Sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values of three Salmonella rapid detection kits using fresh and frozen poultry environmental samples versus those of standard plating.
To reduce human exposure to Salmonella spp. in poultry products, broiler chicken flocks have been tested by culture methods. Since the standard techniques may take 3 to 5 days, rapid detection methods have been developed. In this study we tested the performance of three rapid tests originally developed for food samples by using environmental samples obtained from poultry houses. These rapid tests were Reveal, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay from Neogen Corp.; BIND, a bacterial ice nucleation detection method from Idetek Corp.; and a filter monitor method from Future Medical Technologies, Inc. For the standard culture, brilliant green with novabiocin and xylose-lysine-tergitol-4 agar were used for presumptive identification, and identities were confirmed by using poly-O antisera. Environmental samples were collected from farms belonging to an integrated poultry company prior to chick placement and 1 week before slaughter. Sensitivities, specificities, and predictive values with 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Statistical differences were determined by using McNemar's chi square test. The sensitivities of the different tests were not stable, varying widely between sample times, and were affected by freezing of the samples. All of the rapid tests had low sensitivities, which led to many false-negative results. All tests were able to detect Salmonella spp. at a concentration of 10 CFU/ml in at least one of four trials. The BIND and Reveal tests were simple to use with multiple samples and reduced laboratory time by up to 1 day. Based on our results, we do not recommend that any of these rapid tests, in their present state of development, be utilized with environmental samples collected with drag swabs. (+info
Effects of isolation housing and timing of drug administration on amikacin kinetics in mice.
AIM: To study the influences of social condition and drug administration time on amikacin metabolism in mice. METHODS: Forty Male ICR mice were randomly assigned into 4 groups according to 1) housing condition: individual housing (I, one mouse in a cage) or aggregated housing (A, 10 mice in a cage) and 2) drug administration time: at midday (D) or at midnight (N), i.e. I-D, I-N, A-D, and A-N groups. Amikacin was injected s.c. 15 mg.kg-1 after 4 wk of raising at D or N. Blood samples were taken at 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, and 60 min after medication in each mouse. Plasma amikacin was measured by enzyme immunoassay. The concentration-time data were fitted with one-compartment open model in each mouse and data were analyzed with group t test. RESULTS: The clearance (Cl) of amikacin was larger and the half-life (T1/2) was shorter in A-N group than in A-D or I-N groups respectively. AUC(0-1) in A-N group was less than in I-N group. No differences of kinetic parameters between 2 isolated housing (I-D and I-N) groups were found. CONCLUSION: Aggregated housing and midnight drug administration increased the disposition of amikacin. (+info
Nutrient management procedures to enhance environmental conditions: an introduction.
The advent of concentrated, large animal production units presents a monumental challenge for the effective management of nutrients in animal manure. This symposium was organized to address the issue of the environmental impact of animal production and to offer suggestions on nutrient management procedures for reducing the environmental impact. There were four presentations on environmental concerns of animal manure that covered the topics of using the severe Dutch legislation that limits the amounts of nitrogen and phosphate in the manure allowed for application on cropland, potential for reducing odorous compounds in swine manure, alternatives to reduce the environmental impact of large swine production units, and, finally, perspectives on nutrient management procedures from a swine integrator's viewpoint. This introduction to the symposium highlights the major areas discussed within each of the four presentations. (+info
Exposure of healthy volunteers to swine house dust increases formation of leukotrienes, prostaglandin D2, and bronchial responsiveness to methacholine.
BACKGROUND: Acute exposure of healthy subjects to swine house dust causes increased bronchial responsiveness to methacholine but no acute bronchoconstriction. The role of cysteinyl leukotrienes and mast cells in increased bronchial responsiveness is unclear. METHODS: Ten non-asthmatic subjects were exposed to swine dust for three hours while weighing pigs in a piggery. Urine was collected prior to and for up to 12 hours after entering the piggery and at the same times five days before and the day after exposure. As indices of whole body leukotriene production and mast cell activation, urinary levels of leukotriene E4 (LTE4) and 9 alpha, 11 beta-PGF2, the earliest appearing urinary metabolite of prostaglandin D2 (PGD2), were measured. Bronchial responsiveness to methacholine was determined five days before and the day after the exposure. RESULTS: Methacholine PD20FEV1 decreased from 1.32 mg (95% CI 0.22 to 10.25) before exposure to 0.38 mg (95% CI 0.11 to 1.3) after exposure (p < 0.01). Associated with the increase in bronchial responsiveness there was a significant mean difference between post- and prechallenge levels of LTE4 (difference 38.5 ng/mmol creatinine (95% CI 17.2 to 59.8); p < 0.01) and 9 alpha, 11 beta-PGF2 (difference 69 ng/mmol creatinine (95% CI 3.7 to 134.3); p < 0.05) on the day of exposure to swine dust. Swine dust exposure induced a 24-fold increase in the total cell number and a 12-fold increase in IL-8 levels in the nasal lavage fluid. The levels of LTB4 and LTE4 in nasal lavage fluid following exposure also increased 5.5-fold and 2-fold, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study indicate that cysteinyl leukotrienes and other mast cell mediators contribute to the development of increased bronchial responsiveness following inhalation of organic swine dust. (+info
Effects of in vitro atmospheric ammonia exposure on recovery rate and luminol-dependent chemiluminescence of bovine neutrophils and bronchoalveolar macrophages.
The effects of atmospheric ammonia, a major pollutant in animal confinement facilities, on bovine neutrophils and bronchoalveolar macrophages were evaluated in vitro. Ammonia exposure at concentrations 50, 100 and 200 ppm for one hour impaired recovery rates of neutrophils dose-dependently but enhanced their chemiluminescence activity per cell at lower concentrations (50 and 100 ppm). Macrophages were resistant to the exposure. Their recovery rates and chemiluminescence remained unaffected even at 200 ppm exposure. The present results suggest that ammonia exposure is unfavorable for bovine neutrophils in vitro, and probably in vivo also, in light of causing cell damage and triggering wider inflammatory responses. (+info
The effect of feeding level and physiological status on total flow and amino acid composition of endogenous protein at the distal ileum in swine.
An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of BW, feed intake, and the physiological condition of the animal on the loss and amino acid composition of endogenous protein in swine. Ten growing barrows and five multiparous sows were equipped with a T-cannula in the distal ileum for digesta collection. A protein-free diet was fed to all animals. The barrows were given free access to the experimental diet. The sows also were allowed to consume the diet on an ad libitum basis, and digesta were collected during lactation and in the following gestation period. In addition, digesta from the gravid sows were collected after restricting the sows to 2 kg of feed per day. For each animal group, the endogenous losses of protein and amino acids were calculated in relation to DMI, and the amino acid composition of endogenous protein was calculated. The total endogenous gut protein loss at the distal ileum of growing pigs, lactating sows, and gestating sows, given free access to feed, was 12.4, 9.4, and 11.2 g/kg DMI, respectively. These values were not different (P > .10). However, when gestating sows were fed only 2 kg/d, 17.8 g of endogenous protein was lost per kilogram of DMI, which was higher (P < .05) than for any of the other groups. This difference was mainly caused by higher (P < .05) losses of glycine, proline, and serine. There were no differences (P > .05) in amino acid composition of endogenous protein between growing pigs, lactating sows, and gestating sows given free access to feed, but restricted-fed gestating sows had an amino acid composition of endogenous protein that was significantly different from that of the other groups. The results from the experiment showed that age, BW, and the physiological condition of the animal have little or no effect on the amount of endogenous protein and amino acids lost at the distal ileum of hogs if calculated in relation to DMI. Likewise, the amino acid composition was not affected by the BW or physiological condition of the animal. However, DMI had a significant effect on endogenous protein losses in sows as well as on amino acid composition of endogenous protein. (+info
The role of environmental antigens in the spontaneous development of autoimmunity in MRL-lpr mice.
It has been proposed that the "normal" stimulation of the immune system that occurs from interactions with environmental stimuli, whether infectious or dietary, is necessary for the initiation and/or continuation of autoimmunity. We tested this hypothesis by deriving a group of MRL-lpr mice into a germfree (GF) environment. At 5 mo of age, no differences between GF and conventional MRL-lpr mice were noted in lymphoproliferation, flow cytometric analysis of lymph node cells (LN), or histologic analysis of the kidneys. Autoantibody levels were comparably elevated in both groups. A second experiment tested the role of residual environmental stimuli by contrasting GF mice fed either a low m.w., ultrafiltered Ag-free (GF-AF) diet or an autoclaved natural ingredient diet (GF-NI). At 4 mo of age, both groups showed extensive lymphoproliferation and aberrant T cell formation, although the GF-AF mice had approximately 50% smaller LNs compared with sex-matched GF-NI controls. Autoantibody formation was present in both groups. Histologic analysis of the kidneys revealed that GF-AF mice had much lower levels of nephritis, while immunofluorescence analysis demonstrated no difference in Ig deposits but did reveal a paucity of C3 deposition in the kidneys of GF-AF mice. These data do not support a role for infectious agents in the induction of lymphoproliferation and B cell autoimmunity in MRL-lpr mice. Furthermore, they suggest that autoantibodies do not originate from B cells that were initially committed to exogenous Ags. They do suggest a possible contributory role for dietary exposure in the extent of lymphoproliferation and development of nephritis in this strain. (+info
A 15-week experimental exposure of pigs to airborne dust with added endotoxin in a continuous flow exposure chamber.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of longterm exposure to airborne dust and endotoxin on the respiratory system of pigs. A continuous flow exposure chamber was built for the purpose of exposing pigs to selected airborne contaminants. Pigs (n = 6) were exposed to a combination of a very fine corn/soybean meal (40.6 mg/m3) with added lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 12.4 microg/m3) for 8 h/d over 5 d for 15 wk (75 d of exposure). Control pigs (n = 6) were housed in a room with minimal contamination of these airborne contaminants. Surprisingly, dust in the exposure chamber and the control room was highly contaminated with peptidoglycan. Changes in the lung were monitored by collecting bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid for cytology at 5 different time points throughout the exposure period. Blood samples were collected at the same time for hematology. A non-specific respiratory inflammatory response was found in exposed and control pigs, as suggested by the increased neutrophils in BAL fluid and the small inflammatory areas in the lung tissue. No macroscopic lung lesions were observed in control or exposed pigs. The findings in the control pigs imply that even low dust concentrations and possibly peptidoglycan contamination can induce cellular changes in the BAL fluid and that a true control pig does not exist. In addition, the exposed pigs developed a mild eosinophilia, indicating an allergic response to the airborne contaminants. (+info