(1/1518) Histocompatibility antigens in inflammatory bowel disease. Their clinical significance and their association with arthropathy with special reference to HLA-B27 (W27).
Histocompatibility (HLA) antigen phenotypes have been studied in 100 patients with ulcerative colitis, 100 with Crohn's disease, and 283 normal controls. In addition the incidence of ankylosing spondylitis, sacroiliitis, and "enteropathic" peripheral arthropathy was determined in the patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). There was no significant difference in antigen frequency between patients and controls. However, the incidence of HLA-B27 was increased in the patients complicated by ankylosing spondylitis and/or sacroiliitis in both ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. In contrast, none of the 29 IBD patients with "enteropathic" peripheral arthropathy had B27 antigen. Furthermore, ankylosing spondylitis was found more frequently in ulcerative colitis bearing HLA-B27 compared with non-B27 patients (P less than 0-01). The same was found in Crohn's disease, although this difference was not statistically significant. In addition, 12 of 14 ulcerative colitis patients and five out of six Crohn's patients with HLA-B27 had total colitis, compared with the frequency of total colitis in non-B27 patients (P less than 0-024 and less than 0-03 respectively). The data suggest that B27 histocompatibility antigen could be a pathogenetic discriminator between the arthropathies in IBD and may be of prognostic significance with respect to extension and severity of the disease. (+info)
(2/1518) Identification of a subpopulation of lymphocytes in human peripheral blood cytotoxic to autologous fibroblasts.
A naturally occurring subpopulation of human peripheral blood lymphocytes is cytotoxic to autologous and/or allogeneic fibroblasts. The autocytotoxic lymphocytes have a receptor for the third component of complement and for aggregated gamma globulin, do not form rosettes with sheep red blood cells, and are not removed by passage through nylon. The autocytotoxic subpopulation is not present in the thymus and tonsils of normal children or in the peripheral blood of individuals with X-linked agammaglobulinemia. Fibroblast absorption experiments demonstrate that the autocytotoxic cells are "sensitized" to antigens expressed on allogeneic fibroblasts in addition to the antigens expressed on autologous cells. Some normal individuals have a second subpopulation of lymphocytes that may "regulate" the autocytotoxic cells. The relevance of these observations to the murine autocytotoxic cells is discussed. (+info)
(3/1518) Cutting edge: alloimmune responses against major and minor histocompatibility antigens: distinct division kinetics and requirement for CD28 costimulation.
Comparative study of alloimmune responses against major and minor histocompatibility Ags has been limited by the lack of suitable assays. Here, we use a bioassay that permits tracking of alloreactive CD4+ T cell populations as they proliferate in response to major or minor histocompatibility Ags in vivo. Division of alloreactive CD4+ T cells proceeded more rapidly in response to major histocompatibility Ags than minor Ags, although CD4+ T cells alloreactive to minor Ags had a similar capacity to divide successively up to eight times after stimulation. Allorecognition of minor histocompatibility Ags was highly dependent on CD28 costimulation, with the frequency of CD4+ T cells proliferating in response to minor Ags in the absence of CD28 costimulation reduced up to 20-fold. These findings highlight differences in signaling processes that lead to allorecognition of major and minor histocompatibility Ags and have implications on the design of interventions aimed at abrogating these responses. (+info)
(4/1518) Coordinate involvement of invasin and Yop proteins in a Yersinia pseudotuberculosis-specific class I-restricted cytotoxic T cell-mediated response.
Yersinia pseudotuberculosis is a pathogenic enteric bacteria that evades host cellular immune response and resides extracellularly in vivo. Nevertheless, an important contribution of T cells to defense against Yersinia has been previously established. In this study we demonstrate that Lewis rats infected with virulent strains of Y. pseudotuberculosis, mount a Yersinia-specific, RT1-A-restricted, CD8+ T cell-mediated, cytotoxic response. Sensitization of lymphoblast target cells for cytolysis by Yersinia-specific CTLs required their incubation with live Yersinia and was independent of endocytosis. Although fully virulent Yersinia did not invade those cells, they attached to their surface. In contrast, invasin-deficient strain failed to bind to blast targets or to sensitize them for cytolysis. Furthermore, an intact virulence plasmid was an absolute requirement for Yersinia to sensitize blast targets for cytolysis. Using a series of Y. pseudotuberculosis mutants selectively deficient in virulence plasmid-encoded proteins, we found no evidence for a specific role played by YadA, YopH, YpkA, or YopJ in the sensitization process of blast targets. In contrast, mutations suppressing YopB, YopD, or YopE expression abolished the capacity of Yersinia to sensitize blast targets. These results are consistent with a model in which extracellular Yersinia bound to lymphoblast targets via invasin translocate inside eukaryotic cytosol YopE, which is presented in a class I-restricted fashion to CD8+ cytotoxic T cells. This system could represent a more general mechanism by which bacteria harboring a host cell contact-dependent or type III secretion apparatus trigger a class I-restricted CD8+ T cell response. (+info)
(5/1518) Nicotinamide decreases MHC class II but not MHC class I expression and increases intercellular adhesion molecule-1 structures in non-obese diabetic mouse pancreas.
Pancreases of untreated and nicotinamide (NIC)-treated pre-diabetic (10-week-old) and overtly diabetic (25-week-old) female NOD (non-obese diabetic) mice and of NON (non-obese non-diabetic) control mice were studied, with the following results. (1) Islets and ducts of overtly diabetic untreated NOD mice (25-week-old) were found to express low levels of MHC class I and II molecules, like NON controls, and high levels of adhesive molecules. (2) NIC was able to slightly affect glycaemia and insulitis, slowing down diabetes progression. Moreover it significantly decreased MHC class II expression (but not class I) in vivo by week 10, and significantly enhanced intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression, mainly by week 25, within the pancreas, where 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine positive nuclei and insulin positive cells were present, demonstrating that a stimulation of endocrine cell proliferation occurs. (3) In addition, NIC partly counteracted the fall of superoxide dismutase levels, observed in untreated diabetic NOD animals. (4) In vitro studies demonstrated that NIC: (i) was able to significantly reduce nitrite accumulation and to increase NAD+NADH content significantly, and (ii) was able to increase the levels of interleukin-4, a T helper 2 lymphocyte (Th2) protective cytokine, and of interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha), which is known to be able to induce MHC class I and ICAM-1 but not MHC class II expression, as well as IFN-gamma, which is also known to be able to induce MHC class I and ICAM-1 expression. The latter, although known to be a proinflammatory Th1 cytokine, has also recently been found to exert an anti-diabetogenic role. This study therefore clearly shows that adhesive mechanisms are ongoing during the later periods of diabetes in pancreatic ducts of NOD mice, and suggests they may be involved in a persistence of the immune mechanisms of recognition, adhesion and cytolysis and/or endocrine regeneration or differentiation processes, as both NIC-increased ICAM-1 expression and 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine positivity imply. The effects of NIC on MHC class II (i.e. a reduction) but not class I, and, mainly, on ICAM-1 expression (i.e. an increase), together with the increase in Th2 protective cytokine levels are very interesting, and could help to explain its mechanism of action and the reasons for alternate success or failure in protecting against type 1 diabetes development. (+info)
(6/1518) HLA-B27 antigen in diagnosis of atypical seronegative inflammatory arthropathy.
Eighteen patients with an inflammatory pauciarticular peripheral arthropathy not typical of any known entity showed an asymmetrical pattern of disease, with a predilection for the lower extremities. Destructive joint changes and deformities were absent (mean follow-up 10 years). Although spondylitis and sacroiliitis were absent on x-rays, HLA-B27 antigen was found in 8 patients (44%). This antigen and similar joint symptoms are also found in other forms of arthritis. (+info)
(7/1518) Congenital myasthenia gravis: clinical and HLA studies in two brothers.
Two brothers with congenital myasthenia gravis are described. In both, ptosis and ophthalmoplegia responded poorly to oral anticholinesterase therapy and to thymectomy. The brothers had two different HLA haplotypes and neither had the HLA-A1-B8-DW3 haplotypes which are commonly associated with myathenia gravis in adult-onset cases. (+info)
(8/1518) Recapitulation of normal and abnormal BioBreeding rat T cell development in adult thymus organ culture.
Congenitally lymphopenic diabetes-prone (DP) BioBreeding (BB) rats develop spontaneous T cell-dependent autoimmunity. Coisogenic diabetes-resistant (DR) BB rats are not lymphopenic and are free of spontaneous autoimmune disease, but become diabetic in response to depletion of RT6+ T cells. The basis for the predisposition to autoimmunity in BB rats is unknown. Abnormal T cell development in DP-BB rats can be detected intrathymically, and thymocytes from DR-BB rats adoptively transfer diabetes. The mechanisms underlying these T cell developmental abnormalities are not known. To study these processes, we established adult thymus organ cultures (ATOC). We report that cultured DR- and DP-BB rat thymi generate mature CD4 and CD8 single-positive cells with up-regulated TCRs. DR-BB rat cultures also generate T cells that express RT6. In contrast, DP-BB rat cultures generate fewer CD4+, CD8+, and RT6+ T cells. Analysis of the cells obtained from ATOC suggested that the failure of cultured DP-BB rat thymi to generate T cells with a mature phenotype is due in part to an increased rate of apoptosis. Consistent with this inference, we observed that addition of the general caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK substantially increases the number of both mature and immature T cells produced by DP-BB rat ATOC. We conclude that cultured DR-BB and DP-BB rat thymi, respectively, recapitulate the normal and abnormal T cell developmental kinetics and phenotypes observed in these animals in vivo. Such cultures should facilitate identification of the underlying pathological processes that lead to immune dysfunction and autoimmunity in BB rats. (+info)