HMGI(Y) and HMGI-C genes are expressed in neuroblastoma cell lines and tumors and affect retinoic acid responsiveness.
HMGI-C and HMGI(Y) are architectural DNA-binding proteins that participate in the conformational regulation of active chromatin. Their pattern of expression in embryonal and adult tissues, the analysis of the "pygmy" phenotype induced by the inactivation of the HMGI-C gene, and their frequent qualitative or quantitative alteration in experimental and human tumors indicate their pivotal role in the control of cell growth, differentiation, and tumorigenesis in several tissues representative of the epithelial, mesenchymal, and hematopoietic lineages. In contrast, very little information is available on their expression and function in neural cells. Here, we investigated the expression of the HMGI(Y) and HMGI-C genes in neuroblastoma (NB), a tumor arising from an alteration of the normal differentiation of neural crest-derived cells and in embryonal and adult adrenal tissue. Although HMGI(Y) is constitutively expressed in the embryonal and adult adrenal gland and in all of the NB cell lines and ex vivo tumors examined, its regulation appears to be associated to growth inhibition and differentiation because we observed that HMGI(Y) expression is reduced by retinoic acid (RA) in several NB cell lines that are induced to differentiate into postmitotic neurons, whereas it is up-regulated by RA in cells that fail to differentiate. Furthermore, the decrease of HMGI(Y) expression observed in RA-induced growth arrest and differentiation is abrogated in cells that have been made insensitive to this drug by NMYC overexpression. In contrast, HMGI-C expression is down-regulated during the development of the adrenal gland, completely absent in the adult individual, and only detectable in a subset of ex vivo NB tumors and in RA-resistant NB cell lines. We provide evidence of a causal link between HMGI-C expression and resistance to the growth arrest induced by RA in NB cell lines because exogenous HMGI-C expression in HMGI-C-negative and RA-sensitive cells is sufficient to convert them into RA-resistant cells. Therefore, we suggest that HMGI-C and HMGI(Y) may participate in growth- and differentiation-related tumor progression events of neuroectodermal derivatives. (+info)
A novel downstream positive regulatory element mediating transcription of the human high mobility group (HMG) I-C gene.
The high mobility group (HMG) I proteins are small, non-histone chromosomal proteins that promote gene activation during development and within rapidly dividing cells. They do so by facilitating enhanceosome formation on inducible genes, via both protein/DNA and protein/protein interactions. The HMG I-C gene is tightly regulated, normally being expressed exclusively during embryonic development. However, HMG I-C expression is also observed frequently in a number of tumor types, and this expression has been shown to contribute to the malignant transformation process. With the aim of dissecting pathways that lead to aberrant expression of HMG I-C in tumor cells, we have analyzed HMG I-C gene regulation in the human hepatoma cell line PLC/PRF/5. One of the two HMG I-C transcripts detected in this cell line originates from a novel downstream initiation site at nucleotide -161 relative to the first methionine. Transcription from the downstream initiation site is mediated by a PRE located between nt -222 and -217. We show here that the Sp1 and Sp3 transcription factors interact with the PRE and transactivate the HMG I-C promoter in a cooperative fashion. This study provides the first characterization of this downstream HMG I-C promoter. (+info)
The expression of a truncated HMGI-C gene induces gigantism associated with lipomatosis.
Rearrangements of the HMGI-C gene have frequently been detected in human benign tumors of mesenchymal origin, including lipomas. The HMGI-C protein has three AT-hook domains and an acidic COOH-terminal tail. The HMGI-C modifications consist in the loss of the C-tail and the fusion with ectopic sequences. Recent results show that the loss of the COOH-terminal region, rather than the acquisition of new sequences, is sufficient to confer to HMGI-C the ability to transform NIH3T3 cells. Therefore, transgenic mice carrying a HMGI-C construct (HMGI-C/T), containing only the three AT-hook domains, were generated. The HMGI-C/T mice showed a giant phenotype, together with a predominantly abdominal/pelvic lipomatosis, suggesting a pivotal role of the HMGI-C truncation in the generation of human lipomas. (+info)
Misexpression of wild-type and truncated isoforms of the high-mobility group I proteins HMGI-C and HMGI(Y) in uterine leiomyomas.
High-mobility group I (HMGI) proteins are architectural transcription factors expressed predominantly during embryonic development. Their genetic loci are the most frequent targets of chromosomal rearrangements in uterine leiomyomas and other benign tumors. It was therefore suggested that both HMGI genes are involved in the neoplastic transformation of benign tumors. By Western analysis we found that 16 of 33 uterine leiomyomas expressed high levels of HMGI-C or HMGI(Y) proteins, whereas they were not detected in the corresponding myometrium. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated that the expression of HMGI-C is restricted to leiomyoma smooth muscle cells but is not expressed in vascular smooth muscle cells or the connective tissue of the tumor. Northern blotting confirmed the protein expression data for HMGI-C, whereas HMGI(Y) mRNA and protein levels did not correlate, suggesting that posttranscriptional mechanisms are involved in the regulation of HMGI(Y) expression. Three of the uterine leiomyomas analyzed expressed HMGI-C gene products with altered molecular weight. Two of them were proved to consist of the entire DNA-binding domain but lacked sequences of the C-terminal acidic tail. Conversely, other tumors expressed HMGI-C or HMGI(Y) genes that were not affected by mutations of the coding region. Thus we identified uterine leiomyomas that expressed mutated HMGI-C, whereas other uterine leiomyomas expressed wild-type HMGI-C or HMGI(Y). On the basis of our data we assume that the enhanced expression of functionally active HMGI proteins, whether they are wild-type or not, is important for the pathogenesis of uterine leiomyomas. (+info)
Architecture of high mobility group protein I-C.DNA complex and its perturbation upon phosphorylation by Cdc2 kinase.
The high mobility group I-C (HMGI-C) protein is an abundant component of rapidly proliferating undifferentiated cells. High level expression of this protein is characteristic for early embryonic tissue and diverse tumors. HMGI-C can function as an architectural factor enhancing the activity of transcription factor NF-kappaB on the beta-interferon promoter. The protein has three minor groove DNA-binding domains (AT-hooks). Here, we describe the complex of HMGI-C with a fragment of the beta-interferon promoter. We show that the protein binds to NRDI and PRDII elements of the promoter with its first and second AT-hook, respectively. Phosphorylation by Cdc2 kinase leads to a partial derailing of the AT-hooks from the minor groove, affecting mainly the second binding domain. In contrast, binding to long AT stretches of DNA involves contacts with all three AT-hooks and is marginally sensitive to phosphorylation. Our data stress the importance of conformation of the DNA binding site and protein phosphorylation for its function. (+info)
The tumor-associated gene HMGIC is expressed in normal and osteoarthritis-affected synovia.
Chromosomal rearrangements involving chromosome bands 12q13-15 are very frequent findings in benign solid tumors, and recently, the primary molecular target for these aberrations was identified as the gene HMGIC. However, mutations in this gene have also been observed in nonneoplastic tissues. In a previous study, we reported breakpoints within HMGIC of synovia affected by osteoarthritis (OA) in two cases with 12q15 aberrations. To analyze further the role of HMGIC in this disease, we have performed cytogenetic, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), RNA, and protein expression analyses on synovial samples from patients with OA and individuals without signs of the disorder. Cytogenetic analysis of short-term cultured cells revealed clonal 12q13-15 aberrations in 2/36 cases of OA synovia and no rearrangement in any of the five controls. With FISH analysis, it was shown that the chromosomal breakpoints in the two aberrant cases were located outside the HMGIC locus. In contrast, at RNA and protein expression analyses, OA-affected as well as normal synovia displayed transcription and translation of the gene. We also analyzed whether immunoreactivity for HMGIC was associated with the proliferation-specific antigen Ki-67, but no correlation between the staining patterns of these proteins was observed. From the results of the present study, it is evident that expression of HMGIC cannot simply be considered a sign of neoplasia or an effect of proliferation. (+info)
Requirement for high mobility group protein HMGI-C interaction with STAT3 inhibitor PIAS3 in repression of alpha-subunit of epithelial Na+ channel (alpha-ENaC) transcription by Ras activation in salivary epithelial cells.
Previously, we have demonstrated that oxidative stress or Ras/ERK activation leads to the transcriptional repression of alpha-subunit of epithelial Na(+) channel (ENaC) in lung and salivary epithelial cells. Here, we further investigated the coordinated molecular mechanisms by which alpha-ENaC expression is regulated. Using both stable and transient transfection assays, we demonstrate that the overexpression of high mobility group protein I-C (HMGI-C), a Ras/ERK-inducible HMG-I family member, represses glucocorticoid receptor (GR)/dexamethasone (Dex)-stimulated alpha-ENaC/reporter activity in salivary epithelial cells. Northern analyses further confirm that the expression of endogenous alpha-ENaC gene in salivary Pa-4 cells is suppressed by an ectopic HMGI-C overexpression. Through yeast two-hybrid screening and co-immunoprecipitation assays from eukaryotic cells, we also discovered the interaction between HMGI-C and PIAS3 (protein inhibitor of activated STAT3 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 3)). A low level of ectopically expressed PIAS3 cooperatively inhibits GR/Dex-dependent alpha-ENaC transcription in the presence of HMGI-C. Reciprocally, HMGI-C expression also coordinately enhances PIAS3-mediated repression of STAT3-dependent transactivation. Moreover, overexpression of antisense HMGI-C construct is capable of reversing the repression mediated by Ras V12 on GR- and STAT3-dependent transcriptional activation. Together, our results demonstrate that Ras/ERK-mediated induction of HMGI-C is required to effectively repress GR/Dex-stimulated transcription of alpha-ENaC gene and STAT3-mediated transactivation. These findings delineate a network of inhibitory signaling pathways that converge on HMGI-C.PIAS3 complex, causally associating Ras/ERK activation with the repression of both GR and STAT3 signaling pathways in salivary epithelial cells. (+info)
The expression of HMGA genes is regulated by their 3'UTR.
Many benign mesenchymal tumors are characterized by chromosomal abnormalities of the regions 12q15 or 6p21.3 leading to aberrant expression of either HMGA2 (formerly HMGIC) or HMGA1 (formerly HMGIY). The proteins of both genes belong to the HMGA (formerly HMGI(Y)) family of architectural transcription factors. As a rule, aberrant HMGA transcripts found in a variety of benign tumors have intact coding regions at least for the DNA binding domains with a truncation of their 3' untranslated regions. Adding this to the finding that an altered HMGA protein level is not always correlated with an increased amount of corresponding mRNA indicates a posttranscriptional expression control mediated by regulatory elements within the 3'UTR. To check if HMGA expression is under control of such elements we performed luciferase assays with several HMGA2 and HMGA1 3'UTRs of different length. Experiments showed that an up to 12-fold increase in luciferase activity is obtained by the truncation of the 3'UTRs suggesting that the expression of HMGA2 and HMGA1 is controlled by negatively acting regulatory elements within their 3'UTR. Chromosomal aberrations affecting the HMGA genes may therefore influence their expression by an altered stability of the truncated transcripts as a result of the cytogenetic aberrations. (+info)