Mrj encodes a DnaJ-related co-chaperone that is essential for murine placental development.
We have identified a novel gene in a gene trap screen that encodes a protein related to the DnaJ co-chaperone in E. coli. The gene, named Mrj (mammalian relative of DnaJ) was expressed throughout development in both the embryo and placenta. Within the placenta, expression was particularly high in trophoblast giant cells but moderate levels were also observed in trophoblast cells of the chorion at embryonic day 8.5, and later in the labyrinth which arises from the attachment of the chorion to the allantois (a process called chorioallantoic fusion). Insertion of the ROSAbetageo gene trap vector into the Mrj gene created a null allele. Homozygous Mrj mutants died at mid-gestation due to a failure of chorioallantoic fusion at embryonic day 8.5, which precluded formation of the mature placenta. At embryonic day 8.5, the chorion in mutants was morphologically normal and expressed the cell adhesion molecule beta4 integrin that is known to be required for chorioallantoic fusion. However, expression of the chorionic trophoblast-specific transcription factor genes Err2 and Gcm1 was significantly reduced. The mutants showed no abnormal phenotypes in other trophoblast cell types or in the embryo proper. This study indicates a previously unsuspected role for chaperone proteins in placental development and represents the first genetic analysis of DnaJ-related protein function in higher eukaryotes. Based on a survey of EST databases representing different mouse tissues and embryonic stages, there are 40 or more DnaJ-related genes in mammals. In addition to Mrj, at least two of these genes are also expressed in the developing mouse placenta. The specificity of the developmental defect in Mrj mutants suggests that each of these genes may have unique tissue and cellular activities. (+info)
Overexpression of human homologs of the bacterial DnaJ chaperone in the synovial tissue of patients with rheumatoid arthritis.
OBJECTIVE: To study the expression of the chaperone family of J proteins in the synovial tissue of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) or osteoarthritis. METHODS: Rabbit antibodies specific for a synthetic peptide (pHSJ1: EAYEVLSDKHKREIYD), representing the most conserved part of all J domains thus far identified--among them the Drosophila tumor suppressor Tid56--were used in immunohistochemical analyses of frozen sections of synovial tissue and immunoblotting of protein extracts of adherent synovial cells. IgG specific for Tid56 was also used. RESULTS: Both antisera predominantly and intensely stained synovial lining cells from RA patients; other cells did not stain or stained only faintly. In immunoblots, anti-pHSJ1 specifically detected several bands with molecular weights of >74 kd (type I), 57-64 kd (type II), 41-48 kd (type III), and < or =36 kd (type IV). The strongest band detected in RA adherent synovial cells was the type II band, whereas in a B cell line, a type I band was prominent. CONCLUSION: Several potentially new members of the J family are described. The type II band represents the human homolog of the Drosophila Tid56 protein and is strongly expressed in RA synovial tissue. (+info)
Genetic interactions between KAR7/SEC71, KAR8/JEM1, KAR5, and KAR2 during nuclear fusion in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
During mating of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, two nuclei fuse to produce a single diploid nucleus. Two genes, KAR7 and KAR8, were previously identified by mutations that cause defects in nuclear membrane fusion. KAR7 is allelic to SEC71, a gene involved in protein translocation into the endoplasmic reticulum. Two other translocation mutants, sec63-1 and sec72Delta, also exhibited moderate karyogamy defects. Membranes from kar7/sec71Delta and sec72Delta, but not sec63-1, exhibited reduced membrane fusion in vitro, but only at elevated temperatures. Genetic interactions between kar7 and kar5 mutations were suggestive of protein-protein interactions. Moreover, in sec71 mutants, Kar5p was absent from the SPB and was not detected by Western blot or immunoprecipitation of pulse-labeled protein. KAR8 is allelic to JEMI, encoding an endoplasmic reticulum resident DnaJ protein required for nuclear fusion. Overexpression of KAR8/JEM1 (but not SEC63) strongly suppressed the mating defect of kar2-1, suggesting that Kar2p interacts with Kar8/Jem1p for nuclear fusion. Electron microscopy analysis of kar8 mutant zygotes revealed a nuclear fusion defect different from kar2, kar5, and kar7/sec71 mutants. Analysis of double mutants suggested that Kar5p acts before Kar8/Jem1p. We propose the existence of a nuclear envelope fusion chaperone complex in which Kar2p, Kar5p, and Kar8/Jem1p are key components and Sec71p and Sec72p play auxiliary roles. (+info)
The Hdj-2/Hsc70 chaperone pair facilitates early steps in CFTR biogenesis.
The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is a chloride ion channel constructed from two membrane-spanning domains (MSDs), two nucleotide-binding domains (NBD) and a regulatory (R) domain. The NBDs and R-domain are cytosolic and how they are assembled with the MSDs to achieve the native CFTR structure is not clear. Human DnaJ 2 (Hdj-2) is a co-chaperone of heat shock cognate 70 (Hsc70) which is localized to the cytosolic face of the ER. Whether Hdj-2 directs Hsc70 to facilitate the assembly of cytosolic regions on CFTR was investigated. We report that immature ER forms of CFTR and DeltaF508 CFTR can be isolated in complexes with Hdj-2 and Hsc70. The DeltaF508 mutation is localized in NBD1 and causes the CFTR to misfold. Levels of complex formation between DeltaF508 CFTR and Hdj-2/Hsp70 were approximately 2-fold higher than those with CFTR. The earliest stage at which Hdj-2/Hsc70 could bind CFTR translation intermediates coincided with the expression of NBD1 in the cytosol. Interestingly, complex formation between Hdj-2 and nascent CFTR was greatly reduced after expression of the R-domain. In experiments with purified components, Hdj-2 and Hsc70 acted synergistically to suppress NBD1 aggregation. Collectively, these data suggest that Hdj-2 and Hsc70 facilitate early steps in CFTR assembly. A putative step in the CFTR folding pathway catalyzed by Hdj-2/Hsc70 is the formation of an intramolecular NBD1-R-domain complex. Whether this step is defective in the biogenesis of DeltaF508 CFTR will be discussed. (+info)
The role of DnaK/DnaJ and GroEL/GroES systems in the removal of endogenous proteins aggregated by heat-shock from Escherichia coli cells.
The submission of Escherichia coli cells to heat-shock (45 degrees C, 15 min) caused the intracellular aggregation of endogenous proteins. In the wt cells the aggregates (the S fraction) disappeared 10 min after transfer to 37 degrees C. In contrast, the S fraction in the dnaK and dnaJ mutant strains was stable during approximately one generation time (45 min). This demonstrated that neither the renaturation nor the degradation of the denatured proteins was possible in the absence of DnaK and DnaJ. The groEL44 and groES619 mutations stabilised the aggregates to a lesser extent. It was shown by the use of cloned genes, dnaK/dnaJ or groEL/groES, producing the corresponding proteins in about 4-fold excess, that the appearance of the S fraction in the wt strain resulted from a transiently insufficient supply of the heat-shock proteins. Overproduction of the GroEL/GroES proteins in dnaK756 or dnaJ259 background prevented the aggregation, however, overproduction of the DnaK/DnaJ proteins did not prevent the aggregation in the groEL44 or groES619 mutant cells although it accelerated the disappearance of the aggregates. The properties of the aggregated proteins are discussed from the point of view of their competence to renaturation/degradation by the heat-shock system. (+info)
Mutational analysis of cysteine-string protein function in insulin exocytosis.
Cysteine-string proteins (Csps) are vesicle proteins involved in neurotransmission. They contain at least four domains: an N-terminal J-domain which can interact with the chaperone Hsc70, an adjacent linker region, the defining cysteine rich domain and a variable C terminus. As the relevance of these domains for the function of Csps in exocytosis is unknown, we have performed a mutational analysis of Csp domains using insulin release by large dense core vesicles (LDCVs) as a model of regulated exocytosis. All mutants were apparently palmitoylated and their subcellular distribution was similar to endogenous Csp. Point mutations within the highly conserved HPD motif of the J-domain abolished activation of Hsc70. However, these mutations altered the effect of Csp on exocytosis only after additional truncation of the extreme C terminus as found in the Csp splice variant Csp2. Furthermore, the strikingly conserved linker region adjacent to the J-domain was important for Csp function in exocytosis, but not for the activation of Hsc70 ATPase. The effects of Csp wild-type or mutants were preserved in permeabilized cells excluding an effect on transmembrane ion fluxes. These observations demonstrate a functional difference between the two isoforms and suggest a role for the J-domain co-chaperone function as well as for the newly defined linker region in LDCV exocytosis. (+info)
Polyglutamine-expanded androgen receptors form aggregates that sequester heat shock proteins, proteasome components and SRC-1, and are suppressed by the HDJ-2 chaperone.
Spinal bulbar muscular atrophy is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by a polyglutamine expansion in the androgen receptor (AR). We show in transiently transfected HeLa cells that an AR containing 48 glutamines (ARQ48) accumulates in a hormone-dependent manner in both cytoplasmic and nuclear aggregates. Electron microscopy reveals both types of aggregates to have a similar ultrastructure. ARQ48 aggregates sequester mitochondria and steroid receptor coactivator 1 and stain positively for NEDD8, Hsp70, Hsp90 and HDJ-2/HSDJ. Co-expression of HDJ-2/HSDJ significantly represses aggregate formation. ARQ48 aggregates also label with antibodies recognizing the PA700 proteasome caps but not 20S core particles. These results suggest that ARQ48 accumulates due to protein misfolding and a breakdown in proteolytic processing. Furthermore, the homeostatic disturbances associated with aggregate formation may affect normal cell function. (+info)
The influence of C-terminal extension on the structure of the "J-domain" in E. coli DnaJ.
Two different recombinant constructs of the N-terminal domain in Escherichia coli DnaJ were uniformly labeled with nitrogen-15 and carbon-13. One, DnaJ(1-78), contains the complete "J-domain," and the other, DnaJ(1-104), contains both the "J-domain" and a conserved "G/F" extension at the C-terminus. The three-dimensional structures of these proteins have been determined by heteronuclear NMR experiments. In both proteins the "J-domain" adopts a compact structure consisting of a helix-turn-helix-loop-helix-turn-helix motif. In contrast, the "G/F" region in DnaJ(1-104) does not fold into a well-defined structure. Nevertheless, the "G/F" region has been found to have an effect on the packing of the helices in the "J-domain" in DnaJ(1-104). Particularly, the interhelical angles between Helix IV and other helices are significantly different in the two structures. In addition, there are some local conformational changes in the loop region connecting the two central helices. These structural differences in the "J-domain" in the presence of the "G/F" region may be related to the observation that DnaJ (1-78) is incapable of stimulating the ATPase activity of the molecular chaperone protein DnaK despite evidence that sites mediating the binding of DnaJ to DnaK are located in the 1-78 segment. (+info)