Longitudinal impact of frequent geographic relocation from adolescence to adulthood on psychosocial stress and vital exhaustion at ages 32 and 42 years: the Amsterdam growth and health longitudinal study.
BACKGROUND: We assessed mobility in different life stages over a 29-year period from adolescence through adulthood and its correlation with psychosocial stress and vital exhaustion at ages 32 and 42 years. METHODS: Data were derived from the Amsterdam Growth and Health Longitudinal Study, an observational longitudinal study of 420 boys and girls from age 13 to 42 years. Measurements included cumulative frequency of geographic relocation (CFGR), psychosocial stress (measured by a Dutch scale of experienced stress, VOEG-13), vital exhaustion (measured by the Maastricht Questionnaire, MQ), demographics, socioeconomic status, and other background characteristics. RESULTS: From 1976 to 2006, total CFGR was 3.56 +/- 1.89 (range 0-13). Frequent geographic relocation during 2 life stages (age 22-32 years and 33-42 years) was significantly interrelated; however, this was not evident at age 13 to 21 years, which suggests a unique exposure to relocation during adolescence and youth. After adjusting for anticipated confounders, higher cumulative frequencies of residential changes during adolescence and youth were markedly associated with psychosocial stress and vital exhaustion at ages 32 and 42 years. CONCLUSIONS: Frequent geographic relocation during adolescence and youth was an indicator of psychosocial stress and vital exhaustion in the transition to middle adulthood. Further consideration of the pathways in this web of causation may aid in stress prevention and minimize negative consequences. (+info)
Demographic inference using spectral methods on SNP data, with an analysis of the human out-of-Africa expansion.