Enhancement of secretion of human procollagen I in mouse HSP47-expressing insect cells.
We previously demonstrated that insect cells were able to synthesize recombinant human procollagen I as triple-helical heterotrimers when transfected with cDNAs of both proalpha1(I) and proalpha2(I) chains. However, most of the heterotrimers were retained within the cells, unlike in the case of mammalian cells [Tomita, M., Kitajima, T., and Yoshizato, K. (1997) J. Biochem. 1061-1069]. In an attempt to improve the secretion of the heterotrimers, we introduced the putative collagen-specific chaperone HSP47 into this insect expression model. Mouse HSP47 produced by the insect cells bound intracellularly to both human proalpha1(I) and proalpha2(I) chains and enhanced the secretion of procollagen I heterotrimers. HSP47 was also coexpressed with either proalpha1(I) chains or proalpha2(I) chains, which showed that it enhanced the secretion of the former but not the latter. This selective effect of HSP47 was similarly observed in the cells treated with inhibitors of procollagen triple helix formation, indicating that HSP47 can also accelerate the secretion of non-helical procollagens. HSP47 did not change the intracellular solubility of proalpha1(I) and proalpha2(I) chains in 1% NP-40, eliminating the possibility that it prevents proalpha chains from aggregating into insoluble forms within the insect cells. We concluded that HSP47 can play a role in the secretion of alpha1(I)-procollagen chains in the insect cell model. The present study also demonstrated the dissimilarity in the mechanism of folding and secretion of the expressed procollagen I between the insect and mammalian cells. (+info)
Separate cis-acting DNA elements control cell type- and tissue-specific expression of collagen binding molecular chaperone HSP47.
HSP47 is a collagen-binding heat shock protein and is assumed to act as a molecular chaperone in the biosynthesis and secretion of procollagen. As the synthesis of HSP47 is closely correlated with that of collagen in various cell lines and tissues, we performed a promoter/reporter assay using HSP47-producing and nonproducing cells. 280 base pairs (bp(s)) of upstream promoter were shown to be necessary for the basal expression but not to be enough for the cell type-specific expression. When the first and the second introns were introduced downstream of this 280-bp region, marked up-regulation of the reporter activity was observed in HSP47-producing cells but not in nonproducing cells. This was confirmed in transgenic mice by staining the lacZ gene product under the control of the 280-bp upstream promoter and the introns. Staining was observed in skin, chondrocytes, precursor of bone, and other HSP47/collagen-producing tissues. A putative Sp1-binding site at -210 bp in the promoter, to which Sp3 and an unidentified protein bind, was shown to be responsible for this up-regulation when combined with the introns. However no difference in the binding to this probe was observed between HSP47-producing and nonproducing cells. The responsible region for cell type-specific up-regulation was found to be located in a 500-bp segment in the first intron. On electrophoresis mobility shift assay using this 500-bp probe, specific DNA-protein complexes were only observed in HSP47-producing cell extracts. These results suggest that two separate elements are necessary for the cell type-specific expression of the hsp47 gene; one is a putative Sp1-binding site at -210 bp necessary for basal expression, and the other is a 500-bp region within the first intron, required for cell type-specific expression. (+info)
Procollagen binds to both prolyl 4-hydroxylase/protein disulfide isomerase and HSP47 within the endoplasmic reticulum in the absence of ascorbate.
In cells, only properly folded procollagen trimers are secreted from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), while improperly folded abnormal procollagens are retained within the ER. Ascorbic acid is a co-factor in procollagen hydroxylation, which in turn is required for trimer formation. We examined chaperone proteins which bound to procollagen in the absence of ascorbic acid, a model which mimics the human disease scurvy at the cellular level. We found that both prolyl 4-hydroxylase (P4-H)/protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) and HSP47 bound to procollagen in the absence of ascorbic acid. However, the binding of PDI to procollagen decreased when HSP47 was co-transfected, suggesting that HSP47 and PDI compete for binding to procollagen. These data indicate that P4-H/PDI and HSP47 have cooperative but distinct chaperone functions during procollagen biosynthesis. (+info)
Expression of heat shock proteins 47 and 70 in the peritoneum of patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis.
BACKGROUND: Peritoneal sclerosis, characterized by collagen accumulation, is a serious complication in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) therapy. Heat shock protein 47 (HSP47) is a collagen-specific molecular chaperon and is closely associated with collagen synthesis. METHODS: We determined the expression of HSP47 and HSP70 (nonspecific for collagen synthesis) by immunohistochemistry in peritoneal tissues of patients on CAPD. The tissue for collagen III, alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA), and CD68 (a marker for macrophages) were also stained. Thirty-two peritoneal samples were divided into three groups (group A1, 11 patients who had no ultrafiltration loss; group A2, 9 patients who had ultrafiltration loss; and group B, 12 specimens who had end-stage renal disease prior to induction of CAPD. RESULTS: In group B, staining for HSP47, HSP70, and collagen III in peritoneal tissues was faint, and only a few cells were positive for alpha-SMA and CD68. In contrast, HSP47, HSP70, and collagen III were expressed in areas of thickened connective tissues in fibrotic peritoneal specimens of CAPD patients. The expression level of HSP47, HSP70, collagen III, and alpha-SMA and the number of CD68-positive cells in group A2 were significantly higher than those in groups A1 and B. HSP47/HSP70-positive cells were mesothelial cells, adipocytes, and alpha-SMA-positive myofibroblasts. Furthermore, the expression level of HSP47 was significantly higher in peritoneal specimens from patients with refractory peritonitis than without it and was significantly higher in patients with more than 60 months of CAPD therapy than that in patients with less than 60 months of CAPD. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that CAPD therapy may induce HSPs in the peritoneal tissue, and that peritonitis in CAPD patients may be associated with the progression of peritoneal sclerosis at least through HSP47 expression and chronic macrophage infiltration. Our data also suggest that the progression of peritoneal sclerosis in such patients is associated with deterioration of peritoneal ultrafiltration function. (+info)
Heat shock protein 47 is expressed in fibrous regions of human atheroma and Is regulated by growth factors and oxidized low-density lipoprotein.
BACKGROUND: Heat shock protein 47 (Hsp47) is a stress protein that may act as a chaperone for procollagen. Its involvement in atherosclerosis is unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: Hsp47 expression in human coronary arteries was assessed by immunostaining. Strong focal expression was evident in atherosclerotic, but not normal, arteries and was prevalent in the collagenous regions. Double immunostaining revealed that all cells expressing type I procollagen also expressed Hsp47. Moreover, parallel regulation of proalpha1(I)collagen and Hsp47 mRNA expression occurred with cultured human smooth muscle cells stimulated with transforming growth factor-beta1 or fibroblast growth factor-2. However, a proportion of Hsp47-expressing cells in plaque did not express type I procollagen, and this pattern could be reproduced in culture. Heat shock and oxidized LDL stimulated the expression of Hsp47 mRNA by smooth muscle cells, without a concomitant rise in proalpha1(I)collagen expression. CONCLUSIONS: These findings identify Hsp47 as a novel constituent of human coronary atheroma. Its localization to the fibrous cap, regulation by growth factors in parallel with type I procollagen, and selective upregulation by stress raise the possibility that Hsp47 is a determinant of plaque stability. (+info)
Interstitial expression of heat shock protein 47 and alpha-smooth muscle actin in renal allograft failure.
BACKGROUND: Tubulointerstitial inflammation and fibrosis are the main pathological features of chronic renal allograft rejection, which is characterized by accumulation of extracellular matrix protein. Heat shock protein 47 (HSP47), known as a collagen-specific stress protein, is thought to be a molecular chaperone during the processing and/or secretion of procollagen. HSP47 is thought to be involved in the progression of fibrosis, but its expression in chronic renal allograft rejection is still unknown. METHODS: We examined the expression of HSP47 together with that of alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA), a marker of myofibroblasts, and CD68, a marker of macrophages, by immunohistochemistry in allograft kidney tissues. Uninvolved portions of surgically removed kidneys with tumours served as control tissue. RESULTS: Expression of HSP47 was detected in the interstitium of fibrotic regions of allograft kidneys. Cells positive for HSP47 were also stained for alpha-SMA and type I collagen, and the expression of HSP47 correlated with the degree of interstitial fibrosis. Furthermore, the expression of HSP47 correlated with the number of infiltrating macrophages. In contrast, HSP47 and alpha-SMA were not expressed in the control tissues, sections of 1 h post-transplantation biopsy specimens and acute allograft rejection without fibrosis. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that HSP47 may contribute to the progression of interstitial fibrosis in allograft renal tissues. (+info)
Structure-function studies on hsp47: pH-dependent inhibition of collagen fibril formation in vitro.
Hsp47, a 47 kDa heat shock protein whose expression level parallels that of collagen, has been regarded as a collagen-specific molecular chaperone. Studies from other laboratories have established the association of Hsp47 with the nascent as well as the triple-helical procollagen molecule in the endoplasmic reticulum and its dissociation from procollagen in the Golgi. One of several roles suggested for Hsp47 in collagen biosynthesis is the prevention of aggregation of procollagen in the endoplasmic reticulum. However, no experimental evidence has been available to verify this suggestion. In the present study we have followed the aggregation of mature triple-helical collagen molecules into fibrils by using turbidimetric measurements in the absence and presence of Hsp47. In the pH range 6-7, fibril formation of type I collagen, as monitored by turbidimetry, proceeds with a lag of approx. 10 min and levels off by approx. 60 min. The addition of Hsp47 at pH 7 effectively inhibits fibril formation at and above a 1:1 molar ratio of Hsp47 to triple-helical collagen. This inhibition is markedly pH-dependent, being significantly diminished at pH 6. CD and fluorescence spectral data of Hsp47 in the pH range 4.2-7.4 reveal a significant alteration in its structure at pH values below 6.2, with a decrease in alpha-helix and an increase in beta-structure. This conformational change is likely to be the basis of the decreased binding of Hsp47 to collagen in vitro at pH 6.3 as well as its inability to inhibit collagen fibril formation at this pH. Our results also provide a functional assay for Hsp47 that can be used in studies on collagen and Hsp47 interactions. (+info)
Progressive renal fibrosis in murine polycystic kidney disease: an immunohistochemical observation.
BACKGROUND: The appearance of interstitial fibrosis in polycystic kidneys is emblematic of progressive disease. Matrix forming this scar tissue is derived from local renal cells in response to cystogenesis. We investigated the phenotype of collagen-producing cells in the cystic kidneys of DBA/2-pcy mice to better characterize the spectrum of interstitial cells associated with renal fibrogenesis. METHODS: The extent of interstitial fibrosis and the number of fibroblasts in cystic kidneys were first quantitated over time using computer-assisted image analysis. Subsequently, antisera to four cell protein markers were studied by coexpression immunohistochemistry during progression of fibrosis using confocal microscopy. The antisera included fibroblast-specific protein 1 (FSP1) for fibroblast phenotype, alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA) for contractile phenotype, vimentin (VIM) for mesenchymal phenotype, and heat shock protein 47 (HSP47) for interstitial collagen-producing phenotype. RESULTS: Interstitial fibrosis in cystic kidneys gradually increased throughout the 30-week observation period of our study. With progression of cystogenesis, most of the tubules in pcy mice either dilated or disappeared with time. FSP1+ fibroblasts were distributed sparsely throughout the renal interstitium of young pcy and wild-type mice. Their number increased in the widening fibrotic septa by 18 weeks of age and persisted through 30 weeks of the study interval. Some epithelia among remnant tubules trapped within fibrotic septa around adjacent cysts also acquired the phenotype of FSP1+, HSP47+ collagen-producing fibroblasts, suggesting a possible role for epithelial-mesenchymal transformation (EMT) in this process. Most FSP1+ fibroblasts were alpha-SMA-, but HSP47+, suggesting they were producing collagen proteins for the extracellular matrix. alpha-SMA+, FSP1-, HSP47+ or HSP47- cells were also observed, and the latter tended to distribute independently in a linear pattern, reminiscent of vasculature adjacent to forming cysts. VIM+ expression was not observed in alpha-SMA+ cells. CONCLUSIONS: Many nonoverlapping as well as fewer overlapping populations of FSP1+ and alpha-SMA+ cells shared in the collagen expression associated with progressive fibrogenesis in pcy mice undergoing cystogenesis. Some FSP1+ fibroblasts are likely derived from tubular epithelium undergoing EMT, while alphaSMA+, VIM- cells probably represent vascular smooth muscle cells or pericytes surviving vessel attenuation during the chaos of fibrogenesis. Importantly, not all interstitial cells producing collagens are alpha-SMA+. (+info)