of respiration by diphenyleneiodonium, 2,4-dichlorodiphenyleneiodonium and by tri-n-propyltin. 8. It is concluded that diphenyleneiodonium and 2,4-dichlorodiphenyleneiodonium limit respiration in Cl--containing medium by causing an acidification of the matrix, and that there are pH-sensitive sites in the respiratory chain between NADH and succinate, and between succinate and cytochrome c. (+info)
Emissions of methyl halides and methane from rice paddies.
Methyl halide gases are important sources of atmospheric inorganic halogen compounds, which in turn are central reactants in many stratospheric and tropospheric chemical processes. By observing emissions of methyl chloride, methyl bromide, and methyl iodide from flooded California rice fields, we estimate the impact of rice agriculture on the atmospheric budgets of these gases. Factors influencing methyl halide emissions are stage of rice growth, soil organic content, halide concentrations, and field-water management. Extrapolating our data implies that about 1 percent of atmospheric methyl bromide and 5 percent of methyl iodide arise from rice fields worldwide. Unplanted flooded fields emit as much methyl chloride as planted, flooded rice fields. (+info)
Bacteria mediate methylation of iodine in marine and terrestrial environments.
Methyl iodide (CH(3)I) plays an important role in the natural iodine cycle and participates in atmospheric ozone destruction. However, the main source of this compound in nature is still unclear. Here we report that a wide variety of bacteria including terrestrial and marine bacteria are capable of methylating the environmental level of iodide (0.1 microM). Of the strains tested, Rhizobium sp. strain MRCD 19 was chosen for further analysis, and it was found that the cell extract catalyzed the methylation of iodide with S-adenosyl-L-methionine as the methyl donor. These results strongly indicate that bacteria contribute to iodine transfer from the terrestrial and marine ecosystems into the atmosphere. (+info)
Three-dimensional mapping of the lesions induced by beta-beta'-iminodiproprionitrile, methyl iodide and methyl methacrylate in the rat nasal cavity.
The nasal cavity is an important target organ for toxicity, and many chemicals induce site-specific lesions in this region. The factors responsible for this site-selectivity have not been unequivocally identified, but probably include regional dosimetry and bioactivation. The purpose of this study was to map, in 3 dimensions, the lesions induced by beta-beta'-iminodipropionitrile (IDPN), methyl iodide (MeI) and methyl methacrylate (MMA) in the rat nasal cavity. Animals were administered IDPN (150 mg/kg, IP) or exposed via inhalation to MeI (100 ppm, 2 hours) or MMA (400 ppm, 4 hours) and sacrificed after 24 hours. Heads were decalcified, step-sections (1 every 400 microm) cut and stained, and the severity of the epithelial lesion graded as mild (vacuolation and pyknosis), moderate (undulation and mild stripping), or marked (complete stripping). These grades were mapped onto a 3D-model of a rat nasal cavity using the KS400 imaging system (Imaging Associates, Thame, UK). Despite the different routes of exposure the lesions induced by the 3 compounds had very similar distributions, predominantly affecting the dorsal-medial aspects of the ethmoturbinates and, in the case of MMA, the organ of Rodolfo Masera. These results suggest that, with these chemicals, local bioactivation plays a more important role than dosimetry in determining lesion distribution. (+info)
Effect of the immediate environment on the reactivity of the essential -SH group of papain.
The effect of the microenvironment on the reactivity of the essential -- SH group of papain was studied by alkylation with methyl iodide and with the more polar iodoacetamide. Rate and activation parameters for these reactions were determined with two forms of the -- SH group: the free mercaptide ion at pH 10.0, and the mercaptide-imidazolium ion-pair at pH 5.5. The ion-pair of papain reacts with methyl iodide at a rate 1470 times less than that of thiolsubtilisin. This surprising difference between the reactivities of the two enzymes suggests that in contrast to thiolsubtilisin, where a non-polar environment enhances the rate, in the case of papain a more polar environment somewhat inhibits the reaction with the non-polar methyl iodide. The positive activation entropy for the papain reaction may indicate an 'ordered' structure of bound water around the sulfur atom. The high rate and the low activation entropy (organized transition state) of the reaction of papain with iodoacetamide can be explained in terms of hydrogen-bond formation between the enzyme and the amide group of the alkylating agent. (+info)