Can we create a therapeutic relationship with nursing home residents in the later stages of Alzheimer's disease?
1. Despite their entrance into advanced illness, the majority (83%) of participants in the study displayed evidence of having begun a therapeutic relationship with their assigned advanced practice nurse. 2. With one exception, those participants who did not evidence development of the relationship had severely limited speech, perseverative speech, or did not speak at all. 3. It is time to challenge the assumption that individuals in the middle and later stages of Alzheimer's disease are not good candidates for developing a therapeutic relationship. (+info)
Changes in behavioural characteristics of elderly populations of local authority homes and long-stay hospital wards, 1976-7.
Behavioural characteristics of the elderly populations of seven local authority residential homes and three long-stay hospital wards were assessed in 1976 and 1977 with the Crichton Royal behavioural rating scale. In 1977 the levels of behavioural problems had increased in the residential homes, but declined in the hospital wards. Differences between the homes had decreased as the overall level of problems increased. The findings suggested that the additional burden of caring for increasing numbers of severely disabled elderly people was affecting the balance of institutional care, and a radical reappraisal of present patterns of care may be necessary to meet their future needs. (+info)
Admission and adjustment of residents in homes for the elderly.
This paper discusses the relationship between psychological variables, a brief cognitive measure and a behavioural rating scale, and the subsequent adjustment of a group of elderly people newly admitted to a social services home for the elderly. It shows that, in this sample, three groups can be identified: a fairly independent group of people who show no apparent deterioration in functioning during the first year of admission; a more dependent group who show loss of functioning during the same period; and a third group who show an immediate negative effect from admission, and who have a poor outcome. We comment on the lack of evidence in support of a general negative relocation effect, and on the value of the procedures used. (+info)
Small bowel bacterial overgrowth in subjects living in residential care homes.
OBJECTIVES: in elderly people, bacterial overgrowth of the small bowel may be occult. The significance of positive breath tests are uncertain: many fit elderly subjects with positive tests show no evidence of malabsorption. We assessed the prevalence and significance of bacterial overgrowth in the small bowel in a relatively unselected elderly population. METHODS: residents of seven elderly people's homes had a glucose hydrogen breath test. A medical history and anthropomorphic measurements were recorded. Volunteers with positive breath tests were given doxycycline. After 4 months all volunteers were reassessed. RESULTS: of 140 residents, 62 were tested. Nine (14.5%) had a positive breath test. There was no difference in anthropomorphic and bowel habit data between those with positive and those with negative breath tests. After 4 months of antibiotic treatment, volunteers with a positive breath test had increased weight and body mass index, while those with a negative test had decreased weight and body mass index. CONCLUSIONS: the percentage of volunteers with a positive breath test was much lower than in previous studies. This may be due to the relatively unselected nature of the volunteers. Treatment of bacterial overgrowth resulted in a small but significant improvement in anthropometric indices. The lack of association of positive breath tests with baseline anthropomorphic measurements or bowel habit highlights the occult nature of the bacterial overgrowth and questions its clinical importance. (+info)
Nasal colonization by Staphylococcus aureus in active, independent, community seniors.
OBJECTIVE: to evaluate the prevalence of nasal colonization with Staphylococcus aureus (SA) in active, independent community seniors and old people in a nursing home. DESIGN: cross-sectional brief questionnaire and screening culture of anterior nares specimens from 165 elders at a community centre and cross-sectional data from a recent survey in a nursing home. RESULTS: the prevalence of SA colonization in community seniors (27%) was similar to that in the nursing home (29%). The proportion of SA isolates that were methicillin-resistant was much lower in the community seniors (2.3%) than in the nursing-home residents (31%). There was less antibiotic resistance in those living at home. CONCLUSION: in community seniors the prevalence of SA colonization was similar to that in nursing-home residents, but the prevalence of methicillin-resistant SA was lower. Susceptibility patterns of antibiotics tested against the SA showed less resistance than isolates from nursing-home patients. (+info)
Consequences of MRSA carriage in nursing home residents.
A prospective cohort study with 1 year follow-up evaluated the relation between MRSA carriage and mortality, likelihood of hospitalization and functional status in residents of a nursing home for the elderly. Included were all 447 residents living in the home in early June 1994. From all patients, swabs were taken from nose, throat and perineum. Additional swabs (sputum, urine or wounds) were taken when indicated. The relative risk (RR) of dying within 6 months in MRSA carriers compared to non-carriers was 2.29 (95% CI = 1.04-5.04). This RR remained stable (1.57-2.40) after adjustment for co-variables using Mantel-Haenszel stratified analysis. After I year, the RR was reduced to 1.30 (95% CI = 0.65-2.58). Univariate survival analysis confirmed a difference in survival between carriers and non-carriers after 6 months (log-rank P = 0.04) and no difference after 1 year. Cox regression analysis resulted in a hazard ratio for dying within 6 months of 1.73 (95% CI = 0.72-4.17). No relation was found between carriage and either likelihood of hospitalization or indicators of functional status. These results are compatible with a possible relation between 6 months mortality and MRSA carriage in nursing home patients. It calls for a large scale, multicentre cohort study in order to either confirm or refute these findings. (+info)
Socioeconomic differences in general practice consultation rates in patients aged 65 and over: prospective cohort study.
OBJECTIVE: To examine socioeconomic differences in general practice consultation rates among patients aged 65 years and over. DESIGN: Secondary analysis of data from the fourth national survey of morbidity in general practice. SETTING: 60 general practices in England and Wales. SUBJECTS: 71 984 people aged 65 years and over. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Annual contact rates and home visiting rates with general practitioners and practice nurses. RESULTS: Social class differences in tact rates were greatest in 65-74 year olds, with rates 23% higher in patients from social class V than in class I (4.82 v 3.93 per person). In 75-84 year olds there was no clear association between social class and contact rates, and in people aged >/=85 years contact rates were highest in patients from class I. Home visiting rates were twice as high in patients from class V as in patients from class I (1.38 v 0.66 per person). Contact rates were 17% higher in people living in communal establishments and 8% higher in those living alone than in those living with others but not in a communal establishment. 66% of contacts with patients in communal establishments and 26% of those with patients living alone were in patients' homes compared with 18% with those living in standard accommodation. These differences persisted after adjustment in a generalised linear model. CONCLUSIONS: Elderly people show socioeconomic differences in consultation rates. The extra workload generated by elderly people living alone and in communal establishments suggests additional payments to general practitioners are needed. (+info)
Cost-effectiveness of screening compared to case-finding approaches to tuberculosis in long-term care facilities for the elderly.
BACKGROUND: To determine if the more interventionist approach of screening with the tuberculin test and chemoprophylaxis for high-risk positive reactors to control tuberculosis in long-term care facilities is cost-effective when compared to the case-finding and treatment approach. METHOD: A decision-analysis model was designed wherein systematic screening with the tuberculin skin test of all elderly patients newly admitted to facilities was compared to public health interventions restricted to investigation of cases and contacts with symptoms of tuberculosis after suspected exposure. Differences in life-years (LY), quality-adjusted life-years (QALY), cost per QALY and LY gained, annual cost per 1000 institutional patients were calculated in a health-care system perspective. RESULTS: In every situation analysed, screening and chemoprophylaxis were more effective. The cost per LY gained was within an acceptable range: $3437 per LY with a 0.6% nosocomial transmission rate and $7552 per LY when no nosocomial transmission was postulated. CONCLUSION: Screening plus chemoprophylaxis for high-risk reactors is more cost-effective than case-finding. This holds even when nosocomial transmission is assumed not to occur in facilities. (+info)