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(1/317) WD repeats of the p48 subunit of chicken chromatin assembly factor-1 required for in vitro interaction with chicken histone deacetylase-2.

Chromatin assembly factor-1 (CAF-1) is essential for chromatin assembly in eukaryotes, and comprises three subunits of 150 kDa (p150), 60 kDa (p60), and 48 kDa (p48). We cloned and sequenced cDNA encoding the small subunit of the chicken CAF-1, chCAF-1p48. It consists of 425 amino acid residues including a putative initiation Met, possesses seven WD repeat motifs, and contains only one amino acid change relative to the human and mouse CAF-1p48s. The immunoprecipitation experiment followed by Western blotting revealed that chCAF-1p48 interacts with chicken histone deacetylases (chHDAC-1 and -2) in vivo. The glutathione S-transferase pulldown affinity assay revealed the in vitro interaction of chCAF-1p48 with chHDAC-1, -2, and -3. We showed that the p48 subunit tightly binds to two regions of chHDAC-2, located between amino acid residues 82-180 and 245-314, respectively. We also established that two N-terminal, two C-terminal, or one N-terminal and one C-terminal WD repeat motif of chCAF-1p48 are required for this interaction, using deletion mutants of the respective regions. These results suggest that chCAF-1p48 is involved in many aspects of DNA-utilizing processes, through alterations in the chromatin structure based on both the acetylation and deacetylation of core histones.  (+info)

(2/317) Analysis of the NuRD subunits reveals a histone deacetylase core complex and a connection with DNA methylation.

ATP-dependent nucleosome remodeling and core histone acetylation and deacetylation represent mechanisms to alter nucleosome structure. NuRD is a multisubunit complex containing nucleosome remodeling and histone deacetylase activities. The histone deacetylases HDAC1 and HDAC2 and the histone binding proteins RbAp48 and RbAp46 form a core complex shared between NuRD and Sin3-histone deacetylase complexes. The histone deacetylase activity of the core complex is severely compromised. A novel polypeptide highly related to the metastasis-associated protein 1, MTA2, and the methyl-CpG-binding domain-containing protein, MBD3, were found to be subunits of the NuRD complex. MTA2 modulates the enzymatic activity of the histone deacetylase core complex. MBD3 mediates the association of MTA2 with the core histone deacetylase complex. MBD3 does not directly bind methylated DNA but is highly related to MBD2, a polypeptide that binds to methylated DNA and has been reported to possess demethylase activity. MBD2 interacts with the NuRD complex and directs the complex to methylated DNA. NuRD may provide a means of gene silencing by DNA methylation.  (+info)

(3/317) Chicken histone deacetylase-2 controls the amount of the IgM H-chain at the steps of both transcription of its gene and alternative processing of its pre-mRNA in the DT40 cell line.

Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are involved in the deacetylation of core histones, which is an important event in transcription regulation in eukaryotes through alterations in the chromatin structure. We cloned cDNAs and genomic DNAs encoding two chicken HDACs (chHDAC-1 and -2), which are preferentially localized in nuclei. Treatment with trichostatin A reduced the HDAC activities in immunoprecipitates obtained with anti-chHDAC-1 and -2 antisera. Using gene targeting techniques, we generated homozygous DT40 mutants, DeltachHDAC-1 and -2, devoid of two alleles of the chHDAC-1 and -2 genes, respectively. The protein patterns on two-dimensional PAGE definitely changed for DeltachHDAC-2, and the amounts of the IgM H- and L-chains increased in it. Of the two IgM H-chain forms, the secreted form mu(s) increased in DeltachHDAC-2, but the membrane-bound form mu(m) decreased. The IgM H-chain gene was transcribed more in DeltachHDAC-2 than in DT40 cells. In the mutant, the alternative processing of IgM H-chain pre-mRNA preferentially occurred, resulting in an increase in the amount of mu(s) mRNA, whereas the stability of the two types of mRNA, mu(s) and mu(m), was unchanged. In DT40 cells, treatment with trichostatin A increased both the amounts of IgM H-chain mRNAs and the switch from mu(m) to mu(s) mRNAs. Based on these results, we propose a model for a role of chHDAC-2 in both the transcription and alternative processing steps, resulting in control of the amount of the mu(s) IgM H-chain in the DT40 cell line.  (+info)

(4/317) A role for SKIP in EBNA2 activation of CBF1-repressed promoters.

EBNA2 is essential for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) immortalization of B lymphocytes. EBNA2 functions as a transcriptional activator and targets responsive promoters through interaction with the cellular DNA binding protein CBF1. We have examined the mechanism whereby EBNA2 overcomes CBF1-mediated transcriptional repression. A yeast two-hybrid screen performed using CBF1 as the bait identified a protein, SKIP, which had not previously been recognized as a CBF1-associated protein. Protein-protein interaction assays demonstrated contacts between SKIP and the SMRT, CIR, Sin3A, and HDAC2 proteins of the CBF1 corepressor complex. Interestingly, EBNA2 also interacted with SKIP in glutathione S-transferase affinity and mammalian two-hybrid assays and colocalized with SKIP in immunofluorescence assays. Interaction with SKIP was not affected by mutation of EBNA2 conserved region 6, the CBF1 interaction region, but was abolished by mutation of conserved region 5. Mutation of conserved region 5 also severely impaired EBNA2 activation of a reporter containing CBF1 binding sites. Thus, interaction with both CBF1 and SKIP is necessary for efficient promoter activation by EBNA2. A model is presented in which EBNA2 competes with the SMRT-corepressor complex for contacts on SKIP and CBF1.  (+info)

(5/317) Histone deacetylase-independent transcriptional repression by methyl-CpG-binding protein 2.

Methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2) contains a transcriptional repression domain (TRD), which can act by recruitment of a large transcriptional co-repressor complex containing histone deacetylases HDAC1 and 2. We demonstrate here that transient transcription from the SV40 enhancer/promoter or the SV40 promoter is strongly repressed in a histone deacetylase-independent manner, since repression is not alleviated by Trichostatin A (TSA). In a mutational analysis, repression depends on a conserved 30 residue sequence containing two clusters of basic amino acids. Mutation of the first of these clusters inhibits in vitro interaction between TRD and mSin3A. Furthermore, a subdomain of the TRD containing the conserved 30-residue sequence and 16 flanking amino acids was sufficient to compromise VP16-activated transcription. In summary, our results indicate an alternative, histone deacetylase-independent pathway of transcriptional repression by MeCP2.  (+info)

(6/317) Cabin1 represses MEF2-dependent Nur77 expression and T cell apoptosis by controlling association of histone deacetylases and acetylases with MEF2.

TCR signaling leading to thymocyte apoptosis is mediated through the expression of the Nur77 family of orphan nuclear receptors. MEF2 has been shown to be the major transcription factor responsible for calcium-dependent Nur77 transcription. Cabin1 was recently identified as a transcriptional repressor of MEF2, which can be released from MEF2 in a calcium-dependent fashion. The molecular basis of repression of MEF2 by Cabin1, however, has remained unknown. We report that Cabin1 represses MEF2 by two distinct mechanisms. Cabin1 recruits mSin3 and its associated histone deacetylases 1 and 2; Cabin1 also competes with p300 for binding to MEF2. Thus, activation of MEF2 and the consequent transcription of Nur77 are controlled by the association of MEF2 with the histone deacetylases via the calcium-dependent repressor Cabin1.  (+info)

(7/317) Role of the LXCXE binding site in Rb function.

Oncoproteins from DNA tumor viruses such as adenovirus E1a, simian virus 40 T antigen, and human papillomavirus E7 contain an LXCXE sequence, which they use to bind the retinoblastoma protein (Rb) and inhibit its function. Cellular proteins such as histone deacetylases 1 and 2 (HDAC1 and -2) also contain an LXCXE-like sequence, which they use to interact with Rb. The LXCXE binding site in Rb was mutated to assess its role in Rb function. These mutations inhibited binding to HDAC1 and -2, which each contain an LXCXE-like sequence, but had no effect on binding to HDAC3, which lacks an LXCXE-like sequence. Mutation of the LXCXE binding site inhibited active transcriptional repression by Rb and prevented it from effectively repressing the cyclin E and A gene promoters. In contrast, mutations in the LXCXE binding site did not prevent Rb from binding and inactivating E2F. Thus, the LXCXE mutations appear to separate Rb's ability to bind and inactivate E2F from its ability to efficiently recruit HDAC1 and -2 and actively repress transcription. In transient assays, several of the LXCXE binding site mutants caused an increase in the percentage of cells in G(1) by flow cytometry, suggesting that they can arrest cells. However, this effect was transient, as none of the mutants affected cell proliferation in longer-term assays examining bromodeoxyuridine incorporation or colony formation. Our results then suggest that the LXCXE binding site is important for full Rb function. Mutation of the LXCXE binding site does not inhibit binding of the BRG1 ATPase component of the SWI/SNF nucleosome remodeling complex, which has been shown previously to be important for Rb function. Indeed, overexpression of BRG1 and Rb in cells deficient for the proteins led to stable growth inhibition, suggesting a cooperative role for SWI/SNF and the LXCXE binding site in efficient Rb function.  (+info)

(8/317) Glucocorticoid receptor recruitment of histone deacetylase 2 inhibits interleukin-1beta-induced histone H4 acetylation on lysines 8 and 12.

We have investigated the ability of dexamethasone to regulate interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta)-induced gene expression, histone acetyltransferase (HAT) and histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity. Low concentrations of dexamethasone (10(-10) M) repress IL-1beta-stimulated granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) expression and fail to stimulate secretory leukocyte proteinase inhibitor expression. Dexamethasone (10(-7) M) and IL-1beta (1 ng/ml) both stimulated HAT activity but showed a different pattern of histone H4 acetylation. Dexamethasone targeted lysines K5 and K16, whereas IL-1beta targeted K8 and K12. Low concentrations of dexamethasone (10(-10) M), which do not transactivate, repressed IL-1beta-stimulated K8 and K12 acetylation. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation assays, we show that dexamethasone inhibits IL-1beta-enhanced acetylated K8-associated GM-CSF promoter enrichment in a concentration-dependent manner. Neither IL-1beta nor dexamethasone elicited any GM-CSF promoter association at acetylated K5 residues. Furthermore, we show that GR acts both as a direct inhibitor of CREB binding protein (CBP)-associated HAT activity and also by recruiting HDAC2 to the p65-CBP HAT complex. This action does not involve de novo synthesis of HDAC protein or altered expression of CBP or p300/CBP-associated factor. This mechanism for glucocorticoid repression is novel and establishes that inhibition of histone acetylation is an additional level of control of inflammatory gene expression. This further suggests that pharmacological manipulation of of specific histone acetylation status is a potentially useful approach for the treatment of inflammatory diseases.  (+info)