(1/742) Incidence of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related Kaposi's sarcoma in the Aquitaine Cohort, France, 1988-1996. Groupe d'Epidemiologie Clinique du SIDA en Aquitaine.
OBJECTIVE: To assess secular trends of the incidence of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) between 1988 and 1996 in the Aquitaine Cohort of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV1)-infected subjects (southwestern France). METHODS: Adults of both sexes of all HIV-transmission categories were included. We distinguished between incident and prevalent KS and in case of multiple acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) defining illnesses between initial or subsequent KS. Only incident KS were considered for annual incidence rate calculation. RESULTS: Overall, 21.2% (356/1678) of homosexuals and 1.9% (58/3030) of the other patients were diagnosed with KS over time. Although there was a sharp decrease in 1996 for initial KS, the annual incidence rate of KS was stable over time in the overall cohort as well as in homosexuals (4.3% per year on the average for KS as an initial AIDS-defining illness and 2.1% per year for subsequent KS in homosexuals). The median CD4+ cell count at the time of diagnosis of KS was 56 per mm3 (78 for initial KS, 14 for subsequent KS), with no significant variation over time. CONCLUSION: In the Aquitaine Cohort, the annual incidence of KS has remained stable between 1988 and 1995 with a recent decline in 1996, only for initial KS, while case management of HIV-infected subjects changed drastically. (+info)
(2/742) Chemokine and chemokine receptor gene variants and risk of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in human immunodeficiency virus-1-infected individuals.
Normal B-lymphocyte maturation and proliferation are regulated by chemotactic cytokines (chemokines), and genetic polymorphisms in chemokines and chemokine receptors modify progression of human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) infection. Therefore, 746 HIV-1-infected persons were examined for associations of previously described stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF-1) chemokine and CCR5 and CCR2 chemokine receptor gene variants with the risk of B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). The SDF1-3'A chemokine variant, which is carried by 37% of whites and 11% of blacks, was associated with approximate doubling of the NHL risk in heterozygotes and roughly a fourfold increase in homozygotes. After a median follow-up of 11.7 years, NHL developed in 6 (19%) of 30 SDF1-3'A/3'A homozygotes and 22 (10%) of 202 SDF1-+/3'A heterozygotes, compared with 24 (5%) of 514 wild-type subjects. The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-protective chemokine receptor variant CCR5-triangle up32 was highly protective against NHL, whereas the AIDS-protective variant CCR2-64I had no significant effect. Racial differences in SDF1-3'A frequency may contribute to the lower risk of HIV-1-associated NHL in blacks compared with whites. SDF-1 genotyping of HIV-1-infected patients may identify subgroups warranting enhanced monitoring and targeted interventions to reduce the risk of NHL. (+info)
(3/742) HIV risk differences between African-American and white men who have sex with men.
African-American men who have sex with men remain at disproportionately greater risk for contracting human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. While high HIV seroincidence has been documented among homosexual African-American men, behavioral research has rarely studied the HIV risk issues confronting these men. This study assessed a sample of 253 men who have sex with men to determine if African-American (n = 79) and white (n = 174) men report different rates of HIV risk behaviors and differ in characteristics indicative of risk. African-American men who have sex with men were more likely to be HIV-seropositive, to report past treatment for gonorrhea and syphilis, and to have a recent unprotected sex partner known or believed to be HIV-seropositive. Multivariate analyses of covariance, controlling for group differences in age, education, and income, revealed that African-American men who have sex with men were less open about their sexual orientation, scored lower in HIV risk behavior knowledge, had more female sexual partners, and more frequently used cocaine in association with sex relative to white men who have sex with men. Human immunodeficiency virus prevention programs tailored to the needs and risk issues of African-American men who have sex with men are needed. (+info)
(4/742) Non-participation bias in unlinked anonymous HIV-prevalence surveys in England and Wales.
The objective was to assess the potential bias in unlinked anonymous HIV-seroprevalence surveys from objections to specimens being included. Objection rates in seroprevalence surveys were examined. Statistically large clusters of objections were considered to be the result of health care worker behaviour, and were disregarded. Underlying objection rates were estimated from remaining data and compared to seroprevalence. Overall objection rates approached or exceeded seroprevalence in many participating centres. However, underlying objection rates declined with time while prevalences were generally unchanging. Also, underlying rates correlated poorly with observed seroprevalences. Findings were therefore consistent with processes producing the clusters of objections and underlying objection rates independently of serostatus of individuals. Although national seroprevalence estimates produced by the surveys are reasonably free from objection bias, regional seroprevalence estimates outside London remain vulnerable to bias as a result of some centres returning data whose quality cannot be guaranteed. (+info)
(5/742) Shigellosis. Another sexually transmitted disease?
Following the clinical observation that there appeared to be an association between shigellosis and male homosexuality, the medical records of 113 patients at The New York Hospital were reviewed retrospectively. Of the 38 males studied who were between the ages 19 and 61, seventeen were homosexual (44-7 per cent.). Only one of the matched controls was homosexual. Of the men with shigellosis who had a history of foreign travel, 10 per cent. were homosexual; however, among the patients without a travel history, 57-1 per cent. were homosexual (P less than 0-05). For male patients with shigellosis who do not have an appropriate travel history, the physician should expand his epidemiological investigation to include sexual contacts. Men and women who perform rectal intercourse should be cautioned to abstain from this activity until their stool cultures are negative for shigella. If a male patient with shigellosis is homosexual, he should be screened for other sexually transmitted diseases such as syphilis, gonorrhoea, hepatitis B, and amoebiasis. (+info)
(6/742) Serologic evidence of human herpesvirus 8 transmission by homosexual but not heterosexual sex.
Epidemiologic studies link Kaposi's sarcoma with a sexually transmitted agent. Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) is likely to be that agent, but routes of transmission are poorly described. A seroepidemiologic study was conducted to determine whether HHV-8 is transmitted sexually between heterosexuals. Sera from 2718 patients attending a sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic were tested for antibodies to HHV-8 and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2). Information on sex partners in the previous 12 months and past STDs were obtained by questionnaire. Relationships between possible risk factors and HHV-8 infection were assessed by logistic regression. Overall, seroprevalence of HHV-8 was 7.3%. Independent risk factors for HHV-8 in the whole group were homo/bisexuality and birth in Africa and, among homo/bisexual men, a history of syphilis and HSV-2 and human immunodeficiency virus seropositivity. Among heterosexuals there was no evidence for sexual transmission; the only independent risk factor for HHV-8 seropositivity was birth in Africa. (+info)
(7/742) Lack of evidence for increased risk of hepatitis A infection in homosexual men.
In 1997, prevalence of and risk factors for hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection were evaluated in 146 homosexual and 286 heterosexual men attending a Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD) Clinic in Rome, Italy. Total HAV antibody (anti-HAV) was detected in 60.3% of homosexuals and 62.2% of heterosexuals. After adjustment for the confounding effects of age, years of schooling, number of sexual partners, use of condoms, and history of STD, homosexuals were not found to be at increased risk of previous HAV exposure than heterosexuals (OR 1.1; 95% CI 0.7-1.9). Independent predictors of the likelihood of anti-HAV seropositivity among homosexuals and heterosexuals were: age older than 35 years and positive syphilis serology which is likely a proxy of lifestyles that increase the risk of faecal-oral infections. These findings do not support a higher risk in homosexual men but could suggest a role for the vaccination of susceptible patients attending STD clinics. (+info)
(8/742) Medical students and AIDS: knowledge, attitudes and implications for education.
Second year medical students at a large midwestern university were surveyed about their attitudes regarding AIDS. Results indicated: (1) students with homosexual and/or HIV-positive friends were significantly more tolerant toward AIDS patients, (2) over half the students believed that treating AIDS patients may be hazardous and that their education had not prepared them to treat these patients safely, (3) one-third believed they had the right to refuse to treat AIDS patients, and (4) AIDS-phobia was significantly associated with homophobia. These data suggest that medical educators may need to help students overcome AIDS-phobia before some students will be able to incorporate instruction about AIDS since AIDS-phobia may inhibit this learning. Didactic instruction must be coupled with modeling by educators of non-prejudicial attitudes and strict adherence to medical professionalism. (+info)