Reply to Ann Bradshaw. (1/38)

My original paper suggested that an ethics of care which failed to specify how, and about what, to care would be devoid of normative and descriptive content. Bradshaw's approach provides such a specification and is, therefore, not devoid of such content. However, as all ethical approaches suggest something about the 'what' and 'how' of care, they are all 'ethics of care' in this broader sense. This reinforces rather than undermines my original conclusion. Furthermore, Bradshaw's 'ethics of care' has philosophical and historical problems which I outline.  (+info)

A reply to Joseph Bernstein. (2/38)

Dr. Bernstein suggests that anti-vivisectionists should be able to fill in a directive requesting that they receive no medical treatment developed through work on animals. It is replied that this would only be reasonable if research not using animals had long been funded as adequately and its results were currently available.  (+info)

The history of confidentiality in medicine: the physician-patient relationship. (3/38)

The author of this article reviews the history of the confidentiality of medical information relating to patients from its roots in the Hippocratic Oath to the current codes of medical ethics. There has been an important shift in the basis for the demand for confidentiality, from a physician-based commitment to a professional ideal that will improve the physician-patient relationship and thus the physician's therapeutic effectiveness, and replace it with a patientbased right arising from individual autonomy instead of a Hippocratic paternalistic privilege.  (+info)

Experimentation on prisoners by the Japanese during World War II.(4/38)


The 'four principles of bioethics' as found in 13th century Muslim scholar Mawlana's teachings. (5/38)

BACKGROUND: There have been different ethical approaches to the issues in the history of philosophy. Two American philosophers Beachump and Childress formulated some ethical principles namely 'respect to autonomy', 'justice', 'beneficence' and 'non-maleficence'. These 'four principles' were presented by the authors as universal and applicable to any culture and society. Mawlana, a great figure in Sufi tradition, had written many books which not only guide people how to worship God to be close to Him, but also advise people how to lead a good life to enrich their personality, as well as to create a harmonious society and a peaceful world. METHODS: In this study we examined the major works of Mawlana to find out which of these 'four principles of bioethics' exist in Mawlana's ethical understanding. RESULTS: We have found in our study that all these principles exist in Mawlana's writings and philosophy in one form or another. CONCLUSIONS: We have concluded that, further to Beachump and Childress' claim that these principles are universal and applicable to any culture and society, these principles have always existed in different moral traditions in different ways, of which Mawlana's teaching might be presented as a good example.  (+info)


A close relationship between the four human treponematoses is suggested by their clinical and epidemiological characteristics and by such limited knowledge of the treponemes as there is at present. No treponeme of this group (except for that of the rabbit) is known other than in man, but the human treponemes probably arose long ago from an animal infection. The long period of infectiousness of pinta suggests that it may have been the earliest human treponematosis. It may have been spread throughout the world by about 15 000 B.C., being subsequently isolated in the Americas when the Bering Strait was flooded. About 10 000 B.C. in the Afro-Asian land mass environmental conditions might have favoured treponeme mutants leading to yaws; from these, about 7000 B.C., endemic syphilis perhaps developed, to give rise to venereal syphilis about 3000 B.C. in south-west Asia as big cities developed there. Towards the end of the fifteenth century A.D. a further mutation may have resulted in a more severe venereal syphilis in Europe which, with European exploration and geographical expansion, was subsequently carried throughout the then treponemally uncommitted world. These suggestions find some tentative support in climatic changes which might have influenced the selection of those treponemes which still survive in humid or arid climates. Venereal transmission would presumably remove the treponeme from the direct influence of climate. The author makes a plea for further investigation of many aspects of this subject while this is still possible.  (+info)


Hysterosalpingography was performed on 175 patients who had gynecological symptoms but negative pelvic findings, in order to test a new method of introducing the contrast medium into the uterus and tubes and to record the incidence of pathology revealed. In 132 patients, an attempt was made to secure a No. 14 Foley catheter in the uterus for introducing the contrast medium. This method was successful in 124 patients and can be recommended as being simple, less painful and more efficient than older methods. Of 156 patients with the complaints of infertility (68), dysmenorrhea (31), pelvic pain (29) or menstrual disorder (28), hysterosalpingography revealed significant abnormality in 58; most of these (47) had chronic salpingitis. One flare-up of pelvic inflammation occurred but no other complications were observed. It was concluded that hysterosalpingography is now sufficiently safe and reliable to merit wider utilization in gynecological diagnosis.  (+info)


The author sketches the history of Japanese encephalitis in the USSR, where it has been thoroughly studied since it first occurred in 1938. After a brief outline of its epidemiology, he describes the pathogenesis, the signs and symptoms, and the pathophysiological mechanisms that make this form of encephalitis so dangerous. He also discusses the diagnosis and the methods of treatment and prevention practised in the USSR.  (+info)