Quantitative aspects in the assessment of liver injury.
Liver function data are usually difficult to use in their original form when one wishes to compare the hepatotoxic properties of several chemical substances. However, procedures are available for the conversion of liver function data into quantal responses. These permit the elaboration of dose-response lines for the substances in question, the calculation of median effective doses and the statistical analysis of differences in liver-damaging potency. These same procedures can be utilized for estimating the relative hazard involved if one compares the liver-damaging potency to the median effective dose for some other pharmacologie parameter. Alterations in hepatic triglycerides, lipid peroxidation, and the activities of various hepatic enzymes can also be quantitiated in a dose-related manner. This permits the selection of equitoxic doses required for certain comparative studies and the selection of doses in chemical interaction studies. The quantitative problems involved in low-frequency adverse reactions and the difficulty these present in the detection of liver injury in laboratory animals are discussed. (+info)
Evaluation of 10 aliphatic halogenated hydrocarbons in the mouse bone marrow micronucleus test.
Ten halogenated aliphatic hydrocarbons (carbon tetrachloride, 1-chlorohexane, 2,3-dichlorobutane, 1,2-dichloroethane, 1,2-dichloroethylene, 1,3-dichloropropane, hexachloroethane, 1,1,2-trichloroethane, 1,2,3-trichloropropane and 1,1,3-trichloropropene), previously assayed in genetic assays in fungi, were evaluated in the mouse bone marrow micronucleus test in order to assess their genotoxicity in vivo. All chemicals were administered once i.p. at 40 and 70-80% of their respective LD50 to male and female CD-1 mice, 24 and 48 h before killing. All treatments produced evident clinical symptoms, but no marked depression of bone marrow proliferation. No statistically significant increases in the incidence of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes over the control values were observed at any sampling time with any of the 10 halogenated hydrocarbons assayed. The comparison of the results obtained in this study with the findings provided by in vitro micronucleus assays on the same chemicals, reported by other authors, indicate that mouse bone marrow is weakly sensitive to the genotoxic effects induced by halogenated hydrocarbons in other test systems. This suggests that the role of such an assay in carcinogen screening may be questionable for this chemical class. An examination of mouse bone marrow micronucleus test results with the halogenated aliphatic hydrocarbons classified as carcinogens by IARC supports this conclusion. (+info)
Predicting vehicle effects on the dermal absorption of halogenated methanes using physiologically based modeling.
Occupational and environmental settings present opportunities for humans to come into contact with a variety of chemicals via the dermal route. The chemicals contacting the skin are likely to be diluted with a vehicle or present as a component of a mixture. In order to support risk assessment activities, we evaluated the vehicle effects on dermal penetration of two halogenated hydrocarbons, dibromomethane (DBM) and bromochloromethane (BCM). In vivo exposures to 15 combinations of of these in water, mineral oil, and corn oil vehicles were conducted, and blood was sampled for dibromomethane and bromochloromethane during the exposure at 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, and 24 h. A physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model was used to estimate the total amounts of dibromomethane or bromochloromethane that were absorbed during the exposure, and the dermal permeability coefficients were determined. While the permeability coefficients for dibromomethane and bromochloromethane were approximately 73- and 40-fold higher, respectively, in the water vehicle than in the corn oil, the permeability coefficient, when normalized for the skin:vehicle matrix partition coefficient, varied by less than a factor of 2. The permeability in an aqueous vehicle was then successfully used to predict the permeability coefficient for dibromomethane in a nonpolar vehicle, peanut oil. (+info)
Induction of genetic damage in human lymphocytes and mutations in Salmonella by trihalomethanes: role of red blood cells and GSTT1-1 polymorphism.
The brominated trihalomethanes (THMs) are mutagenic and carcinogenic disinfection by-products frequently found in chlorinated drinking water. They can be activated to mutagens by the product of the glutathione S-transferase-Theta (GSTT1++-1) gene in Salmonella RSJ100, which has been transfected with this gene. To evaluate this phenomenon in humans, we have examined the genotoxicity of a brominated THM, bromoform (BF), using the Comet assay in human whole blood cultures exposed in vitro. No differences were found in the comet tail length between cultures from GSTT1-1(+) versus GSTT1-1(-) individuals (1.67 +/- 0.40 and 0.74 +/- 0.54 microm/mM, respectively, P = 0.28). The high variability was due to the relatively weak induction of comets by BF. Combining the data from both genotypic groups, the genotoxic potency of BF was 1.20 +/- 0.34 microm/mM (P = 0.003). GSTT1-1 is expressed in red blood cells but not in the target cells (lymphocytes), and expression within the target cell (as in Salmonella RSJ100) may be necessary for enhanced mutagenesis in GSTT1-1(+) relative to GSTT1-1(-) cultures. To examine this, we exposed Salmonella RSJ100 and a control strain not expressing the gene (TPT100) to the most mutagenic brominated THM detected in Salmonella, dibromochloromethane (DBCM), either in the presence or absence of S9 or red blood cells from GSTT1-1(+) or GSTT1-1(-) individuals. S9 did not activate DBCM in the non-expressing strain TPT100, and it did not affect the ability of the expressing strain RSJ100 to activate DBCM. As with S9, red cells from either genotypic group were unable to activate DBCM in TPT100. However, red cells (whole or lysed) from both genotypic groups completely repressed the ability of the expressing strain RSJ100 to activate DBCM to a mutagen. Such results suggest a model in which exposure to brominated THMs may pose an excess genotoxic risk in GSTT1-1(+) individuals to those organs and tissues that both express this gene and come into direct contact with the brominated THM, such as the colon. In contrast, those organs to which brominated THMs would be transported via the blood might be protected by erythrocytes. Such a proposal is reasonably consistent with the organ specificity of drinking water-associated cancer in humans, which shows slightly elevated risks for cancer of the colon and bladder but not of the liver. (+info)
Crystal structures of intermediates in the dehalogenation of haloalkanoates by L-2-haloacid dehalogenase.
The L-2-haloacid dehalogenase from the 1,2-dichloroethane-degrading bacterium Xanthobacter autotrophicus GJ10 catalyzes the hydrolytic dehalogenation of small L-2-haloalkanoates to their corresponding D-2-hydroxyalkanoates, with inversion of the configuration at the C(2) atom. The structure of the apoenzyme at pH 8 was refined at 1.5-A resolution. By lowering the pH, the catalytic activity of the enzyme was considerably reduced, allowing the crystal structure determination of the complexes with L-2-monochloropropionate and monochloroacetate at 1.7 and 2.1 A resolution, respectively. Both complexes showed unambiguous electron density extending from the nucleophile Asp(8) to the C(2) atom of the dechlorinated substrates corresponding to a covalent enzyme-ester reaction intermediate. The halide ion that is cleaved off is found in line with the Asp(8) Odelta1-C(2) bond in a halide-stabilizing cradle made up of Arg(39), Asn(115), and Phe(175). In both complexes, the Asp(8) Odelta2 carbonyl oxygen atom interacts with Thr(12), Ser(171), and Asn(173), which possibly constitute the oxyanion hole in the hydrolysis of the ester bond. The carboxyl moiety of the substrate is held in position by interactions with Ser(114), Lys(147), and main chain NH groups. The L-2-monochloropropionate CH(3) group is located in a small pocket formed by side chain atoms of Lys(147), Asn(173), Phe(175), and Asp(176). The size and position of the pocket explain the stereospecificity and the limited substrate specificity of the enzyme. These crystallographic results demonstrate that the reaction of the enzyme proceeds via the formation of a covalent enzyme-ester intermediate at the nucleophile Asp(8). (+info)
In vitro effects of desflurane, sevoflurane, isoflurane, and halothane in isolated human right atria.
BACKGROUND: Direct myocardial effects of volatile anesthetics have been studied in various animal species in vitro. This study evaluated the effects of equianesthetic concentrations of desflurane, sevoflurane, isoflurane, and halothane on contractile parameters of isolated human atria in vitro. METHODS: Human right atrial trabeculae, obtained from patients undergoing coronary bypass surgery, were studied in an oxygenated (95% O2-5% CO2) Tyrode's modified solution ([Ca2+]o = 2.0 mM, 30 degrees C, stimulation frequency 0.5 Hz). The effects of equianesthetic concentrations (0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, and 2.5 minimum alveolar concentration [MAC]) of desflurane, sevoflurane, isoflurane, and halothane on inotropic and lusitropic parameters of isometric twitches were measured. RESULTS: Isoflurane, sevoflurane, and desflurane induced a moderate concentration-dependent decrease in active isometric force, which was significantly lower than that induced by halothane. In the presence of adrenoceptor blockade, the desflurane-induced decrease in peak of the positive force derivative and time to peak force became comparable to those induced by isoflurane. Halothane induced a concentration-dependent decrease in time to half-relaxation and a contraction-relaxation coupling parameter significantly greater than those induced by isoflurane, sevoflurane and desflurane. CONCLUSIONS: In isolated human atrial myocardium, desflurane, sevoflurane, and isoflurane induced a moderate concentration-dependent negative inotropic effect. The effect of desflurane on time to peak force and peak of the positive force derivative could be related to intramyocardial catecholamine release. At clinically relevant concentrations, desflurane, sevoflurane, and isoflurane did not modify isometric relaxation. (+info)
Roles of horizontal gene transfer and gene integration in evolution of 1,3-dichloropropene- and 1,2-dibromoethane-degradative pathways.
The haloalkane-degrading bacteria Rhodococcus rhodochrous NCIMB13064, Pseudomonas pavonaceae 170, and Mycobacterium sp. strain GP1 share a highly conserved haloalkane dehalogenase gene (dhaA). Here, we describe the extent of the conserved dhaA segments in these three phylogenetically distinct bacteria and an analysis of their flanking sequences. The dhaA gene of the 1-chlorobutane-degrading strain NCIMB13064 was found to reside within a 1-chlorobutane catabolic gene cluster, which also encodes a putative invertase (invA), a regulatory protein (dhaR), an alcohol dehydrogenase (adhA), and an aldehyde dehydrogenase (aldA). The latter two enzymes may catalyze the oxidative conversion of n-butanol, the hydrolytic product of 1-chlorobutane, to n-butyric acid, a growth substrate for many bacteria. The activity of the dhaR gene product was analyzed in Pseudomonas sp. strain GJ1, in which it appeared to function as a repressor of dhaA expression. The 1,2-dibromoethane-degrading strain GP1 contained a conserved DNA segment of 2.7 kb, which included dhaR, dhaA, and part of invA. A 12-nucleotide deletion in dhaR led to constitutive expression of dhaA in strain GP1, in contrast to the inducible expression of dhaA in strain NCIMB13064. The 1, 3-dichloropropene-degrading strain 170 possessed a conserved DNA segment of 1.3 kb harboring little more than the coding region of the dhaA gene. In strains 170 and GP1, a putative integrase gene was found next to the conserved dhaA segment, which suggests that integration events were responsible for the acquisition of these DNA segments. The data indicate that horizontal gene transfer and integrase-dependent gene acquisition were the key mechanisms for the evolution of catabolic pathways for the man-made chemicals 1, 3-dichloropropene and 1,2-dibromoethane. (+info)
Development and modification of a recombinant cell bioassay to directly detect halogenated and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in serum.
Polycyclic and halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs/HAHs) are a diverse group of widespread and persistent environmental contaminants that can cause a variety of detrimental effects in vertebrates. As most available methods to detect these contaminants are expensive, labor and time intensive, and require large amounts of tissue for extraction and analysis, several rapid mechanistically based bioassay systems have been developed to detect these chemicals. Here we describe application and optimization of a recently developed recombinant mouse cell bioassay system that responds to both PAHs and HAHs with the rapid induction of firefly luciferase for the detection of these chemicals in whole serum samples. This chemically activated luciferase expression (CALUX) bioassay has been modified to allow rapid (4-h) and direct analysis of small volumes (25-50 microl) of whole serum in a 96-well microtiter plate format without the need for solvent extraction. This bioassay can detect as little as 10 parts per trillion of the most potent HAH, 2,3,7,8-TCDD, and is also sensitive to other HAHs and PAHs. The use of simple procedures corrects for interplate and intraplate variability and the Ah receptor dependence of the induction response is accounted for by use of the antagonist 4-amino-3-methoxyflavone. (+info)