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(1/521) A novel Vpr peptide interactor fused to integrase (IN) restores integration activity to IN-defective HIV-1 virions.

A novel approach to complement human immunodeficiency virus type I (HIV-1) integrase (IN)-defective virions has been identified. The approach involves fusion of a 23-amino-acid stretch to the N-terminus of wild-type IN and coexpression of this chimera with the IN-defective proviral template in virus producing cells. The 23-amino-acid peptide represents a Vpr "interactor," referred to as the the WxxF or WF domain, which apparently leads to docking of the domain along with the fusion partner onto HIV-1 Vpr, thus permitting virion incorporation of the chimeric protein when expressed, in trans, with other viral products. Transfection of the WF-IN expression plasmid along with HIV-1 viral clones that produce Vpr, but bear an IN mutation, results in the release of a proportion of viral particles that are competent for integration. The extent of complementation was assessed using the MAGI cell assay, where integration of viral DNA results in the eventual appearance of easily visible multinucleated blue syncytia. The efficiency of dWF-IN (double copy of WF domain) complementation is not improved markedly by incorporation of a HIV-1 protease cleavage site (PR) between the dWF domain and IN (dWF-PR-IN), unlike that observed with Vpr fusions to IN. Furthermore, the ability of Vpr-PR-IN and dWF-PR-IN to complement IN-defective proviral clones, both of which bear an intervening protease cleavage site, appear comparable. Western blotting analyses using virions isolated through sucrose cushions demonstrate clearly the incorporation of the dWF-IN fusion protein into Vpr containing HIV-1 particles but not in Vpr-deficient virions. Additional Western blotting analyses indicate that all Vpr-IN and dWF-IN chimeras, with or without a PR site, are packaged into virions. The efficiency of virion incorporation of Vpr-IN and dWF-IN chimeras appears approximately comparable by Western blotting analysis. The ability of dWF-IN to complement IN-defective proviruses with efficiency similar to that of Vpr-PR-IN and dWF-PR-IN indicates that dWF-IN retains the full complement of functions necessary for integration of proviral DNA and is likely due to the benign nature of this small domain at the amino-terminus of IN.  (+info)

(2/521) Dissecting the role of the N-terminal domain of human immunodeficiency virus integrase by trans-complementation analysis.

The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) integrase protein (IN) catalyzes two reactions required to integrate HIV DNA into the human genome: 3' processing of the viral DNA ends and integration. IN has three domains, the N-terminal zinc-binding domain, the catalytic core, and the C-terminal SH3 domain. Previously, it was shown that IN proteins mutated in different domains could complement each other. We now report that this does not require any overlap between the two complementing proteins; an N-terminal domain, provided in trans, can restore IN activity of a mutant lacking this domain. Only the zinc-coordinating form of the N-terminal domain can efficiently restore IN activity of an N-terminal deletion mutant. This suggests that interaction between different domains of IN is needed for functional multimerization. We find that the N-terminal domain of feline immunodeficiency virus IN can support IN activity of an N-terminal deletion mutant of HIV type 2 IN. These cross-complementation experiments indicate that the N-terminal domain contributes to the recognition of specific viral DNA ends.  (+info)

(3/521) Irreversible inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 integrase by dicaffeoylquinic acids.

Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and other retroviruses require integration of a double-stranded DNA copy of the RNA genome into the host cell chromosome for productive infection. The viral enzyme, integrase, catalyzes the integration of retroviral DNA and represents an attractive target for developing antiretroviral agents. We identified several derivatives of dicaffeoylquinic acids (DCQAs) that inhibit HIV-1 replication in tissue culture and catalytic activities of HIV-1 integrase in vitro. The specific step at which DCQAs inhibit the integration in vitro and the mechanism of inhibition were examined in the present study. Titration experiments with different concentrations of HIV-1 integrase or DNA substrate found that the effect of DCQAs was exerted on the enzyme and not the DNA. In addition to HIV-1, DCQAs also inhibited the in vitro activities of MLV integrase and truncated variants of feline immunodeficiency virus integrase, suggesting that these compounds interacted with the central core domain of integrase. The inhibition on retroviral integrases was relatively specific, and DCQAs had no effect on several other DNA-modifying enzymes and phosphoryltransferases. Kinetic analysis and dialysis experiments showed that the inhibition of integrase by DCQAs was irreversible. The inhibition did not require the presence of a divalent cation and was unaffected by preassembling integrase onto viral DNA. The results suggest that the irreversible inhibition by DCQAs on integrase is directed toward conserved amino acid residues in the central core domain during catalysis.  (+info)

(4/521) Conformational aspects of HIV-1 integrase inhibition by a peptide derived from the enzyme central domain and by antibodies raised against this peptide.

Monospecific antibodies were raised against a synthetic peptide K159 (SQGVVESMNKELKKIIGQVRDQAEHLKTA) reproducing the segment 147-175 of HIV-1 integrase (IN). Synthesis of substituted and truncated analogs of K159 led us to identify the functional epitope reacting with antibodies within the C-terminal portion 163-175 of K159. Conformational studies combining secondary structure predictions, CD and NMR spectroscopy together with ELISA assays, showed that the greater is the propensity of the epitope for helix formation the higher is the recognition by anti-K159. Both the antibodies and the antigenic peptide K159 exhibited inhibitory activities against IN. In contrast, neither P159, a Pro-containing analog of K159 that presents a kink around proline but with intact epitope conformation, nor the truncated analogs encompassing the epitope, were inhibitors of IN. While the activity of antibodies is restricted to recognition of the sole epitope portion, that of the antigenic K159 likely requires interactions of the peptide with the whole 147-175 segment in the protein [Sourgen F., Maroun, R.G., Frere, V., Bouziane, A., Auclair, C., Troalen, F. & Fermandjian, S. (1996) Eur. J. Biochem. 240, 765-773]. Actually, of all tested peptides only K159 was found to fulfill condition of minimal number of helical heptads to achieve the formation of a stable coiled-coil structure with the IN 147-175 segment. The binding of antibodies and of the antigenic peptide to this segment of IN hampers the binding of IN to its DNA substrates in filter-binding assays. This appears to be the main effect leading to inhibition of integration. Quantitative analysis of filter-binding assay curves indicates that two antibody molecules react with IN implying that the enzyme is dimeric within these experimental conditions. Together, present data provide an insight into the structure-function relationship for the 147-175 peptide domain of the enzyme. They also strongly suggest that the functional enzyme is dimeric. Results could help to assess models for binding of peptide fragments to IN and to develop stronger inhibitors. Moreover, K159 antibodies when expressed in vivo might exhibit useful inhibitory properties.  (+info)

(5/521) Monoclonal antibodies against the minimal DNA-binding domain in the carboxyl-terminal region of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 integrase.

Integrase of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIVIN) consists of 288 amino acids, and its minimum DNA-binding domain (MDBD) (amino acids [aa] 220 to 270) is required for the integration reaction. We produced and characterized four murine monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) to the MDBD of HIVIN (strain LAI). Immunoblot and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays with truncated HIVINs showed that those MAbs recognized sequential epitopes within the MDBD (aa 228 to 236, 237 to 252, 253 to 261, and 262 to 270). Their binding to HIVIN inhibited terminal cleavage and strand transfer activities but not disintegration activity in vitro. This collection of MAbs is useful for studying the structure and function of the MDBD by complementing mutational analyses and other biochemical studies.  (+info)

(6/521) Activity of recombinant HIV-1 integrase on mini-HIV DNA.

Integration of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) cDNA into the genome of a human cell is an essential step in the viral replication cycle. Understanding of the integration process has been facilitated by the development of in vitro assays using specific oligonucleotides and recombinant integrase. However, understanding of the biology of retroviral integration will require in vitro and in vivo model systems using long DNA substrates that mimic the HIV cDNA. We have now studied the activity of recombinant HIV-1 integrase on a linear 4.7 kb double-stranded DNA, containing flanking regions of approximately 200 bp that represent the intact ends of the HIV-1 long terminal repeat (LTR) sequences (mini-HIV). The strand transfer products of the integration reaction can be directly visualized after separation in agarose gels by ethidium bromide staining. The most prominent reaction product resulted from integration of one LTR end into another LTR end (U5 into U5 and U5 into U3). Sequence analysis of the reaction products showed them to be products of legitimate integration preceded by correct processing of the viral LTR ends. Hotspots for integration were detected. Electron microscopy revealed the presence of a range of reaction products resulting from single or multiple integration events. The binding of HIV-1 integrase to mini-HIV DNA was visualized. Oligomers of integrase seem to induce DNA looping whereby the enzyme often appears to be bound to the DNA substrate that adopts the structure of a three-site synapsis that is reminiscent of the Mu phage transposase complex.  (+info)

(7/521) Molecular dynamics studies on the HIV-1 integrase catalytic domain.

The HIV-1 integrase, which is essential for viral replication, catalyzes the insertion of viral DNA into the host chromosome, thereby recruiting host cell machinery into making viral proteins. It represents the third main HIV enzyme target for inhibitor design, the first two being the reverse transcriptase and the protease. Two 1-ns molecular dynamics simulations have been carried out on completely hydrated models of the HIV-1 integrase catalytic domain, one with no metal ions and another with one magnesium ion in the catalytic site. The simulations predict that the region of the active site that is missing in the published crystal structures has (at the time of this work) more secondary structure than previously thought. The flexibility of this region has been discussed with respect to the mechanistic function of the enzyme. The results of these simulations will be used as part of inhibitor design projects directed against the catalytic domain of the enzyme.  (+info)

(8/521) Multiple integrase functions are required to form the native structure of the human immunodeficiency virus type I intasome.

Mu-mediated polymerase chain reaction footprinting was used to investigate the protein-DNA structure of human immunodeficiency virus type I (HIV-I) preintegration complexes. Preintegration complexes were partially purified from cells after using an established coculture infection technique as well as a novel technique using cell-free supernatant from transfected cells as the source of virus. Footprinting revealed that bound proteins protected the terminal 200-250 base pairs of each viral end from nuclease attack. Bound proteins also caused strong transpositional enhancements near each end of HIV-I. In contrast, regions of viral DNA internal to the ends did not show evidence of strong protein binding. The end regions of preintegrative HIV-I apparently form a unique nucleoprotein structure, which we term the intasome to distinguish it from the greater preintegration complex. Our novel system also allowed us to analyze the structure and function of preintegration complexes isolated from cells infected with integrase mutant viruses. Complexes were derived from viruses defective for either integrase catalysis, integrase binding to the viral DNA substrate, or an unknown function in the carboxyl-terminal domain of the integrase protein. None of these mutant complexes supported detectable integration activity. Despite the presence of the mutant integrase proteins in purified samples, none of these nucleoprotein complexes displayed the native intasome structure detected in wild-type preintegration complexes. We conclude that multiple integrase functions are required to form the native structure of the HIV-I intasome in infected cells.  (+info)