(1/1724) Issues in the treatment of active tuberculosis in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients.
Most HIV-infected patients with tuberculosis can be treated satisfactorily with standard regimens with expectations of good results. Treatment of tuberculosis in these patients has been complicated by the introduction of HAART, which relies on drugs that interfere with the most potent class of antituberculous medications. Rifampin-free regimens or regimens that employ rifabutin may be acceptable strategies for patients who are receiving protease inhibitors, although these regimens have not been rigorously evaluated in patients with AIDS. At present, there is good reason to believe that a 6-month course of a rifabutin-containing regimen or a 9-12-month course of a regimen of streptomycin, isoniazid, and pyrazinamide should be adequate therapy for most patients with drug-susceptible disease. As the treatment of HIV infection with antiretroviral agents evolves, the treatment of tuberculosis in patients with AIDS is likely to evolve as well. This will require careful coordination of antituberculosis and antiretroviral therapies. (+info)
(2/1724) Inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 replication by combination of transcription inhibitor K-12 and other antiretroviral agents in acutely and chronically infected cells.
8-Difluoromethoxy-1-ethyl-6-fluoro-1,4-dihydro-7-[4-(2-methoxyp hen yl)-1- piperazinyl]-4-oxoquinoline-3-carboxylic acid (K-12) has recently been identified as a potent and selective inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) transcription. In this study, we examined several combinations of K-12 and other antiretroviral agents for their inhibitory effects on HIV-1 replication in acutely and chronically infected cell cultures. Combinations of K-12 and a reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitor, either zidovudine, lamivudine, or nevirapine, synergistically inhibited HIV-1 replication in acutely infected MT-4 cells. The combination of K-12 and the protease inhibitor nelfinavir (NFV) also synergistically inhibited HIV-1, whereas the synergism of this combination was weaker than that of the combinations with the RT inhibitors. K-12 did not enhance the cytotoxicities of RT and protease inhibitors. Synergism of the combinations was also observed in acutely infected peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The combination of K-12 and cepharanthine, a nuclear factor kappa B inhibitor, synergistically inhibited HIV-1 production in tumor necrosis factor alpha-stimulated U1 cells, a promonocytic cell line chronically infected with the virus. In contrast, additive inhibition was observed for the combination of K-12 and NFV. These results indicate that the combinations of K-12 and clinically available antiretroviral agents may have potential as chemotherapeutic modalities for the treatment of HIV-1 infection. (+info)
(3/1724) Metabolic characterization of a tripeptide human immunodeficiency virus type 1 protease inhibitor, KNI-272, in rat liver microsomes.
KNI-272 is a tripeptide protease inhibitor for treating human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). In in vitro stability studies using rat tissue homogenates, KNI-272 concentrations in the liver, kidney, and brain decreased significantly with time. Moreover, in tissue distribution studies, KNI-272 distributed highly to the liver, kidney, and small intestine in vivo. From these results and reported physiological parameters such as the tissue volume and tissue blood flow rate, we considered the liver to be the main organ which takes part in the metabolic elimination of KNI-272. Then the hepatic metabolism of KNI-272 was more thoroughly investigated by using rat liver microsomes. KNI-272 was metabolized in the rat liver microsomes, and five metabolites were found. The initial metabolic rate constant (kmetabolism) tended to decrease when the KNI-272 concentration in microsomal suspensions increased. The calculated Michaelis-Menten constant (K(m)) and the maximum velocity of KNI-272 metabolism (Vmax), after correction for the unbound drug concentration, were 1.12 +/- 0.09 micrograms/ml (1.68 +/- 0.13 microM) and 0.372 +/- 0.008 microgram/mg of protein/min (0.558 +/- 0.012 nmol/mg of protein per min), respectively. The metabolic clearance (CLint,metabo), calculated as Vmax/K(m), was 0.332 ml/mg of protein per min. Moreover, by using selective cytochrome P-450 inhibitors and recombinant human CYP3A4 fractions, KNI-272 was determined to be metabolized mainly by the CYP3A isoform. In addition, ketoconazole, a representative CYP3A inhibitor, inhibited KNI-272 metabolism competitively, and the inhibition constant (Ki) was 4.32 microM. (+info)
(4/1724) Effects of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 resistance to protease inhibitors on reverse transcriptase processing, activity, and drug sensitivity.
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) variants resistant to protease inhibitors often display a reduced replicative capacity as a result of an impairment of protease function. Such fitness-impaired viruses display Gag precursor maturation defects. Here, we report that some protease inhibitor-resistant viruses also display abnormalities in the processing of reverse transcriptase (RT) by the protease. In three recombinant viruses carrying resistant protease sequences from patient plasma, we observed a marked decrease in the amount of mature RT subunits and of particle-associated RT activity compared to their parental pretherapy counterparts. We investigated the possibility that a decrease in the amount of particle-associated mature RT could affect the sensitivity of the corresponding virus to RT inhibitors. We observed a twofold increase of sensitivity to zidovudine (AZT) when a virus which carried AZT mutations was processed by a resistant protease. Interestingly, the presence of AZT-resistance mutations partially rescued the replication defect associated with the mutated protease. The interplay between resistance to protease inhibitors and to RT inhibitors described here may be relevant to the therapeutic control of HIV-1 infection. (+info)
(5/1724) Molecular mechanisms of resistance: free energy calculations of mutation effects on inhibitor binding to HIV-1 protease.
The changes in the inhibitor binding constants due to the mutation of isoleucine to valine at position 84 of HIV-1 protease are calculated using molecular dynamics simulations. The calculations are done for three potent inhibitors--KNI-272, L-735,524 (indinavir or MK-639), and Ro 31-8959 (saquinavir). The calculations agree with the experimental data both in terms of an overall trend and in the magnitude of the resulting free energy change. HIV-1 protease is a homodimer, so each mutation causes two changes in the enzyme. The decrease in the binding free energy from each mutated side chain differs among the three inhibitors and correlates well with the size of the cavities induced in the protein interior near the mutated residue. The cavities are created as a result of a mutation to a smaller side chain, but the cavities are less than would be predicted from the wild-type structures, indicating that there is significant relaxation to partially fill the cavities. (+info)
(6/1724) Antiviral effect and pharmacokinetic interaction between nevirapine and indinavir in persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1.
Nevirapine and indinavir have the potential of affecting the pharmacokinetics of each other. In a prospective trial, 24 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected subjects on stable nucleoside or no therapy were treated with 800 mg of indinavir every 8 h. After 7 days, 200 mg of nevirapine a day was added for 14 days and then increased to 200 mg twice a day. At day 7 (before nevirapine), there was a sevenfold difference among the subjects in indinavir area under the curve (AUC), and there was a significant correlation between indinavir AUC (r2=0.378, P=.019), minimum plasma concentration (Cmin; r2=0.359, P=.023), maximum plasma concentration (Cmax; r2=0.340, P=.028), and plasma HIV RNA decline. Nevirapine significantly reduced median indinavir Cmin (47.5%) and AUC (27.4%) and, to a lesser extent, Cmax (11%). Plasma HIV RNA values were =20 copies/mL in 10 of 17 (58.8%) subjects at 58 weeks or last visit. These data suggest that indinavir dosing should be dependent on drug exposure and not on cotherapy with nevirapine. (+info)
(7/1724) Genotypic resistance and the treatment of HIV-1 infection in Espirito Santo, Brazil.
Before December 1997, in Espirito Santo, Brazil, combination antiretroviral therapy was used without routine virologic or immunologic monitoring. To examine consequences of therapy in this setting, clinical information, human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) RNA levels, CD4 cell counts, and protease and reverse transcriptase sequences were determined for consecutive HIV-1-infected outpatients. Of 48 treatment-naive individuals, 11 were started on therapy for HIV-related symptoms; however, 44 (92%) had an RNA level >20,000 copies/mL, a CD4 cell count <500/mm3, or symptoms. Eighteen (51%) of 35 patients on therapy had an RNA level >20,000 copies/mL. Nucleoside-resistance mutations were observed in 21 (68%) of 31 nucleoside-experienced subjects. Protease mutations necessary for high-level protease inhibitor (PI) resistance were present together with permissive mutations in 3 of 10 PI-experienced patients. Inability to identify high-risk individuals and to detect virologic failure may limit the effectiveness of antiretroviral drug programs and may promote the spread of drug resistance where virologic and immunologic monitoring are not available. (+info)
(8/1724) Replicative fitness of protease inhibitor-resistant mutants of human immunodeficiency virus type 1.
The relative replicative fitness of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) mutants selected by different protease inhibitors (PIs) in vivo was determined. Each mutant was compared to wild type (WT), NL4-3, in the absence of drugs by several methods, including clonal genotyping of cultures infected with two competing viral variants, kinetics of viral antigen production, and viral infectivity/virion particle ratios. A nelfinavir-selected protease D30N substitution substantially decreased replicative capacity relative to WT, while a saquinavir-selected L90M substitution moderately decreased fitness. The D30N mutant virus was also outcompeted by the L90M mutant in the absence of drugs. A major natural polymorphism of the HIV-1 protease, L63P, compensated well for the impairment of fitness caused by L90M but only slightly improved the fitness of D30N. Multiply substituted indinavir-selected mutants M46I/L63P/V82T/I84V and L10R/M46I/L63P/V82T/I84V were just as fit as WT. These results indicate that the mutations which are usually initially selected by nelfinavir and saquinavir, D30N and L90M, respectively, impair fitness. However, additional mutations may improve the replicative capacity of these and other drug-resistant mutants. Hypotheses based on the greater fitness impairment of the nelfinavir-selected D30N mutant are suggested to explain observations that prolonged responses to delayed salvage regimens, including alternate PIs, may be relatively common after nelfinavir failure. (+info)