(1/1885) Reactive oxygen intermediate-dependent NF-kappaB activation by interleukin-1beta requires 5-lipoxygenase or NADPH oxidase activity.
We previously reported that the role of reactive oxygen intermediates (ROIs) in NF-kappaB activation by proinflammatory cytokines was cell specific. However, the sources for ROIs in various cell types are yet to be determined and might include 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) and NADPH oxidase. 5-LOX and 5-LOX activating protein (FLAP) are coexpressed in lymphoid cells but not in monocytic or epithelial cells. Stimulation of lymphoid cells with interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) led to ROI production and NF-kappaB activation, which could both be blocked by antioxidants or FLAP inhibitors, confirming that 5-LOX was the source of ROIs and was required for NF-kappaB activation in these cells. IL-1beta stimulation of epithelial cells did not generate any ROIs and NF-kappaB induction was not influenced by 5-LOX inhibitors. However, reintroduction of a functional 5-LOX system in these cells allowed ROI production and 5-LOX-dependent NF-kappaB activation. In monocytic cells, IL-1beta treatment led to a production of ROIs which is independent of the 5-LOX enzyme but requires the NADPH oxidase activity. This pathway involves the Rac1 and Cdc42 GTPases, two enzymes which are not required for NF-kappaB activation by IL-1beta in epithelial cells. In conclusion, three different cell-specific pathways lead to NF-kappaB activation by IL-1beta: a pathway dependent on ROI production by 5-LOX in lymphoid cells, an ROI- and 5-LOX-independent pathway in epithelial cells, and a pathway requiring ROI production by NADPH oxidase in monocytic cells. (+info)
(2/1885) A Fas-dependent component in 5-fluorouracil/leucovorin-induced cytotoxicity in colon carcinoma cells.
We have shown previously (J. A. Houghton et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 94: 8144-8149, 1997) that thymineless death in thymidylate synthase-deficient (TS-) colon carcinoma cells is mediated via Fas/FasL interactions after deoxythymidine (dThd) deprivation, and that Fas-dependent sensitivity of human colon carcinoma cell lines may be dependent upon the level of Fas expressed. The objective of this study was to elucidate whether a Fas-dependent component exists in 5-fluorouracil (FUra)/leucovorin (LV)-induced cytotoxicity of colon carcinoma cells, and whether this may be potentiated by IFN-gamma-induced elevation in Fas expression, using the HT29 cell line as a model. The cytotoxic activity of FUra/LV was inhibited by dThd in HT29 cells and also, in part, by NOK-1+NOK-2 MoAbs that prevent Fas/FasL interactions. FUra/LV-induced cytotoxicity was significantly potentiated by IFN-gamma, reversed by exposure to NOK-1+NOK-2 antibodies, and correlated with a 4-fold induction of Fas expression in the presence of IFN-gamma and significant elevation in expression of FasL. Using five additional human colon carcinoma cell lines, FUra/LV-induced cytotoxicity was dThd-dependent in GC3/c1, VRC5/c1, and Caco2 but not in HCT8 or HCT116 cells. Like HT29 cells, this cytotoxicity was potentiated by IFN-gamma in GC3/c1 and VRC5/c1 but not in Caco2, which fails to express Fas, nor in HCT8 and HCT116, in which no dThd-dependent FUra-induced cytotoxicity was demonstrated. Data suggest that a Fas-dependent component, potentiated by IFN-gamma, exists in FUra/LV-induced cytotoxicity but requires FUra/LV-induced DNA damage for IFN-gamma-induced potentiation to occur. (+info)
(3/1885) Enhanced antitumor activity of 6-hydroxymethylacylfulvene in combination with irinotecan and 5-fluorouracil in the HT29 human colon tumor xenograft model.
6-Hydroxymethylacylfulvene (MGI-114) is a semisynthetic analogue of the toxin illudin S, a product of the Omphalotus mushroom. MGI-114 induces cytotoxicity in a variety of solid tumors in vivo, including the refractory HT29 human colon cancer xenograft. In this study, the potential application of MGI-114 in the treatment of colon cancer was further explored by evaluating the activity of MGI-114 in combination with irinotecan (CPT-11) and 5-fluorouracil (5FU). Groups of 9 nude mice bearing HT29 xenografts were treated with either single agent MGI-114, CPT-11, or 5FU, or MGI-114 in combination with CPT-11 or 5FU. MGI-114 was administered at doses of 3.5 and 7 mg/kg i.p. daily on days 1 through 5, and CPT-11 and 5FU were administered at doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg i.p. on days 1, 12, and 19. In the single agent studies, MGI-114, CPT-11, and 5FU all resulted in decreased final tumor weights compared with vehicle-treated controls (P<0.05), but only MGI-114 at 7 mg/kg produced partial responses. When MGI-114 at 3.5 mg/kg was combined with CPT-11, significant decrements in final tumor weights occurred compared with monotherapy with the same doses of MGI-114 and CPT-11 (P< or =0.001). Also, administration of the low-dose combination (MGI-114 at 35 mg/kg and CPT-11 at 50 mg/kg) resulted in final tumor weights similar to those achieved after administration of high-dose MGI-114 as a single agent. Moreover, the combination of MGI-114 and CPT-11 produced partial responses in nearly all of the animals, with some animals achieving complete responses. The outcome with the combination of MGI-114 and 5FU was less striking, with fewer partial responses and no complete responses. These results suggest enhanced activity when MGI-114 is combined with CPT-11, and clinical trials to further evaluate this combination regimen are planned. (+info)
(4/1885) The isoflavone genistein inhibits internalization of enteric bacteria by cultured Caco-2 and HT-29 enterocytes.
The dietary isoflavone genistein is the focus of much research involving its role as a potential therapeutic agent in a variety of diseases, including cancer and heart disease. However, there is recent evidence that dietary genistein may also have an inhibitory effect on extraintestinal invasion of enteric bacteria. To study the effects of genistein on bacterial adherence and internalization by confluent enterocytes, Caco-2 and HT-29 enterocytes (cultivated for 15-18 d and 21-24 d, respectively) were pretreated for 1 h with 0, 30, 100, or 300 micromol/L genistein, followed by 1-h incubation with pure cultures of Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella typhimurium, Proteus mirabilis, or Escherichia coli. Pretreatment of Caco-2 and HT-29 enterocytes with genistein inhibited bacterial internalization in a dose-dependent manner (r = 0.60-0.79). Compared to untreated enterocytes, 1-h pretreatment with 300 micromol/L genistein was generally associated with decreased bacterial internalization (P < 0. 05) without a corresponding decrease in bacterial adherence. Using Caco-2 cell cultures, decreased bacterial internalization was associated with increased integrity of enterocyte tight junctions [measured by increased transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER)], with alterations in the distribution of enterocyte perijunctional actin filaments (visualized by fluorescein-labeled phalloidin), and with abrogation of the decreased TEER associated with S. typhimurium and E. coli incubation with the enterocytes (P < 0.01). Thus, genistein was associated with inhibition of enterocyte internalization of enteric bacteria by a mechanism that might be related to the integrity of the enterocyte tight junctions, suggesting that genistein might function as a barrier-sustaining agent, inhibiting extraintestinal invasion of enteric bacteria. (+info)
(5/1885) O-glycosylation potential of lepidopteran insect cell lines.
The enzyme activities involved in O-glycosylation have been studied in three insect cell lines, Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf-9), Mamestra brassicae (Mb) and Trichoplusia ni (Tn) cultured in two different serum-free media. The structural features of O-glycoproteins in these insect cells were investigated using a panel of lectins and the glycosyltransferase activities involved in O-glycan biosynthesis of insect cells were measured (i.e., UDP-GalNAc:polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase, UDP-Gal:core-1 beta1, 3-galactosyltransferase, CMP-NeuAc:Galbeta1-3GalNAc alpha2, 3-sialyltransferase, and UDP-Gal:Galbeta1-3GalNAc alpha1, 4-galactosyltransferase activities). First, we show that O-glycosylation potential depends on cell type. All three lepidopteran cell lines express GalNAcalpha-O-Ser/Thr antigen, which is recognized by soy bean agglutinin and reflects high UDP-GalNAc:polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase activity. Capillary electrophoresis and mass spectrometry studies revealed the presence of at least two different UDP-GalNAc:polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferases in these insect cells. Only some O-linked GalNAc residues are further processed by the addition of beta1,3-linked Gal residues to form T-antigen, as shown by the binding of peanut agglutinin. This reflects relative low levels of UDP-Gal:core-1 beta1,3-galactosyltransferase in insect cells, as compared to those observed in mammalian control cells. In addition, we detected strong binding of Bandeiraea simplicifolia lectin-I isolectin B4 to Mamestra brassicae endogenous glycoproteins, which suggests a high activity of a UDP-Gal:Galbeta1-3GalNAc alpha1, 4-galactosyltransferase. This explains the absence of PNA binding to Mamestra brassicae glycoproteins. Furthermore, our results substantiated that there is no sialyltransferase activity and, therefore, no terminal sialic acid production by these cell lines. Finally, we found that the culture medium influences the O-glycosylation potential of each cell line. (+info)
(6/1885) Chemokine secretion of human cells in response to Toxoplasma gondii infection.
The ubiquitous protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in neonates and immunocompromised hosts. Both acute invasion and reactivation of latent infection result in an inflammatory reaction with lymphocytes, macrophages, and neutrophils. The mechanisms responsible for triggering the local host response to toxoplasmosis are not fully understood. Infection of monolayers of human HeLa epithelial cells and fibroblasts with T. gondii resulted in a marked increase in the expression of interleukin-8 (IL-8)-specific mRNA and secretion of the proinflammatory and chemoattractant cytokines interleukin-8 (IL-8), GROalpha, and MCP-1. Host cell invasion and lysis were required for this response, as tachyzoite lysates alone had no effect on IL-8 secretion. IL-8 release was dependent on the release of soluble host cell factors: IL-1alpha in HeLa cells and an additional mediator in fibroblasts. HT-29 epithelial cells, which lack IL-1alpha or another IL-8-inducing activity, did not release IL-8 after infection, although they were efficiently infected with T. gondii and increased IL-8 secretion in response to added IL-1alpha. These data suggest that proinflammatory chemokine secretion is an important host cell response to toxoplasmosis and that the release of IL-1alpha and other mediators from lysed host cells is critical for this chemokine response. (+info)
(7/1885) CFTR expression does not influence glycosylation of an epitope-tagged MUC1 mucin in colon carcinoma cell lines.
The cause of the mucus clearance problems associated with cystic fibrosis remains poorly understood though it has been suggested that mucin hypersecretion, dehydration of mucins, and biochemical abnormalities in the glycosylation of mucins may be responsible. Since the biochemical and biophysical properties of a mucin are dependent on O-glycosylation, our aim was to evaluate the O-glycosylation of a single mucin gene product in matched pairs of cells that differed with respect to CFTR expression. An epitope-tagged MUC1 mucin cDNA (MUC1F) was used to detect variation in mucin glycosylation in stably transfected colon carcinoma cell lines HT29 and Caco2. The glycosylation of MUC1F mucin was evaluated in matched pairs of Caco2 cell lines that either express wild-type CFTR or have spontaneously lost CFTR expression. The general glycosylation pattern of MUC1F was evaluated by determining its reactivity with a series of monoclonal antibodies against known blood group and tumor-associated carbohydrate antigens. Metabolic labeling experiments were used to estimate the gross levels of glycosylation and sulfation of MUC1F mucin in these matched pairs of cell lines. Expression of CFTR in this experimental system did not affect the gross levels of glycosylation or sulfation of the MUC1F mucin nor the types of carbohydrates structures attached to the MUC1F protein. (+info)
(8/1885) Activation of metallothionein gene expression by hypoxia involves metal response elements and metal transcription factor-1.
Metallothioneins (MTs) are a family of stress-induced proteins with diverse physiological functions, including protection against metal toxicity and oxidants. They may also contribute to the regulation of cellular proliferation, apoptosis, and malignant progression. We reported previously that the human (h)MT-IIA isoform is induced in carcinoma cells (A431, SiHa, and HT29) exposed to low oxygen, conditions commonly found in solid tumors. The present study demonstrates that the genes for hMT-IIA and mouse (m)MT-I are transcriptionally activated by hypoxia through metal response elements (MREs) in their proximal promoter regions. These elements bind metal transcription factor-1 (MTF-1). Deletion and mutational analyses of the hMT-IIA promoter indicated that the hMRE-a element is essential for basal promoter activity and for induction by hypoxia, but that other elements contribute to the full transcriptional response. Functional studies of the mMT-I promoter demonstrated that at least two other MREs (mMRE-d and mMRE-c) are responsive to hypoxia. Multiple copies of either hMRE-a or mMRE-d conferred hypoxia responsiveness to a minimal MT promoter. Mouse MT-I gene transcripts in fibroblasts with targeted deletions of both MTF-1 alleles (MTF-1(-/-); dko7 cells) were not induced by zinc and showed low responsiveness to hypoxia. A transiently transfected MT promoter was unresponsive to hypoxia or zinc in dko7 cells, but inductions were restored by cotransfecting a mouse MTF-1 expression vector. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays detected a specific protein-DNA complex containing MTF-1 in nuclear extracts from hypoxic cells. Together, these results demonstrate that hypoxia activates MT gene expression through MREs and that this activation involves MTF-1. (+info)