(1/787) Evolution and biological characterization of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 subtype E gp120 V3 sequences following horizontal and vertical virus transmission in a single family.

It has been suggested that immune-pressure-mediated positive selection operates to maintain the antigenic polymorphism on the third variable (V3) loop of the gp120 of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Here we present evidence, on the basis of sequencing 147 independently cloned env C2/V3 segments from a single family (father, mother, and their child), that the intensity of positive selection is related to the V3 lineage. Phylogenetic analysis and amino acid comparison of env C2/V3 and gag p17/24 regions indicated that a single HIV-1 subtype E source had infected the family. The analyses of unique env C2/V3 clones revealed that two V3 lineage groups had evolved in the parents. Group 1 was maintained with low variation in all three family members regardless of the clinical state or the length of infection, whereas group 2 was only present in symptomatic individuals and was more positively charged and diverse than group 1. Only virus isolates carrying the group 2 V3 sequences infected and induced syncytia in MT2 cells, a transformed CD4(+)-T-cell line. A statistically significant excess of nonsynonymous substitutions versus synonymous substitutions was demonstrated only for the group 2 V3 region. The data suggest that HIV-1 variants, possessing the more homogeneous group 1 V3 element and exhibiting the non-syncytium-inducing phenotype, persist in infected individuals independent of clinical status and appear to be more resistant to positive selection pressure.  (+info)

(2/787) Binding of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Gag to membrane: role of the matrix amino terminus.

Binding of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Gag protein precursor, Pr55(Gag), to membrane is an indispensable step in virus assembly. Previously, we reported that a matrix (MA) residue 6 substitution (6VR) imposed a virus assembly defect similar to that observed with myristylation-defective mutants, suggesting that the 6VR change impaired membrane binding. Intriguingly, the 6VR mutation had no effect on Gag myristylation. The defective phenotype imposed by 6VR was reversed by changes at other positions in MA, including residue 97. In this study, we use several biochemical methods to demonstrate that the residue 6 mutation, as well as additional substitutions in MA amino acids 7 and 8, reduce membrane binding without affecting N-terminal myristylation. This effect is observed in the context of Pr55(Gag), a truncated Gag containing only MA and CA, and in MA itself. The membrane binding defect imposed by the 6VR mutation is reversed by second-site changes in MA residues 20 and 97, both of which, when present alone, increase membrane binding to levels greater than those for the wild type. Both reduced and enhanced membrane binding imposed by the MA substitutions depend upon the presence of the N-terminal myristate. The results support the myristyl switch model recently proposed for the regulation of Gag membrane binding, according to which membrane binding is determined by the degree of exposure or sequestration of the N-terminal myristate moiety. Alternatively, insertion of the myristate into the lipid bilayer might be a prerequisite event for the function of other distinct MA-encoded membrane binding domains.  (+info)

(3/787) Engineering of noninfectious HIV-1-like particles containing mutant gp41 glycoproteins as vaccine candidates that allow vaccinees to be distinguished from HIV-1 infectees.

Many AIDS vaccine candidates under development may elicit immune responses similar to those observed in and used to screen human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected individuals. Therefore, it is important to develop vaccine candidates that incorporate antigenic markers and allow vaccinees to be distinguished from HIV-1 infectees. To this end, we introduced a series of mutations into and in the vicinity of the major immunodominant region (MIR) of gp41 (residues 598-609), a domain recognized by almost all HIV-1 infectees, and evaluated whether HIV-1-like particles incorporating such mutant glycoproteins could be expressed in mammalian cells. Results indicated that although up to three consecutive amino acids could be replaced within MIR without significantly affecting particle formation or gp160 processing, deletions within MIR impaired envelope processing. Replacement of HIV-1 MIR by part or most of the corresponding domain from other lentiviruses markedly decreased or abolished gp160 processing. Synthetic peptides corresponding to a mutated MIR incorporating three amino acid replacements were not recognized by a panel of sera from HIV-1 infectees, suggesting that HIV-1-like particles with this type of mutation represent potential candidate vaccines that could allow vaccinees to be distinguished from HIV-1 infectees.  (+info)

(4/787) Translation elongation factor 1-alpha interacts specifically with the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Gag polyprotein.

Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) gag-encoded proteins play key functions at almost all stages of the viral life cycle. Since these functions may require association with cellular factors, the HIV-1 matrix protein (MA) was used as bait in a yeast two-hybrid screen to identify MA-interacting proteins. MA was found to interact with elongation factor 1-alpha (EF1alpha), an essential component of the translation machinery that delivers aminoacyl-tRNA to ribosomes. EF1alpha was then shown to bind the entire HIV-1 Gag polyprotein. This interaction is mediated not only by MA, but also by the nucleocapsid domain, which provides a second, independent EF1alpha-binding site on the Gag polyprotein. EF1alpha is incorporated within HIV-1 virion membranes, where it is cleaved by the viral protease and protected from digestion by exogenously added subtilisin. The specificity of the interaction is demonstrated by the fact that EF1alpha does not bind to nonlentiviral MAs and does not associate with Moloney murine leukemia virus virions. The Gag-EF1alpha interaction appears to be mediated by RNA, in that basic residues in MA and NC are required for binding to EF1alpha, RNase disrupts the interaction, and a Gag mutant with undetectable EF1alpha-binding activity is impaired in its ability to associate with tRNA in cells. Finally, the interaction between MA and EF1alpha impairs translation in vitro, a result consistent with a previously proposed model in which inhibition of translation by the accumulation of Gag serves to release viral RNA from polysomes, permitting the RNA to be packaged into nascent virions.  (+info)

(5/787) Reappearance of founder virus sequence in human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected patients.

Different patterns of temporal evolution in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 V3 and p17 regions are described for eight patients studied during the first years following primary infection. In samples from three patients, a rapid replacement of the major sequence occurred but the original sequence reappeared later simultaneously with clinical deterioration and increased plasma viral load.  (+info)

(6/787) Changes in and discrepancies between cell tropisms and coreceptor uses of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 induced by single point mutations at the V3 tip of the env protein.

We examined the effect of amino acid substitutions of the GPGR (glycine-proline-glycine-arginine) tip sequence at the V3 domain of the Env protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) on its cell tropism and coreceptor use. We changed the GPGR sequence of a T-cell line (T)- and macrophage (M)-tropic (R5-R3-X4) HIV-1 strain, GUN-1wt, to GA(alanine)GR (the resulting mutant was designated GUN-1/A), GL(leucine)GR (GUN-1/L), GP(proline)GR (GUN-1/P), GR(arginine)GR (GUN-1/R), GS(serine)GR (GUN-1/S), or GT(threonine)GR (GUN-1/T). GUN-1/A, GUN-1/S, and GUN-1/T mutants infected brain-derived cells such as a CD4-transduced glioma cell line, U87/CD4, and a brain-derived primary cell strain, BT-20/N, as well as T-cell lines in a CD4-dependent manner, although the plating of these mutants onto macrophages was inhibited. GUN-1/L, GUN-1/P, and GUN-1/R mutants showed both T- and M-tropism, but did not plate onto the brain-derived cells. A CCR3, CCR5, CCR8, or CXCR4 gene was introduced into a CD4-positive glioma cell line, NP-2/CD4, which demonstrated complete resistance to various HIV-1 strains. Not only HIV-1 strains, which were infectious to macrophages, such as GUN-1wt, GUN-1v, GUN-1/L, and GUN-1/P, but also an HIV-1 strain, GUN-1v, which was hardly infectious to macrophages, grew well in NP-2/CD4 cells expressing CCR3 or CCR5. However, the M-tropic GUN-1/R mutant could not efficiently use CCR5 nor CCR3. No point mutants, except GUN-1/L, grew well in NP-2/CD4 cells expressing CCR8. These findings indicate that the cell tropism of HIV-1 to macrophages and brain-derived cells and their use of the coreceptors were markedly, though not always concomitantly, affected by the tip sequence of the V3 domain.  (+info)

(7/787) The antiviral activity of HIV-specific CD8+ CTL clones is limited by elimination due to encounter with HIV-infected targets.

Adoptive immunotherapy of virus infection with viral-specific CTL has shown promise in animal models and human virus infections and is being evaluated as a therapy for established HIV-1 infection. Defining the individual obstacles for success is difficult in human trials. We have therefore examined the localization, persistence, and antiviral activity of HIV-1 gag-specific CTL clones in both HIV-1-infected and uninfected haplotype-matched human (hu)-PBL-SCID mice. Injection of gag-specific clones but not control CTL into HIV-1-infected hosts reduced plasma viremia by >10-fold but failed to eliminate the virus infection from most treated animals. The failure to eradicate virus did not reflect selection of escape variants because the gag epitope remained unmutated in virus isolates obtained after CTL therapy. Injection of carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimide ester-labeled CTL demonstrated markedly different fates for gag-specific CTL in the presence or absence of HIV-1 infection. HIV-1-specific CTL rapidly disappeared in infected recipients, whereas they were maintained at high numbers in uninfected mice. By contrast, control CTL were long lived in both infected and uninfected recipients. Thus, interaction of CTL with virus-infected target cells in vivo leads not only to target destruction but also to the rapid disappearance of the infused CTL, and it limits the capacity of CTL therapy to eliminate HIV-1 infection.  (+info)

(8/787) Cloning and characterization of hIF2, a human homologue of bacterial translation initiation factor 2, and its interaction with HIV-1 matrix.

The cDNA for a human homologue (hIF2) of bacterial (bIF2) and yeast (yIF2) translation initiation factor two (IF2) has been identified during a screen for proteins which interact with HIV-1 matrix. The hIF2 cDNA encodes a 1220-amino-acid protein with a predicted relative molecular mass of 139 kDa, though endogeneous hIF2 migrates anomalously on SDS/PAGE at 180 kDa. hIF2 has an extended N-terminus compared with its homologues, although its central GTP-binding domain and C-terminus are highly conserved, with 58% sequence identity with yIF2. We have confirmed that hIF2 is required for general translation in human cells by generation of a point mutation in the P-loop of the GTP-binding domain. This mutant protein behaves in a transdominant manner in transient transfections and leads to a significant decrease in the translation of a reporter gene. hIF2 interacts directly with HIV-1 matrix and Gag in vitro, and the protein complex can be immunoprecipitated from human cells. This interaction appears to block hIF2 function, since purified matrix protein inhibits translation in a reticulocyte lysate. hIF2 does not correspond to any of the previously characterized translation initiation factors identified in mammals, but its essential role in translation appears to have been conserved from bacteria to humans.  (+info)