The Hdj-2/Hsc70 chaperone pair facilitates early steps in CFTR biogenesis.
The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is a chloride ion channel constructed from two membrane-spanning domains (MSDs), two nucleotide-binding domains (NBD) and a regulatory (R) domain. The NBDs and R-domain are cytosolic and how they are assembled with the MSDs to achieve the native CFTR structure is not clear. Human DnaJ 2 (Hdj-2) is a co-chaperone of heat shock cognate 70 (Hsc70) which is localized to the cytosolic face of the ER. Whether Hdj-2 directs Hsc70 to facilitate the assembly of cytosolic regions on CFTR was investigated. We report that immature ER forms of CFTR and DeltaF508 CFTR can be isolated in complexes with Hdj-2 and Hsc70. The DeltaF508 mutation is localized in NBD1 and causes the CFTR to misfold. Levels of complex formation between DeltaF508 CFTR and Hdj-2/Hsp70 were approximately 2-fold higher than those with CFTR. The earliest stage at which Hdj-2/Hsc70 could bind CFTR translation intermediates coincided with the expression of NBD1 in the cytosol. Interestingly, complex formation between Hdj-2 and nascent CFTR was greatly reduced after expression of the R-domain. In experiments with purified components, Hdj-2 and Hsc70 acted synergistically to suppress NBD1 aggregation. Collectively, these data suggest that Hdj-2 and Hsc70 facilitate early steps in CFTR assembly. A putative step in the CFTR folding pathway catalyzed by Hdj-2/Hsc70 is the formation of an intramolecular NBD1-R-domain complex. Whether this step is defective in the biogenesis of DeltaF508 CFTR will be discussed. (+info)
Characterization and expression of the mouse Hsc70 gene.
A genomic clone encoding the mouse Hsc70 gene has been isolated and characterized by DNA sequence analysis. The gene is approximately 3. 9 kb in length and contains eight introns, the fifth, sixth and eighth of which encode the three U14 snoRNAs. The gene has been located on Chr 9 in the order Fli1-Itm1-Olfr7-Hsc70(Rnu14)-Cbl by genetic analysis. Expression of Hsc70 is universal in all tissues of the mouse, but is slightly elevated in liver, skeletal muscle and kidney tissue, while being depressed in testes. In cultured mouse NIH 3T3 cells or human HeLa cells, Hsc70 mRNA levels are low under normal conditions, but can be induced 8-fold higher in both lines by treatment with the amino acid analog azetidine. A similar induction is seen in cells treated with the proteosome inhibitor MG132 suggesting that elevated Hsc70 expression may be coupled to protein degradation. Surprisingly, expression of the human Hsc70 gene is also regulated by cell-cycle position being 8-10-fold higher in late G1/S-phase cells as opposed to the levels in early G1-phase cells. (+info)
Control of mRNA decay by heat shock-ubiquitin-proteasome pathway.
Cytokine and proto-oncogene messenger RNAs (mRNAs) are rapidly degraded through AU-rich elements in the 3' untranslated region. Rapid decay involves AU-rich binding protein AUF1, which complexes with heat shock proteins hsc70-hsp70, translation initiation factor eIF4G, and poly(A) binding protein. AU-rich mRNA decay is associated with displacement of eIF4G from AUF1, ubiquitination of AUF1, and degradation of AUF1 by proteasomes. Induction of hsp70 by heat shock, down-regulation of the ubiquitin-proteasome network, or inactivation of ubiquitinating enzyme E1 all result in hsp70 sequestration of AUF1 in the perinucleus-nucleus, and all three processes block decay of AU-rich mRNAs and AUF1 protein. These results link the rapid degradation of cytokine mRNAs to the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. (+info)
Identification of CHIP, a novel tetratricopeptide repeat-containing protein that interacts with heat shock proteins and negatively regulates chaperone functions.
The chaperone function of the mammalian 70-kDa heat shock proteins Hsc70 and Hsp70 is modulated by physical interactions with four previously identified chaperone cofactors: Hsp40, BAG-1, the Hsc70-interacting protein Hip, and the Hsc70-Hsp90-organizing protein Hop. Hip and Hop interact with Hsc70 via a tetratricopeptide repeat domain. In a search for additional tetratricopeptide repeat-containing proteins, we have identified a novel 35-kDa cytoplasmic protein, carboxyl terminus of Hsc70-interacting protein (CHIP). CHIP is highly expressed in adult striated muscle in vivo and is expressed broadly in vitro in tissue culture. Hsc70 and Hsp70 were identified as potential interaction partners for this protein in a yeast two-hybrid screen. In vitro binding assays demonstrated direct interactions between CHIP and both Hsc70 and Hsp70, and complexes containing CHIP and Hsc70 were identified in immunoprecipitates of human skeletal muscle cells in vivo. Using glutathione S-transferase fusions, we found that CHIP interacted with the carboxy-terminal residues 540 to 650 of Hsc70, whereas Hsc70 interacted with the amino-terminal residues 1 to 197 (containing the tetratricopeptide domain and an adjacent charged domain) of CHIP. Recombinant CHIP inhibited Hsp40-stimulated ATPase activity of Hsc70 and Hsp70, suggesting that CHIP blocks the forward reaction of the Hsc70-Hsp70 substrate-binding cycle. Consistent with this observation, both luciferase refolding and substrate binding in the presence of Hsp40 and Hsp70 were inhibited by CHIP. Taken together, these results indicate that CHIP decreases net ATPase activity and reduces chaperone efficiency, and they implicate CHIP in the negative regulation of the forward reaction of the Hsc70-Hsp70 substrate-binding cycle. (+info)
Expression of the spermatid-specific Hsp70 antigen is conserved in mammals including marsupials.
The anatomical location of testes in mammals ranges from a location close to that observed in the embryo to a lower position usually involving a pendant scrotum. In scrotal mammals, the abdominal position of the cryptorchid testis, which elevates its temperature, is detrimental to spermatogenesis and causes infertility. Spermatocytes are sensitive but late spermatids are relatively resistant to thermal stress suggesting that the latter might be protected in some way. In general, most organisms express Hsp70 proteins, which play a crucial role in the protection of cells against thermal stress. We have found previously that the Hsc70t protein, a member of the Hsp70 family of proteins, is constitutively expressed in the late spermatids of mice. Here, we have utilized immunohistochemistry with anti-mouse Hsc70t antiserum to examine the expression of the spermatid-specific Hsp70 antigen in the testes of several mammalian species with different degrees of testes migration. Our data indicate that the antigen is conserved in the mammals including marsupials. We also examined whether antigens of Hsp70-related proteins were expressed in non-mammalian vertebrates including not only homoiothermal but also poikilothermal animals. The spermatid-specific Hsp70 antigens were not detectable in the testes of the animals examined. From results of immunohistochemistry with BRM22 monoclonal antibody which reacts broadly with Hsp70 family proteins, however, we revealed constitutive expression of antigens of Hsp70-related proteins in spermatogenic cells of the vertebrates. These results suggest that the expression of spermatid-specific Hsp70 protein may be involved in the developmental pathway during spermiogenesis in mammals rather than in thermotolerance. (+info)
Dynamic restricted expression of the chaperone Hsc70 in early chick development.
The non-inducible chaperone heat shock cognate 70 kDa (Hsc70) is regulated during development. We now characterize its dynamic expression pattern from gastrulation to early organogenesis. Throughout this developmental period, hsc70 transcripts were largely restricted to neuroectoderm- and mesoderm-derived structures. In stage 10 embryos, Hsc70 protein was expressed in the neural tube with increasing rostrocaudal and decreasing dorsoventral gradients, and in some somite cells. This highly regulated expression of Hsc70 is likely to reflect specific developmental functions, besides its well-characterized role in protein folding. (+info)
Mammalian Hsp70 and Hsp110 proteins bind to RNA motifs involved in mRNA stability.
In this study, in vitro RNA binding by members of the mammalian 70-kDa heat shock protein (Hsp) family was examined. We show that Hsp/Hsc70 and Hsp110 proteins preferentially bound AU-rich RNA in vitro. Inhibition of RNA binding by ATP suggested the involvement of the N-terminal ATP-binding domain. By using deletion mutants of Hsp110 protein, a diverged Hsp70 family member, RNA binding was localized to the N-terminal ATP-binding domain of the molecule. The C-terminal peptide-binding domain did not bind RNA, but its engagement by a peptide substrate abrogated RNA binding by the N terminus of the protein. Interestingly, removal of the C-terminal alpha-helical structure or the alpha-loop domain unique to Hsp110 immediately downstream of the peptide-binding domain, but not both, resulted in considerably increased RNA binding as compared with the wild type protein. Finally, a 70-kDa activity was immunoprecipitated from RNA-protein complexes formed in vitro between cytoplasmic proteins of human lymphocytes and AU-rich RNA. These findings support the idea that certain heat shock proteins may act as RNA-binding entities in vivo to guide the appropriate folding of RNA substrates for subsequent regulatory processes such as mRNA degradation and/or translation. (+info)
The HSC73 molecular chaperone: involvement in MHC class II antigen presentation.
Heat shock proteins (HSP) are conserved proteins, many of which share the ability for indiscriminate peptide binding and ATPase-coupled peptide release. In this paper, we show that heat shock cognate protein (HSC)73, a constitutively expressed member of the HSP70 family, could be a candidate for chaperone activity within the MHC class II presentation pathway. HSC73 expression in macrophages was shown to overlap with expression of MHC class II; overexpression of HSC73 in stable transfectants of a macrophage line markedly enhanced their presentation of exogenous Ag without affecting presentation of processing independent peptide. Ag from an exogenous source was demonstrated to associate with HSC73 in macrophages, and this association was sensitive to ATP treatment and inhibited by deoxyspergualin, an immunosuppressive agent that has previously been shown to bind specifically to HSC73. Furthermore, deoxyspergualin reduced Ag presentation by macrophages in relation to the amount of HSC73 expressed in these cells. The data are consistent with a potential role for HSC73 in binding and protecting peptides from extensive degradation and/or facilitating the kinetics of peptide transfer to MHC class II molecules. (+info)