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(1/178) Factors affecting home delivery in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal.

This nested case-control study compares the characteristics of mothers having home or institutional deliveries in Kathmandu, Nepal, and explores the reasons given by mothers for a home delivery. The delivery patterns of mothers were identified in a cross-sectional survey of two communities: an urban area of central Kathmandu (Kalimati) and a peri-urban area (Kirtipur and Panga) five kilometres from the city centre. 357 pregnant women were identified from a survey of 6130 households: 183 from 3663 households in Kirtipur and Panga, 174 from 2467 households in Kalimati. Methods involved a structured baseline household questionnaire and detailed follow-up of identified pregnant women with structured and semi-structured interviews in hospital and the community. The main outcome measures were social and economic household details of pregnant women; pregnancy and obstetric details; place of delivery; delivery attendant; and reasons given for home delivery. The delivery place of 334/357 (94%) of the pregnant women identified at the survey was determined. 272 (81%) had an institutional delivery and 62 (19%) delivered at home. In univariate analysis comparing home and institutional deliverers, maternal education, parity, and poverty indicators (income, size of house, ownership of house) were associated with place of delivery. After multivariate analysis, low maternal educational level (no education, OR 5.04 [95% CI 1.61-15.8], class 1-10, OR 3.36 [1.04-10.8] compared to those with higher education) and multiparity (OR 3.1 [1.63-5.74] compared to primiparity) were significant risk factors for a home delivery. Of home deliverers, only 24% used a traditional birth attendant, and over half were unplanned due to precipitate labour or lack of transport. We conclude that poor education and multiparity rather than poverty per se increase the risk of a home delivery in Kathmandu. Training TBAs in this setting would probably not be cost-effective. Community-based midwife-run delivery units could reduce the incidence of unplanned home deliveries.  (+info)

(2/178) Prenatal HLA-matching to determine suitability for allogeneic bone marrow transplantation.

For several haematological malignancies, allogeneic stem cell transplantation is the treatment of choice. In most cases an HLA-identical sibling is required. If the mother of a patient is pregnant, cord blood from a related donor, which can be used for stem cell transplantation, might be obtainable in the near future. For the patient, knowledge of the foetal HLA-type can be important since it might influence choice of treatment and timing of transplantation. If the foetus is HLA compatible, as would be the situation in 25% of cases, the delivery has to be arranged in such a way that cord stem cells can be collected. As a result, in the other 75% of cases (spontaneous) delivery can take place in the home/local setting. Here we report four cases in which amniocentesis was performed and HLA-typing influenced treatment of the patient and delivery of the sibling.  (+info)

(3/178) Sociodemographic characteristics influencing birth outcome in Sweden, 1908-1930. Birth variables in the Population Study of Women in Gothenburg.

STUDY OBJECTIVE: To identify variables available in early Swedish delivery records and their relation to birth outcomes for home and hospital deliveries in Gothenburg at the early part of this century. DESIGN: A retrospective recovery of original delivery records and social variables in a cross sectional population. SETTING: Gothenburg, Sweden. PARTICIPANTS: 851 fullterm singleton female births with known gestational age born into five birth cohorts on selected dates (1908, 1914, 1918, 1922 and 1930). MAIN RESULTS: Delivery site, maternal parity, gestational age, and social group were significant factors influencing birth outcome as birth weight and length. The mean birth weight and length of hospital born infants was consistently lower than for home deliveries across all cohorts. Site of delivery changed significantly during the period of births under study, 1908-1930. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, which was based on original delivery records from the early part of this century, it was found that delivery site was an important factor influencing birth outcome across five birth cohorts. Utilisation of delivery services changed during the period of study. Thus, to avoid selection bias, the application of delivery records should reflect the birthing practice of the time period in question.  (+info)

(4/178) Training traditional birth attendants in clean delivery does not prevent postpartum infection.

OBJECTIVE: To compare the maternal outcome, in terms of postpartum infection, of deliveries conducted by trained traditional birth attendants (TBAs) with those conducted by untrained birth attendants. METHODS: The study took place in a rural area of Bangladesh where a local NGO (BRAC) had previously undertaken TBA training. Demographic surveillance in the study site allowed the systematic identification of pregnant women. Pregnant women were recruited continuously over a period of 18 months. Data on the delivery circumstances were collected shortly after delivery while data on postpartum morbidity were collected prospectively at 2 and 6 weeks. All women with complete records who had delivered at home with a non-formal birth attendant (800) were included in the analysis. The intervention investigated was TBA training in hygienic delivery comprising the 'three cleans' (hand-washing with soap, clean cord care, clean surface). The key outcome measure was maternal postpartum genital tract infection diagnosed by a symptom complex of any two out of three symptoms: foul discharge, fever, lower abdominal pain. RESULTS: Trained TBAs were significantly more likely to practice hygienic delivery than untrained TBAs (45.0 vs. 19.3%, p < 0.0001). However, no significant difference in levels of postpartum infection was found when deliveries by trained TBAs and untrained TBAs were compared. The practice of hygienic delivery itself also had no significant effect on postpartum infection. Logistic regression models confirmed that TBA training and hygienic delivery had no independent effect on postpartum outcome. Other factors, such as pre-existing infection, long labour and insertion of hands into the vagina were found to be highly significant. CONCLUSIONS: Trained TBAs are more likely to practice hygienic delivery than those that are untrained. However, hygienic delivery practices do not prevent postpartum infection in this community. Training TBAs to wash their hands is not an effective strategy to prevent maternal postpartum infection. More rigorous evaluation is needed, not only of TBA training programmes as a whole, but also of the effectiveness of the individual components of the training.  (+info)

(5/178) Necrotizing fasciitis in a newborn infant: a case report.

We report the case of a one-day-old newborn infant, female, birth weight 1900 g, gestational age 36 weeks presenting with necrotizing fasciitis caused by E. coli and Morganella morganii. The newborn was allowed to fall into the toilet bowl during a domestic delivery. The initial lesion was observed at 24 hours of life on the left leg at the site of the venipuncture for the administration of hypertonic glucose solution. Despite early treatment, a rapid progression occurred resulting in a fatal outcome. We call attention to the risk presented by this serious complication in newborns with a contaminated delivery, and highlight the site of the lesion and causal agents.  (+info)

(6/178) Outcomes of planned home births versus planned hospital births after regulation of midwifery in British Columbia.

BACKGROUND: The choice to give birth at home with a regulated midwife in attendance became available to expectant women in British Columbia in 1998. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety of home birth by comparing perinatal outcomes for planned home births attended by regulated midwives with those for planned hospital births. METHODS: We compared the outcomes of 862 planned home births attended by midwives with those of planned hospital births attended by either midwives (n = 571) or physicians (n = 743). Comparison subjects who were similar in their obstetric risk status were selected from hospitals in which the midwives who were conducting the home births had hospital privileges. Our study population included all home births that occurred between Jan. 1, 1998, and Dec. 31, 1999. RESULTS: Women who gave birth at home attended by a midwife had fewer procedures during labour compared with women who gave birth in hospital attended by a physician. After adjustment for maternal age, lone parent status, income quintile, use of any versus no substances and parity, women in the home birth group were less likely to have epidural analgesia (odds ratio 0.20, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.14-0.27), be induced, have their labours augmented with oxytocin or prostaglandins, or have an episiotomy. Comparison of home births with hospital births attended by a midwife showed very similar and equally significant differences. The adjusted odds ratio for cesarean section in the home birth group compared with physician-attended hospital births was 0.3 (95% CI 0.22-0.43). Rates of perinatal mortality, 5-minute Apgar scores, meconium aspiration syndrome or need for transfer to a different hospital for specialized newborn care were very similar for the home birth group and for births in hospital attended by a physician. The adjusted odds ratio for Apgar scores lower than 7 at 5 minutes in the home birth group compared with physician-attended hospital births was 0.84 (95% CI 0.32-2.19). INTERPRETATION: There was no increased maternal or neonatal risk associated with planned home birth under the care of a regulated midwife. The rates of some adverse outcomes were too low for us to draw statistical comparisons, and ongoing evaluation of home birth is warranted.  (+info)

(7/178) Cross sectional, community based study of care of newborn infants in Nepal.

OBJECTIVE: To determine home based newborn care practices in rural Nepal in order to inform strategies to improve neonatal outcome. DESIGN: Cross sectional, retrospective study using structured interviews. SETTING: Makwanpur district, Nepal. PARTICIPANTS: 5411 married women aged 15 to 49 years who had given birth to a live baby in the past year. MAIN OUTCOMES MEASURES: Attendance at delivery, hygiene, thermal care, and early feeding practices. RESULTS: 4893 (90%) women gave birth at home. Attendance at delivery by skilled government health workers was low (334, 6%), as was attendance by traditional birth attendants (267, 5%). Only 461 (8%) women had used a clean home delivery kit, and about half of attendants had washed their hands. Only 3482 (64%) newborn infants had been wrapped within half an hour of birth, and 4992 (92%) had been bathed within the first hour. 99% (5362) of babies were breast fed, 91% (4939) within six hours of birth. Practices with respect to colostrum and prelacteals were not a cause for anxiety. CONCLUSIONS: Health promotion interventions most likely to improve newborn health in this setting include increasing attendance at delivery by skilled service providers, improving information for families about basic perinatal care, promotion of clean delivery practices, early cord cutting and wrapping of the baby, and avoidance of early bathing.  (+info)

(8/178) Maternal mortality and access to obstetric services in West Africa.

OBJECTIVES: Process evaluation has become the mainstay of safe motherhood evaluation in developing countries, yet the extent to which indicators measuring access to obstetric services at the population level reflect levels of maternal mortality is uncertain. In this study we examine the association between population indicators of access to obstetric care and levels of maternal mortality in urban and rural West Africa. METHODS: In this ecological study we used data on maternal mortality and access to obstetric services from two population-based studies conducted in 16 sites in eight West African countries: the Maternal Mortality and Obstetric Care in West Africa (MAMOCWA) study in rural Senegal, Guinea-Bissau and The Gambia and the Morbidite Maternelle en Afrique de l'Ouest (MOMA) study in urban Burkina Faso, Cote d'Ivoire, Mali, Mauritanie, Niger and Senegal. RESULTS: In rural areas, maternal mortality, excluding early pregnancy deaths, was 601 per 100,000 live births, compared with 241 per 100,000 for urban areas [RR = 2.49 (CI 1.77-3.59)]. In urban areas, the vast majority of births took place in a health facility (83%) or with a skilled provider (69%), while 80% of the rural women gave birth at home without any skilled care. There was a relatively close link between levels of maternal mortality and the percentage of births with a skilled attendant (r = -0.65), in hospital (r = -0.54) or with a Caesarean section (r = -0.59), with marked clustering in urban and rural areas. Within urban or rural areas, none of the process indicators were associated with maternal mortality. CONCLUSION: Despite the limitations of this ecological study, there can be little doubt that the huge rural-urban differences in maternal mortality are due, at least in part, to differential access to high quality maternity care. Whether any of the indicators examined here will by themselves be good enough as a proxy for maternal mortality is doubtful however, as more than half of the variation in mortality remained unexplained by any one of them.  (+info)