Whirling disease: host specificity and interaction between the actinosporean stage of Myxobolus cerebralis and rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss.
Scanning electron microscopic studies were conducted on rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss in the first 60 min after their exposure to the triactinomyxon spores of Myxobolus cerebralis. The results demonstrated that as early as 1 min post exposure the whole process, from the attachment of the triactinomyxon spores to the complete penetration of their sporoplasm germs, had occurred. The triactinomyxon spores sought out the secretory openings of mucous cells of the epidermis, the respiratory epithelium and the buccal cavity of trout and used them as portals of entry. Exposure experiments of the triactinomyxon spores of M. cerebralis to non-salmonid fish, such as goldfish Carassius auratus, carp Cyprinus carpio, nose Chondrostoma nasus, medaka Oryzias latipes, guppy Poecilia reticulata and also the amphibian tadpole Rana pipiens as well as to rainbow trout fry indicated a specificity for salmonids. Attempts to activate the triactinomyxon spores by exposure to mucus prepared from cyprinid and salmonid fish showed no significant differences from those conducted in tap water. The results suggest that the simultaneous presence of both mechano- and chemotactic stimuli was required for finding the salmonid fish host. (+info)
Nosema notabilis (Microsporidia), its ultrastructure and effect on the myxosporean host Ortholinea polymorpha.
Nosema notabilis Kudo, 1939 produces chain-forming meronts with a dense cell coat in direct contact with the host cell cytoplasm. Cytoplasmic microtubules and membranaceous whorls could be observed in meront cytoplasm. Sporonts differ in that they have a thicker cell wall and more conspicuous endoplasmic reticulum (ER) cisternae. Sporoblasts have an externally ridged cell wall. Spores have an apically located anchoring disc, an isofilar polar tube with 6 to 9 turns and polyribosomal strands in the sporoplasm. Diplokarya occur in all stages. Heavily infected plasmodia of Ortholinea polymorpha (Davis, 1917) reveal marked pathological signs. The most prominent are reduction of surface projections and/or pinocytosis, inflated mitochondria with altered inner structures, affected vegetative nuclei, damage to generative cells and occurrence of various anomalous formations in the plasmodium cytoplasm. The damage may result in complete disintegration of the plasmodium. However, the development of the microsporidian is affected by a remarkably high percentage of teratological stages revealing membranaceous and tubular structures. (+info)
Identification of Cryptosporidium felis in a cow by morphologic and molecular methods.
Apicomplexan Cryptosporidium parasites infect a wide range of vertebrate hosts. While some species are limited to a single host group, such as Cryptosporidium baileyi, which infects chickens, other species of this genus, such as C. parvum, infect a wide range of mammalian species from mice to humans. During an investigation of Cryptosporidium infection in cattle on a farm in northern Poland, we identified an infection caused by C. felis, in addition to known infections with C. muris and C. parvum. This new infection was identified based on the size of the oocysts (mean size, 4.3 +/- 0.4 micrometer; range, 3.5 to 5.0 micrometer), as well as by analysis of the molecular sequence of the variable region of the small-subunit rRNA. This finding demonstrates the complex host specificity and circulation in the environment of Cryptosporidium species. (+info)
Karyotypes on three species of Chinese mesogastropod snails, Semisulcospira libertina, S. dolichostoma and Viviparus rivularis.
Three species of the families Viviparidae and Pleuroceridae, the first intermediate host of paragonimiasis, metagonimiasis and echinostomiasis were studied cytologically. The observed diploid chromosome number was as follows: Semisulcospira libertina 36, S. dolichostoma 34, and Viviparus rivularis 64. The mitotic chromosome complement of S. libertina has nine metacentric pairs and nine submetacentric pairs, and S. dolichostoma has three metacentric pairs and 14 submetacentric pairs of chromosomes. Viviparus rivularis showed two metacentric pairs and 30 submetacentric pairs of chromosomes. (+info)
Growth and development of Gymnophalloides seoi in immunocompetent and immunosuppressed C3H/HeN mice.
The growth and development of Gymnophalloides seoi were studied in C3H/HeN mice and effects of immunosuppression of the host on the worm development were observed. Two hundred metacercariae of G. seoi were orally administered to each mouse, and worms were recovered on days 1, 3, 5, 7, 14 and 21 post-infection (PI). The worm recovery rate was significantly higher in immunosuppressed (ImSP) mice than in immunocompetent (ImCT) mice except on days 1 and 3 PI. The worms attained sexual maturity by day 3 PI with eggs in the uterus, and worm dimensions and the number of uterine eggs continuously increased until day 14 PI in ImSP mice. Worms recovered from ImSP mice were significantly larger in size than those from ImCT mice on days 1 and 3 PI, and the number of uterine eggs was significantly larger in ImSP mice on days 5 and 7 PI. Genital organs such as the ovary, testes, and vitellaria, that were already developed in the metacercarial stage, grew a little in size until day 14 PI. The results show that the C3H/HeN mouse is, though not excellent, a suitable laboratory host for G. seoi. (+info)
Age-dependent resistance to Cryptosporidium muris (strain MCR) infection in golden hamsters and mice.
An age-dependent aspect of resistance to Cryptosporidium muris (strain MCR) infection was monitored in Syrian golden hamsters, Mesocricetus auratus, at 1-, 5- and 10-week of age and in ICR mice. Mus musculus, at 3-, 12-, and 15-week of age orally inoculated with a single dose of 2 x 10(6) oocysts, respectively. The prepatent periods for both animals were similar, independent of age, but the patency was significantly longer in younger hamsters (P < 0.001) and a long tendency in younger mice. Hamsters infected at 1-week of age excreted about 10 times higher oocysts than those at 5- and 10-week of age. However, the total oocyst output was similar among mice of different ages. There was a good correlation between the length of the patency and the total oocyst output in hamsters (R = 0.9646), but not in mice (R = 0.4561). The immunogenicity of the parasite to homologous challenge infections was very strong in hamsters and relatively strong in mice. These results indicate that acquired resistance to C. muris infection is age-related and the innate resistance is independent of age of hamsters, and that both innate and acquired resistance, on the contrary, are irrespective of age of mice. (+info)
A 54 kDa cysteine protease purified from the crude extract of Neodiplostomum seoulense adult worms.
As a preliminary study for the explanation of pathobiology of Neodiplostomum seoulense infection, a 54 kDa protease was purified from the crude extract of adult worms by sequential chromatographic methods. The crude extract was subjected to DEAE-Sepharose Fast Flow column, and protein was eluted using 25 mM Tris-HCl (pH 7.4) containing 0.05, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.4 M NaCl in stepwise elution. The 0.2 M NaCl fraction was further purified by Q-Sepharose chromatography and protein was eluted using 20 mM sodium acetate (pH 6.4) containing 0.05, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 M NaCl, respectively. The 0.1M NaCl fraction showed a single protein band on SDS-PAGE carried out on a 7.5-15% gradient gel. The proteolytic activities of the purified enzyme were specifically inhibited by L-trans-epoxy-succinylleucylamide (4-guanidino) butane (E-64) and iodoacetic acid. The enzyme, cysteine protease, showed the maximum proteolytic activity at pH 6.0 in 0.1 M buffer, and degraded extracellular matrix proteins such as collagen and fibronectin with different activities. It is suggested that the cysteine protease may play a role in the nutrient uptake of N. seoulense from the host intestine. (+info)
Infection status of Paragonimus westermani metacercariae in crayfish (Cambaroides similis) collected from Bogildo (Islet), Wando-gun, Chollanam-do, Korea.
During the period from October 1996 to November 1998, the infection status of Paragonimus westermani metacercariae in freshwater crayfish (Cambaroides similis) collected from Bogildo (islet). Wando-gun, Chollanam-do, which is known for an endemic area of P. westermani in Korea, were examined. The average infection rate of Paragonimus metacercariae in crayfish was 88.6%, and mean number of metacercariae per infected crayfish was 30.2. This metacercarial density was the highest in the group of weight in 7.1-9.0 g. These results suggest that the natural life cycle of P. westermani is still well-preserved in Bogildo. (+info)