(1/54) Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus outbreak in a veterinary teaching hospital: potential human-to-animal transmission.
During a 13-month period, 11 equine patients visiting a veterinary teaching hospital for various diagnostic and surgical procedures developed postprocedural infections from which methicillin (oxacillin)-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains were isolated. The S. aureus isolates were identified by conventional methods that included Gram staining, tests for colonial morphology, tests for clumping factor, and tests for coagulase and urease activities and were also tested with the API STAPH IDENT system. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests were performed by the disk diffusion method. The biochemical profile and antibiogram of each isolate suggested that the isolates may have come from a common source. Because MRSA strains are very uncommon animal isolates but are rather common human isolates, a nasal swab specimen for culture was collected voluntarily from five persons associated with equine surgery and recovery in an attempt to identify a possible source of the organisms. MRSA strains were isolated from three of the five people, with one person found to be colonized with two biotypes of MRSA. The MRSA isolates from the people appeared to be identical to the isolates from horses. Further study of the isolates included SmaI and EagI macrorestriction analysis by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis conducted in two different laboratories. The results indicated that both the equine and human isolates were members of a very closely related group which appear to have originated from a common source. On the basis of the pattern associated with the infection, it is speculated that the members of the Veterinary Teaching Hospital staff were the primary source of the infection, although the specific mode of transmission is unclear. (+info)
(2/54) Isolation of environmental Clostridium difficile from a veterinary teaching hospital.
An environmental survey of a veterinary teaching hospital for the presence of Clostridium difficile was performed using contact plates and cycloserine-cefoxitin-fructose with 0.1% sodium taurocholate agar. Clostridium difficile was isolated from 24 of 381 sites (6.3%). Growth was obtained from 4.5% (9/202) of sites sampled in the Large Animal Clinic, from 8.1% (13/160) of sites within the Small Animal Clinic, and from 20% (2/10) of sites sampled elsewhere. Fourteen of 21 strains tested produced toxins in vitro. A geographic association was found with areas in the large animal clinic where nosocomial C. difficile diarrhea in horses had previously been diagnosed. Several other sites with a potential for nosocomial transmission of the organism were identified. Areas from which C. difficile was isolated tended to be areas with high animal traffic, with increased chance of fecal contamination, and with rough, difficult to clean surfaces. This study documents the prevalence of this organism in the environment and its potential role in nosocomial disease. (+info)
(3/54) Acinetobacter baumannii-infected vascular catheters collected from horses in an equine clinic.
Acinetobacter baumannii was isolated from tips clipped from seven intravenous jugular catheters collected from horses in the Ghent University equine clinic. They originated from seven different horses. Three of the seven showed evidence of local infection. (+info)
(4/54) Outbreaks of multidrug-resistant Salmonella typhimurium associated with veterinary facilities--Idaho, Minnesota, and Washington, 1999.
CDC received reports in 1999 from three state health departments of outbreaks of multidrug-resistant Salmonella serotype Typhimurium infections in employees and clients of small animal veterinary clinics and an animal shelter. Salmonella infections usually are acquired by eating contaminated food; however, direct contact with infected animals, including dogs and cats, also can result in exposure and infection. This report summarizes clinical and epidemiologic data about these outbreaks and reviews methods of reducing the likelihood of Salmonella transmission in veterinary settings by avoiding fecal-oral contact. (+info)
(5/54) The role of the clinical pharmacologist in animal health.
Like most scientific disciplines, pharmacology is replete with subspecialties. Certainly most scientists recognize the value of animal studies in drug development for human pharmaceuticals. However, animals as the target species also represent a major focus of investigation. According to recent estimates, in the United States for the year 2000, 98.1 million cattle, 59.8 million pigs, and 1.5 billion chickens existed. Added to that estimate were companion animals, including 4 million horses, 59 million cats, and 52.9 million dogs. The estimate does not include the so-called "minor" species, such as 7 million sheep and 320,000 acres of freshwater fish production. In most respects, the medical needs of these animals are addressed in a manner parallel to that of human medicine. One such parallel, with certain distinct differences from its human counterpart, is veterinary clinical pharmacology. (+info)
(6/54) Gentamicin resistance in dairy and clinical enterococcal isolates and in reference strains.
Enterococci isolated from Portuguese dairy products (milk and cheese) and clinical settings (hospitals and veterinary clinics), together with reference strains from the genus Enterococcus, were screened for low- and high-level gentamicin resistance using the standard disc diffusion method (10 and 120 microg gentamicin discs). MICs were also determined using both the macrodilution method and the Etest. Four genes [aac(6')-Ie-aph(2")-Ia, aph(2")-Ib, aph(2")-Ic and aph(2")-Id] responsible for high- and mid-level gentamicin resistance were sought using PCR. Although enterococci generally are regarded as being intrinsically resistant to low levels of gentamicin, results revealed that many dairy enterococci (around 30% of the isolates used) are not intrinsically resistant to gentamicin, showing MICs of < or = 4 mg/l. High-level gentamicin resistance was not detected in any of the dairy isolates studied, except for aph(2")-Ib, which was found in one. Therefore, gentamicin resistance should be monitored in dairy enterococci, although it does not seem to be a problem at present. In contrast, all clinical isolates studied were, as expected, intrinsically resistant to low levels of gentamicin, presenting MICs > 8 mg/l. Fifteen percent of these clinical isolates showed high-level gentamicin resistance (MICs > 512 mg/l), with the bifunctional gene aac(6')-aph(2") being detected in four of them. However, discs with gentamicin 120 microg failed to detect some isolates with high-level gentamicin resistance. (+info)
(7/54) Salmonella Typhimurium outbreak associated with veterinary clinic.
A Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium outbreak was associated with a veterinary clinic. Confirmed cases were in one cat, two veterinary technicians, four persons associated with clinic patients, and a nurse not linked to the clinic. This outbreak emphasizes the importance of strong public health ties to the animal health community. (+info)
(8/54) Evaluation of a PCR to detect Salmonella in fecal samples of horses admitted to a veterinary teaching hospital.
The diagnostic accuracy of a PCR used to identify horses shedding Salmonella spp. in their feces during hospitalization was estimated, relative to bacterial culture of serially collected fecal samples, using longitudinal data. Five or more fecal samples were collected from each of 116 horses admitted as inpatients, for reasons other than gastrointestinal disease, between July 26, 2001 and October 25, 2002. All 873 fecal samples collected were tested with a PCR based on oligonucleotide primers defining a highly conserved segment of the histidine transport operon gene of Salmonella typhimurium, and each sample was cultured for Salmonella spp. One or more samples from 87 (75%) horses were PCR positive, and Salmonella was cultured from 1 or more samples from 11 (9.5%) horses. All culture-positive horses had at least 1 PCR-positive result, whereas only 29 (28%) culture-negative horses were PCR negative on all fecal samples tested. The PCR was most specific, relative to bacterial culture of serially collected fecal samples, when used to test samples from Quarterhorse or breeds other than Thoroughbred or Standardbred, or from clinical (vs. healthy, accompanying horses) cases. Overall, the PCR had the greatest agreement (70%), compared with bacterial culture of serially collected fecal samples, using a cutoff of 2 or more positive PCR test results to define a Salmonella-positive horse. The reasons why some fecal samples, from which Salmonella organisms cannot be isolated, are PCR positive need to be determined before the PCR can be incorporated into Salmonella surveillance programs for hospitalized equine populations. (+info)