Localization of sympathetic, parasympathetic and sensory neurons innervating the heart of the Beijing duck by means of the retrograde transport of horseradish peroxidase.
Sympathetic, parasympathetic and sensory neurons were labeled by injections of horseradish peroxidase into various regions of the heart in 33 Beijing ducks. Sympathetic postganglionic neurons innervating the heart were located in the paravertebral ganglia C15 (C16 is the last cervical segment in the duck) to T3, especially in the ganglion T1. The coronary sulcus and ventricle were more abundantly innervated by sympathetic neurons than the atrium. The left side of the heart was preferentially innervated by sympathetic postganglionic neurons in the left side of paravertebral ganglia but the right side of the heart were equally supplied from the right and left ganglia. Within the medulla oblongata, the number of labeled vagal preganglionic neurons in the nucleus ambiguus was much greater than that in the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus nerve. Labeled neurons of the nucleus ambiguus were found in many ducks injected into the coronary sulcus. Cardiac sensory neurons were observed in the dorsal root ganglia C15 to T2 (highest in the ganglion T1) and in the nodose and jugular ganglia of the vagus nerve. These labeled neurons probably form the afferent and efferent limbs of cardiac reflexes and control circulation in the Beijing duck. (+info)
In situ identification of cyanobacteria with horseradish peroxidase-labeled, rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes.
Individual cyanobacterial cells are normally identified in environmental samples only on the basis of their pigmentation and morphology. However, these criteria are often insufficient for the differentiation of species. Here, a whole-cell hybridization technique is presented that uses horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-labeled, rRNA-targeted oligonucleotides for in situ identification of cyanobacteria. This indirect method, in which the probe-conferred enzyme has to be visualized in an additional step, was necessary since fluorescently monolabeled oligonucleotides were insufficient to overstain the autofluorescence of the target cells. Initially, a nonfluorescent detection assay was developed and successfully applied to cyanobacterial mats. Later, it was demonstrated that tyramide signal amplification (TSA) resulted in fluorescent signals far above the level of autofluorescence. Furthermore, TSA-based detection of HRP was more sensitive than that based on nonfluorescent substrates. Critical points of the assay, such as cell fixation and permeabilization, specificity, and sensitivity, were systematically investigated by using four oligonucleotides newly designed to target groups of cyanobacteria. (+info)
Thiol-dependent degradation of protoporphyrin IX by plant peroxidases.
Protoporphyrin IX (PP) is the last porphyrin intermediate in common between heme and chlorophyll biosynthesis. This pigment normally does not accumulate in plants because its highly photodynamic nature makes it toxic. While the steps leading to heme and chlorophylls are well characterized, relatively little is known of the metabolic fate of excess PP in plants. We have discovered that plant peroxidases can rapidly degrade this pigment in the presence of thiol-containing substrates such as glutathione and cysteine. This thiol-dependent degradation of PP by horseradish peroxidase consumes oxygen and is inhibited by ascorbic acid. (+info)
Hydroxyl-radical production in physiological reactions. A novel function of peroxidase.
Peroxidases catalyze the dehydrogenation by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) of various phenolic and endiolic substrates in a peroxidatic reaction cycle. In addition, these enzymes exhibit an oxidase activity mediating the reduction of O2 to superoxide (O2.-) and H2O2 by substrates such as NADH or dihydroxyfumarate. Here we show that horseradish peroxidase can also catalyze a third type of reaction that results in the production of hydroxyl radicals (.OH) from H2O2 in the presence of O2.-. We provide evidence that to mediate this reaction, the ferric form of horseradish peroxidase must be converted by O2.- into the perferryl form (Compound III), in which the haem iron can assume the ferrous state. It is concluded that the ferric/perferryl peroxidase couple constitutes an effective biochemical catalyst for the production of .OH from O2.- and H2O2 (iron-catalyzed Haber-Weiss reaction). This reaction can be measured either by the hydroxylation of benzoate or the degradation of deoxyribose. O2.- and H2O2 can be produced by the oxidase reaction of horseradish peroxidase in the presence of NADH. The .OH-producing activity of horseradish peroxidase can be inhibited by inactivators of haem iron or by various O2.- and .OH scavengers. On an equimolar Fe basis, horseradish peroxidase is 1-2 orders of magnitude more active than Fe-EDTA, an inorganic catalyst of the Haber-Weiss reaction. Particularly high .OH-producing activity was found in the alkaline horseradish peroxidase isoforms and in a ligninase-type fungal peroxidase, whereas lactoperoxidase and soybean peroxidase were less active, and myeloperoxidase was inactive. Operating in the .OH-producing mode, peroxidases may be responsible for numerous destructive and toxic effects of activated oxygen reported previously. (+info)
Genetic dissection of endocytic trafficking in Drosophila using a horseradish peroxidase-bride of sevenless chimera: hook is required for normal maturation of multivesicular endosomes.
Mutations in the hook gene alter intracellular trafficking of internalized ligands in Drosophila. To dissect this defect in more detail, we developed a new approach to visualize the pathway taken by the Bride of Sevenless (Boss) ligand after its internalization into R7 cells. A chimeric protein consisting of HRP fused to Boss (HRP-Boss) was expressed in R8 cells. This chimera was fully functional: it rescued the boss mutant phenotype, and its trafficking was indistinguishable from that of the wild-type Boss protein. The HRP activity of the chimera was used to follow HRP-Boss trafficking on the ultrastructural level through early and late endosomes in R7 cells. In both wild-type and hook mutant eye disks, HRP-Boss was internalized into R7 cells. In wild-type tissue, Boss accumulated in mature multivesicular bodies (MVBs) within R7 cells; such accumulation was not observed in hook eye disks, however. Quantitative electron microscopy revealed a loss of mature MVBs in hook mutant tissue compared with wild type, whereas more than twice as many multilammelar late endosomes were detected. Our genetic analysis indicates that Hook is required late in endocytic trafficking to negatively regulate delivery from mature MVBs to multilammelar late endosomes and lysosomes. (+info)
Type 1 and type 2 cytokine regulation of macrophage endocytosis: differential activation by IL-4/IL-13 as opposed to IFN-gamma or IL-10.
Cytokine regulation of endocytic activity in primary human macrophages was studied to define ultrastructural changes and mechanisms of pinocytic regulation associated with cytokines secreted by activated T cells. The effects of IFN-gamma (type 1) and IL-4/IL-13 and IL-10 (type 2) cytokines on fluid phase and mannose receptor-mediated endocytosis were assessed by horseradish peroxidase and colloidal gold-BSA uptake and computer-assisted morphometric analysis. IL-4 and IL-13 enhanced fluid phase pinocytosis and mannose receptor-mediated uptake by activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. Inhibition of actin assembly showed that both cytokines exerted actin-dependent and -independent effects. Ultrastructurally, IL-4 and IL-13 increased tubular vesicle formation underneath the plasma membrane and at pericentriolar sites, concurrent with decreased particle sorting to lysosomes. By contrast, IL-10 or IFN-gamma decreased both fluid phase pinocytosis and mannose receptor-mediated uptake. IFN-gamma stimulated increased particle sorting to perinuclear lysosomes, while IL-10 decreased this activity. In summary, our data document differential effects on macrophage endocytic functions by type 1 or type 2 cytokines associated with induction and effector pathways in immunity. (+info)
Kinetic evidence for the formation of a Michaelis-Menten-like complex between horseradish peroxidase compound II and di-(N-acetyl-L-tyrosine).
The formation of a reversible adsorption complex between a dimer of N-acetyl-L-tyrosine [di-(N-acetyl-L-tyrosine), (NAT)2] and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) compound II (CII) was demonstrated using a kinetic approach. A specific KIIm value (0.58 mM) was deduced for this step from stopped-flow measurements. The dimerization of the dipeptide Gly-Tyr was analysed at the steady state and compared with (NAT)2 dimerization [(NAT)2-->(NAT)4]. A saturation of the enzyme was observed for both substrates within their range of solubility. In each case the rate of dimerization reflected the rate-limiting step of compound II reduction to the native HRP (E) (kappcat/Kappm approximately kII-->E). The kappcat values for (Gly-Tyr)2 and (NAT)4 formation were 254 s-1 and 3.6 s-1 respectively. The KappM value of Gly-Tyr was 24 mM. It was observed that the value (0.7 mM) for (NAT)2 was close both to its specific KIIm value for the second step of reduction (CII-->E) and to its thermodynamic dissociation constant (Kd=0.7 mM) with the resting form of the enzyme. As (NAT)2 was a tighter ligand but a poorer substrate than Gly-Tyr, a steady-state kinetic study was performed in the presence of both substrates. A kinetic model which includes an enzyme-substrate adsorption prior to each of the two steps of reduction was derived. This one agreed reasonably well with the experimental data. (+info)
The return of glomerular-filtered albumin to the rat renal vein.
BACKGROUND: Recent studies have demonstrated that the normal glomerular capillary wall (GCW) is not charge selective to albumin. This means that albumin flux across the GCW is high, and this has been confirmed in studies in which albumin uptake by the tubules has been inhibited. Therefore, there must be a high-capacity postglomerular retrieval pathway in normal kidneys that returns filtered albumin back to the blood supply. METHODS: This study identifies the presence of glomerular-filtered albumin in the renal vein from the analysis of the decrease of radioactivity in the venous effluent after the injection of a pulse of tritium-labeled albumin into the renal artery in vivo and in the isolated perfused kidney. RESULTS: The postglomerular filtered albumin is returned to the blood supply by a high-capacity pathway that transports this albumin at a rate of 1830 +/- 292 micrograms/min.rat kidney (N = 14, mean +/- SEM). This pathway has been identified under physiological conditions in vivo and in the isolated perfused kidney. The pathway is specific for albumin, as it does not occur for horseradish peroxidase. The pathway is inhibited in a nonfiltering kidney. The pathway is also inhibited by ammonium chloride (an agent that inhibits tubular protein uptake but does not alter glomerular size selectivity) and by albumin peptides (which compete for the tubular albumin receptor). CONCLUSIONS: The high-capacity retrieval pathway for albumin is most likely associated with transtubular cell transport. It is also apparent that most albuminuric states could be accounted for by the malfunctioning of this pathway without resorting to any change in glomerular permselectivity. (+info)