(1/416) Voluntary newborn HIV-1 antibody testing: a successful model program for the identification of HIV-1-seropositive infants.
Harlem Hospital in New York City has one of the highest HIV-1 newborn seroprevalence rates in the United States. We report the results of a program introduced in 1993 and designed to identify HIV-1-seropositive (HIV+) newborns at birth. All new mothers, independent of risk, received HIV counseling that emphasized the medical imperative to know the infant's HIV status as well as their own. Consent was obtained to test the infant; discarded cord blood samples were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and when positive, Western Blot confirmation. We compared the number of HIV+ infants identified through voluntary testing with the number reported by the anonymous New York State Newborn HIV Seroprevalence Study. In 1993, 97.8% (91 of 93) of the number of HIV+ infants identified by the anonymous testing were identified through voluntary maternal and newborn testing programs. Eighty-five HIV+ infants were identified before nursery discharge: 50% (42/85) through newborn testing; 14% (12/85) through prenatal testing; 13% (11/85) presented to care knowing their status; 23% (20/85) were known because of a previous HIV+ child. Six additional HIV+ children were diagnosed after hospital discharge (mean age, 5.5 months; range 1.5 through 17 months); four presented with symptomatic disease. The optimal time for identification of the HIV+ pregnant woman is before or during pregnancy, but when this does not occur, voluntary newborn testing can identify many HIV+ infants who would otherwise be discharged undiagnosed from the nursery. (+info)
(2/416) Oral examination: a screening tool for HIV infection?
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the predictive values for HIV infection of diagnosis of oral manifestations of the infection. METHOD: Prevalence of oral manifestations was compared in cross sectional blinded clinical examinations of homosexual men attending a genitourinary medicine clinic. Data were extrapolated to populations in England and Wales based on estimates of the prevalence of HIV infection. RESULTS: Data were analysed for 572 HIV infected and non-infected men (312 and 260 respectively). Positive predictive values for erythematous candidiasis, hairy leucoplakia and pseudomembranous candidiasis were greater than 0.96 at the genitourinary medicine clinic and are estimated to be greater than 0.72 among homosexual men in London. CONCLUSIONS: Clinical diagnoses of mucosal lesions alone are poor predictors of HIV infection but are useful when used in conjunction with a social history to establish if there are risk factors for infection. (+info)
(3/416) Trend of HIV incidence rates among drug users in an HIV epicenter in northern Thailand (1989-1997).
OBJECTIVES: To determine trends and associated risk factors of HIV incidence (1989-1997) in a drug abuse treatment clinic in northern Thailand where HIV is epidemic. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. METHODS: Nine-years (1989-1997) of data (excluding names) from the logbook of drug abusers seeking treatments in Mae Chan Hospital in Chiangrai Thailand, were transcribed and double-entered into separate computer files which were later validated against each other. For each patient, the dates of the first HIV negative, the last HIV negative, and the first HIV positive were determined. A retrospective cohort of drug users who were initially HIV-negative and treated for more than once was constructed. HIV seroconversion was assumed to follow a uniform distribution between the last negative and the first positive HIV tests. The incidence rates and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. RESULTS: Of the 378 repeat patients, 16 (4.2%) HIV seroconverted. This is equivalent to 5.11 per 100 person-years of observation (PYO) (95% CI = 3.13-8.35). The incidence remained relatively stable over the study period while the prevalence was on the decline. The younger, Thai lowlanders, drug injectors had higher incidence rates than the older, ethnic minorities and drug smokers, respectively. CONCLUSION: Prevalence can give illusional results. It is necessary to know baseline HIV incidence to monitor and evaluate an HIV intervention program. (+info)
(4/416) Non-participation bias in unlinked anonymous HIV-prevalence surveys in England and Wales.
The objective was to assess the potential bias in unlinked anonymous HIV-seroprevalence surveys from objections to specimens being included. Objection rates in seroprevalence surveys were examined. Statistically large clusters of objections were considered to be the result of health care worker behaviour, and were disregarded. Underlying objection rates were estimated from remaining data and compared to seroprevalence. Overall objection rates approached or exceeded seroprevalence in many participating centres. However, underlying objection rates declined with time while prevalences were generally unchanging. Also, underlying rates correlated poorly with observed seroprevalences. Findings were therefore consistent with processes producing the clusters of objections and underlying objection rates independently of serostatus of individuals. Although national seroprevalence estimates produced by the surveys are reasonably free from objection bias, regional seroprevalence estimates outside London remain vulnerable to bias as a result of some centres returning data whose quality cannot be guaranteed. (+info)
(5/416) Per-contact risk of human immunodeficiency virus transmission between male sexual partners.
The risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission from various types of homosexual contact, including oral sex, is of biologic, epidemiologic, and public health importance. The per-contact risk of acquiring HIV infection from specific acts was estimated in a prospective cohort study of 2,189 high-risk homosexual and bisexual men, conducted in San Francisco, California; Denver, Colorado; and Chicago, Illinois, in 1992-1994. During 2,633 person-years of follow-up, 60 seroconversions were observed. The estimated per-contact risk of acquiring HIV from unprotected receptive anal intercourse (URA) was 0.82 percent (95% confidence interval: 0.24, 2.76 percent) when the partner was known to be HIV+ and 0.27 percent (95% confidence interval: 0.06, 0.49 percent) when partners of unknown serostatus were included. There was heterogeneity in per-contact risk, with nine seroconversions occurring after only one or two episodes of URA. The per-contact risk associated with unprotected insertive anal and receptive oral sex with HIV-positive or unknown serostatus partners was 0.06 and 0.04 percent, respectively. URA accounted for only 15 percent of all reported sexual activity by seroconverters. As lower-risk practices become more common, they may play a larger role in propagating the epidemic and should also be addressed by interventions targeting high-risk homosexual and bisexual men. (+info)
(6/416) Human immunodeficiency virus seroprevalence among inmates of the penitentiary complex of the region of campinas, state of Sao Paulo, Brazil.
Six hundred and ninety three male inmates from three penitentiaries, two (A and B) maximum-security systems and one (C) minimum-security facility, located in Campinas, State of Sao Paulo, Brazil were studied for the presence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antibodies, using a cross-sectional design. The search for anti-HIV antibodies in 693 samples of sera collected was carried out by two serological tests: (a) the Microparticle enzyme immunoassay-HIV-1 and HIV-2 (MEIA) (Abbott Laboratories) and (b) the Western Blot-HIV-1 (WB) (Cambridge Biotech Corporation) to confirm positive results with MEIA. Sera reactivity for HIV antibodies was 14.4%. The highest frequency of anti-HIV antibodies was found in the A and B maximum-security prisons: 17% and 21.5%, respectively. In prison C, the frequency of reagents was 10.9%. Seventy three inmates, initially negative in the MEIA test, were checked again five and seven months later. Three of them, all from the maximum-security facilities, became reactive in the MEIA test, with confirmation in the WB, suggesting that serological conversion had occurred after imprisonment. (+info)
(7/416) Effects of HIV counseling and testing on sexual risk behavior: a meta-analytic review of published research, 1985-1997.
OBJECTIVES: This study examined whether HIV counseling and testing leads to reductions in sexual risk behavior. METHODS: The meta-analysis included 27 published studies that provided sexual behavior outcome data, assessed behavior before and after counseling and testing, and provided details sufficient for the calculation of effect sizes. The studies involved 19,597 participants. RESULTS: After counseling and testing, HIV-positive participants and HIV-serodiscordant couples reduced unprotected intercourse and increased condom use more than HIV-negative and untested participants. HIV-negative participants did not modify their behavior more than untested participants. Participants' age, volition for testing, and injection drug use treatment status, as well as the sample seroprevalence and length of the follow-up, explained the variance in results. CONCLUSIONS: HIV counseling and testing appears to provide an effective means of secondary prevention for HIV-positive individuals but, as conducted in the reviewed studies, is not an effective primary prevention strategy for uninfected participants. Theory-driven research with attention given to the context of testing is needed to further explicate the determinants of behavior change resulting from HIV counseling and testing, and the effectiveness of specific counseling approaches. (+info)
(8/416) Use of a hybrid capture assay of self-collected vaginal swabs in rural Uganda for detection of human papillomavirus.
A random sample of 960 women aged 15-59 years enrolled in a population-based study in rural Uganda were asked to provide self-collected vaginal swabs for human papillomavirus (HPV) testing by hybrid capture assay. The intensity of HPV infection was assessed by the relative light unit (RLU) ratio in the specimen-to-positive control (PC) ratio. In total, 898 women (93%) provided a swab and 737 provided serum for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) determination. HPV prevalence was 16.7% and was highest in younger women. HIV-1 prevalence was 17.8%. HPV prevalence was 44.3% in HIV-positive and 10.2% in HIV-negative women (rate ratio, 5.36; 95% confidence interval, 3.81-7.54). The intensity of HPV infection was significantly greater among HIV-positive than HIV-negative women (54. 4 vs. 11.1 RLU/PC; P=.026); intensity of infection was highest in women aged <30 years. The higher prevalence and intensity of HPV infection in HIV-positive women could facilitate HPV transmission in this population. Self-collected vaginal swabs could be used in population-based screening to identify women at high risk of cervical neoplasia. (+info)