A proposal for a standard CORBA interface for genome maps.
MOTIVATION: The scientific community urgently needs to standardize the exchange of biological data. This is helped by the use of a common protocol and the definition of shared data structures. We have based our standardization work on CORBA, a technology that has become a standard in the past years and allows interoperability between distributed objects. RESULTS: We have defined an IDL specification for genome maps and present it to the scientific community. We have implemented CORBA servers based on this IDL to distribute RHdb and HuGeMap maps. The IDL will co-evolve with the needs of the mapping community. AVAILABILITY: The standard IDL for genome maps is available at http:// corba.ebi.ac.uk/RHdb/EUCORBA/MapIDL.htm l. The IORs to browse maps from Infobiogen and EBI are at http://www.infobiogen.fr/services/Hugemap/IOR and http://corba.ebi.ac.uk/RHdb/EUCORBA/IOR CONTACT: [email protected], [email protected] (+info)
Should insurance pay for preventive services suggested by genetics?
Physicians, plans and patients are discovering that the promise of genetic testing will be hard to fulfill. Even when a test can show predisposition toward a disease, performing it can't necessarily improve medical outcomes. Unfortunately, doing these tests can have some unintended negative effects. (+info)
The future of molecular genetic testing.
The potential applications for genetic testing are immense, with most diseases having some aspect influenced by, if not directly caused by, changes in the genome of the patient. The translation of genetic information into medical applications will be influenced by our understanding of the human genome, technological advances, and social, ethical, and legal issues surrounding genetic testing. With time, new genetic information will be translated into clinical tests for the diagnosis of current illness and prediction of future disease risk, and will be used for the development of genetically directed therapies and preventive interventions. Most genetic testing will be highly automated, with only rare genetic disease tests performed manually. The challenge for the clinical genetic laboratory is to keep pace with this information explosion to provide state-of-the-art genetic testing and to ensure that the genetic test results are used in a morally, ethically, and socially responsible way. (+info)
Indigenous peoples and the morality of the Human Genome Diversity Project.
In addition to the aim of mapping and sequencing one human's genome, the Human Genome Project also intends to characterise the genetic diversity of the world's peoples. The Human Genome Diversity Project raises political, economic and ethical issues. These intersect clearly when the genomes under study are those of indigenous peoples who are already subject to serious economic, legal and/or social disadvantage and discrimination. The fact that some individuals associated with the project have made dismissive comments about indigenous peoples has confused rather than illuminated the deeper issues involved, as well as causing much antagonism among indigenous peoples. There are more serious ethical issues raised by the project for all geneticists, including those who are sympathetic to the problems of indigenous peoples. With particular attention to the history and attitudes of Australian indigenous peoples, we argue that the Human Genome Diversity Project can only proceed if those who further its objectives simultaneously: respect the cultural beliefs of indigenous peoples; publicly support the efforts of indigenous peoples to achieve respect and equality; express respect by a rigorous understanding of the meaning of equitable negotiation of consent, and ensure that both immediate and long term economic benefits from the research flow back to the groups taking part. (+info)
The involvement of genome researchers in high school science education.
The rapid accumulation of genetic information generated by the Human Genome Project and related research has heightened public awareness of genetics issues. Education in genome science is needed at all levels in our society by specific audiences and the general public so that individuals can make well-informed decisions related to public policy and issues such as genetic testing. Many scientists have found that an effective vehicle for reaching a broad sector of society is through high school biology courses. From an educational perspective, genome science offers many ways to meet emerging science learning goals, which are influencing science teaching nationally. To effectively meet the goals of the science and education communities, genome education needs to include several major components-accurate and current information about genomics, hands-on experience with DNA techniques, education in ethical decision-making, and career counseling and preparation. To be most successful, we have found that genome education programs require the collaborative efforts of science teachers, genome researchers, ethicists, genetic counselors, and business partners. This report is intended as a guide for genome researchers with an interest in participating in pre-college education, providing rationale for their involvement and recommendations for ways they can contribute, and highlighting a few exemplary programs. World Wide Web addresses for all of the programs discussed in this report are given in Table 1. We are developing a database of outreach programs offering genetics education () and request that readers submit an entry describing their programs. We invite researchers to contact us for more information about activities in their local area. (+info)
A human genome map of comparative anchor tagged sequences.
Effective comparative mapping inference utilizing developing gene maps of animal species requires the inclusion of anchored reference loci that are homologous to genes mapped in the more "gene-dense" mouse and human maps. Nominated anchor loci, termed comparative anchor tagged sequences (CATS), have been ordered in the mouse linkage map, but due to the dearth of common polymorphisms among human coding genes have not been well represented in human linkage maps. We present here an ordered framework map of 314 comparative anchor markers in humans based on mapping analysis in the Genebridge 4 panel of radiation hybrid cell lines, plus empirically optimized CATS PCR primers which detect these markers. The ordering of these homologous gene markers in human and mouse maps provides a framework for comparative gene mapping of representative mammalian species. (+info)
Toward real-world sequencing by microdevice electrophoresis.
We report results using a microdevice for DNA sequencing using samples from chromosome 17, obtained from the Whitehead Institute Center for Genome Research (WICGR) production line. The device had an effective separation distance of 11.5 cm and a lithographically defined injection width of 150 microm. The four-color raw data were processed, base-called by the sequencing software Trout, and compared to the corresponding ABI 377 sequence from WICGR. With a criteria of 99% accuracy, we achieved average continuous reads of 505 bases in 27 min with 3% linear polyacrylamide (LPA) at 150 V/cm, and 460 bases in 22 min with 4% LPA at 200 V/cm at a temperature of 45 degrees C. In the best case, up to 565 bases could be base-called with the same accuracy in <25 min. In some instances, Trout allowed for accurate base-calling down to a resolution R as low as R = 0.35. This may be due in part to the high signal-to-noise ratio of the microdevice. Unlike many results reported on capillary machines, no additional sample cleanup other than ethanol precipitation was required. In addition, DNA fragment biasing (i.e., discrimination against larger fragments) was reduced significantly through the unique sample injection mechanism of the microfabricated device. This led to increased signal strength for long fragments, which is of great importance for the high performance of the microdevice. (+info)
The molecular biology database collection: an online compilation of relevant database resources.
The Molecular Biology Database Collection represents an effort geared at making molecular biology database resources more accessible to biologists. This online resource, available at http://www.oup.co.uk/nar/Volume_28/Issue_01/html /gkd115_gml.html, is intended to serve as a searchable, up-to-date, centralized jumping-off point to individual Web sites. An emphasis has also been placed on including databases where new value is added to the underlying data by virtue of curation, new data connections, or other innovative approaches. (+info)