Ethics; 'in consideration of the love he bears.' Apprenticeship in the nineteenth century, and the development of professional ethics in dentistry. Part 1. The practical reality.
This paper takes a look at the ancient institution of apprenticeship. In doing so it regards the conventions of the scheme as having had a positive influence on the morality, legal identity, and professional allegiance of dentists during the ethical development of their profession in the nineteenth century. Two important effects can be detected from the records available. One is general, since the moral ground of apprenticeship derived from, and spread throughout, society, and the other is particular to the development of dentistry as a profession, as those who were apprenticed to dentists acquired a natural loyalty to their dentist Masters in person, and to their craft. (+info)
National Museum of Dentistry exhibition: the future is now! African Americans in dentistry.
Inspired by recently published NDA II: The Story of America's Second National Dental Association and sponsored jointly by the National Dental Association Foundation and the Colgate-Palmolive Company, an historical exhibit on dentistry in the African-American community was one of the celebrations for the Golden Anniversary of the American Academy of the History of Dentistry. This exhibit premiered on Sept. 27, 2002 in the National Museum of Dentistry located on the medical/dental campus of the University of Maryland in Baltimore. The Museum recently became an affiliate of the Smithsonian Institution. Contents of the exhibit were photographs, charts, artifacts, memorabilia, etc. These materials presented an overview of African-American activities in dental education, research, patient care, general practice, dental specialities, military service, and public health. Also included were inter-racial relationships, socioeconomic developments, and participation in civil rights endeavors that played a major role in changing out-dated accepted customs. The exhibit's purpose was to celebrate dentistry's ministrations as a health professional among African Americans in particular and the nation at large over the past two centuries. Respect for and progress of black dentists paralleled that of black physicians who were instrumental in including dentist and pharmacists as equal members in the National Medical Association since the latter's inception in 1895. (+info)
Dentistry in Brazil: its history and current trends.
The objectives of this article are to provide a short history of dentistry and dental education in Brazil and to analyze the nature of its development to date. The databases consulted are those provided by the Brazilian Federal Council of Dentistry, Brazilian Ministry of Health, Brazilian Ministry of Education, National Institute of Studies and Educational Research Anisio Teixeira, and Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics. Formal dental education in Brazil started in the late nineteenth century with the creation of courses annexed to existing schools of medicine in Rio de Janeiro and Bahia. Today, there are 191 institutions of higher education nationwide granting degrees in dentistry (137 private [71.7 percent] and fifty-four public [28.3 percent]), with a total of 17,157 student positions offered annually. These schools graduate around 10,000 professionals per year-one of the highest rates in the world. Both the distribution of schools of dentistry and of dentists varies among the regions of the country, with the greatest concentrations in major metropolitan centers with high population density, resulting in limited coverage in the more deprived regions. A review of epidemiological data for oral health and distribution of dentists in Brazil indicates that there is a lack of systematic planning for the allocation of the dental workforce and a lack of consideration of regional needs in the development of dental training programs in Brazil today. (+info)
Historical perspectives of oral biology: a series.
From antiquity, individuals, tribes, and cultures have sought the abilities of singular individuals to try to heal them or to help them to endure the onslaughts of disease. For thousands of years before recorded history, these services were provided by the medicine man or shaman of the tribe, whose secret treatments were passed from generation to generation by the apprenticeship methods of teaching. For the most part, their therapies were at best palliative and their effects were placebo and psychological in nature. Reliable written records of healing practices began with the ancient Greek civilization about 400 years before Christ. The written recording of rational therapies and practices established the "physician" as one of the premier occupations (or "professions") of ancient Greek society. About 160 years after Christ, the Greek physician Galen began the practice of examining the post-mortem anatomy of various animals and extrapolating his findings in an attempt to understand the structure of the human body. This was the first well-recorded and documented effort in what we, today, would term "biomedical research". While Galen's efforts and written production were massive, his impact on medical practices beyond Greece was minimal due, at least partially, to the lack of mass printing and distribution methods. Ironically, at almost the same time that Galen's complete works were published, Andreas Vesalius of Brussels published the most startling and exquisite book in the history of medicine. Vesalius' De Humani Corporporis Fabrica (1543)2 was a lavish and beautiful exposition of human anatomy. This event, for all intents and purposes, formalized the separation of the science of medicine from its art. We suggest that this event established the division of medicine into two historical streams--the "healers" and the "scientists" (or Streams "H" and "S"). However, even to the present, the biomedical scientists remain dependent on the established institutions of the healers for their very existence and continuity. Very early the dental healers developed as a distinctly separate branch of the H Stream, due to the efficacy and directness of the therapy of tooth extraction and the need for mechanical aptitude for its execution. This was exemplified in the long and successful history of the barber-surgeons, or their earlier equivalents, as therapists in every society on Earth, including the U.S., up to nearly the turn of the 20th century.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) (+info)
Sir John Tomes FRS, Fellows of the Royal Society, and dental reform in the nineteenth century.
In this paper Sir John Tomes HonFRCS LDS FRS (1815-95), surgeon-dentist, is presented as the agent through whose membership of the Royal Society the previously disorganized profession of dentistry shared in the process of reform and scientific progress that engaged the medical profession in the second half of the nineteenth century. The study identifies 70 of the Fellows of the Royal Society who were involved in medical and dental research and/or who gave structure and effect to the governance of the medical and dental professions. In recording the education of Tomes as a scientist, his election to the Society and his place in the process of reform, the paper identifies the Royal Society as a superculture, enabling him to act at a functional remove from the cultures of the surgeons and the dentists of the day. (+info)
Introduction to the 75th anniversary issue of the journal of dental education.
This issue of the Journal of Dental Education is a celebration of its seventy-fifth year as the premier journal for intellectual discourse on all aspects of dental education. It is a well-deserved celebration because it is broader than the journal itself. It is a celebration of excellence, success, and, above all, improved oral health for the American people and beyond. You will read wonderful history, powerful analyses, and insightful judgments in this anniversary issue, produced by some of our best and brightest. In this introduction, I add a few words about our journal and the role it has played in this celebration. Then, I will try to provide a little context about why we are celebrating. Finally, I will provide a brief glimpse of the remarkable experience ahead for readers. (+info)
Evolution of the scientific basis for dentistry and its impact on dental education: past, present, and future.
Science is the fuel for technology and the foundation for understanding the human condition. In dental education, as in all health professions, science informs a basic understanding of development, is essential to understand the structure and function of biological systems, and is prerequisite to understand and perform diagnostics, therapeutics, and clinical outcomes in the treatment of diseases and disorders. During the last seventy-five years, biomedical science has transformed from discipline-based scientists working on a problem to multidisciplinary research teams working to solve complex problems of significance to the larger society. Over these years, we witnessed the convergence of the biological and digital revolutions with clinical health care in medical, dental, pharmacy, nursing, and allied health care professional education. Biomedical science informs our understanding, from human genes and their functions to populations, health disparities, and the biosphere. Science is a "way of knowing," an international enterprise, a prerequisite for the health professions, and a calling and adventure to the curious mind. Science, the activity of doing science, is in the national self-interest, in the defense of a nation, and critical to the improvement of the human condition. In the words of Vannevar Bush, "science is the endless frontier." (+info)
A historical perspective of thirteen unheralded contributors to medicodental progress.
Brief highlights of the careers of 13 Afro-American dentists have been presented. Their professional lives demonstrated both a commitment to the advancement of dentistry and a dedication to the betterment of humanity. Of the 13, three spent their professional lives exclusively in dental education, research, and public health. The remaining 10 were dental clinicians who served patients with competence, care, and concern. Additionally, they contributed to dentistry's image and progress by improving medicodental relations, pioneering in university dental education, engaging in philanthropy, qualifying for dental specialties, exerting leadership in dental professional organizations, integrating dentistry in hospital care, solving community health problems, and participating in all aspects of dental journalism. A sizable portion of their energies was expended in enhancing the quality of life in their communities and the nation. (+info)