Major changes in the brain histamine system of the ground squirrel Citellus lateralis during hibernation.
Hibernation in mammals such as the rodent hibernator Citellus lateralis is a physiological state in which CNS activity is endogenously maintained at a very low, but functionally responsive, level. The neurotransmitter histamine is involved in the regulation of diurnal rhythms and body temperature in nonhibernators and, therefore, could likely play an important role in maintaining the hibernating state. In this study, we show that histamine neuronal systems undergo major changes during hibernation that are consistent with such a role. Immunohistochemical mapping of histaminergic fibers in the brains of hibernating and nonhibernating golden-mantled ground squirrels (C. lateralis) showed a clear increase in fiber density during the hibernating state. The tissue levels of histamine and its first metabolite tele-methylhistamine were also elevated throughout the brain of hibernating animals, suggesting an increase in histamine turnover during hibernation, which occurs without an increase in histidine decarboxylase mRNA expression. This hibernation-related apparent augmentation of histaminergic neurotransmission was particularly evident in the hypothalamus and hippocampus, areas of importance to the control of the hibernating state, in which tele-methylhistamine levels were increased more than threefold. These changes in the histamine neuronal system differ from those reported for the metabolic pattern in other monoaminergic systems during hibernation, which generally indicate a decrease in turnover. Our results suggest that the influence of histamine neuronal systems may be important in controlling CNS activity during hibernation. (+info)
Inhibition of inflammatory actions of aminobisphosphonates by dichloromethylene bisphosphonate, a non-aminobisphosphonate.
1. When injected intraperitoneally into mice in doses larger than those used clinically, all the amino derivatives of bisphosphonates (aminoBPs) tested induce a variety of inflammatory reactions such as induction of histidine decarboxylase (HDC, the histamine-forming enzyme), hypertrophy of the spleen, atrophy of the thymus, hypoglycaemia, ascites and accumulation of exudate in the thorax, and an increase in the number of macrophages and/or granulocytes in the peritoneal cavity of blood. On the other hand, dichloromethylene bisphosphonate (Cl2MBP) a typical non-aminoBP, has no such inflammatory actions. In the present study, we found that this agent can suppress the inflammatory actions of aminoBPs. 2. Cl2MBP, when injected into mice before or after injection of 4-amino-1-hydroxybutylidene-1,1-bisphosphonic acid (AHBuBP; a typical aminoBP), inhibited the induction of HDC activity by AHBuBP in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The increase in HDC activity induced by AHBuBP was largely suppressed by the injection of an equimolar dose of Cl2MBP. Cl2MBP also inhibited other AHBuBP-induced inflammatory reactions, as well as the inflammatory actions of two other aminoBPs. However, Cl2MBP did not inhibit the increase in HDC activity induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). 3. We have previously reported that AHBuBP augments the elevation of HDC activity and the production of interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) that are induced by LPS. These actions of AHBuBP were also inhibited by Cl2MBP. 4. Based on these results and reported actions of bisphosphonates, the mechanisms underlying the contrasting effects of aminoBPs and Cl2MBP, a non-aminoBP are discussed. The results suggest that combined administration of Cl2MBP and an aminoBP in patients might be a useful way of suppressing the inflammatory side effects of aminoBPs. (+info)
Intracisternal TRH analog increases gastrin release and corpus histidine decarboxylase activity in rats.
Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) acts in brain stem nuclei to induce vagally mediated stimulation of gastric secretion. The effects of intracisternal injection of the TRH analog RX-77368 on plasma gastrin levels and corpus histidine decarboxylase (HDC) activity were studied in 48-h fasted conscious rats. RX-77368 (25-100 ng) increased plasma gastrin levels by threefold at 30 min, which remained significantly higher than control at 2 and 4 h postinjection. Corpus HDC activity began to increase at 2 h and reached a peak at 4 h postinjection with a 21-fold maximum response observed at 50 ng. Morphological changes in the appearance of corpus HDC-immunoreactive cells correlated well with HDC activity. Pretreatment with gastrin monoclonal antibody completely prevented RX-77368 stimulatory effects on HDC activity. Atropine significantly attenuated gastrin increase at 30 min by 26%. These results indicated that in conscious fasted rats, TRH analog acts in the brain to increase corpus HDC activity in the enterochromaffin-like cells, which involves gastrin release stimulated by central TRH analog. (+info)
Role of TGF-beta 1 on the IgE-dependent anaphylaxis reaction.
TGF-beta1 is a member of a family of polypeptide factors that control proliferation, differentiation, chemotaxis, and other functions in many cell types. TGF-beta1 has been shown to inhibit many immunologic functions. However, here we report that TGF-beta1 has an important role in the elicitation of IgE-dependent allergic reactions. The synthetic antisense TGF-beta1 oligonucleotides dose-dependently inhibit passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) reaction and histamine release from the mast cells activated by anti-DNP IgE in rats. The level of cAMP in mast cells, when antisense TGF-beta1 oligonucleotides was added, significantly increased approximately 7-fold compared with that of basal cells. The antisense TGF-beta1 oligonucleotides also had a significant inhibitory effect on anti-DNP IgE-induced TNF-alpha release from mast cells. In situ hybridization analysis showed that the PCA reaction sites treated with antisense TGF-beta1 oligonucleotides exhibited no detectable levels of TGF-beta1 and L-histidine decarboxylase mRNA after anti-DNP IgE stimulation, whereas the PCA reaction sites treated with sense TGF-beta1 oligonucleotides possessed significant amounts of their mRNA. Additionally, neutralizing Ab to TGF-beta1 blocked the PCA reaction significantly, but its Ab did not inhibit peritoneal mast cell-released histamine upon treatment with anti-DNP IgE. Our results suggest that TGF-beta1 is critical to the development of IgE-dependent anaphylaxis reactions. (+info)
Inhibition of mast cell-dependent anaphylaxis by sodium salicylate.
Sodium salicylate (NaSal) is a commonly used agent with a wide pharmacological spectrum. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of NaSal on anaphylaxis. NaSal (10-1 and 1 mm) significantly inhibited systemic anaphylaxis induced by compound 48/80 in rats. NaSal also significantly inhibited local anaphylaxis activated by anti-dinitrophenyl (DNP) immunoglobulin E (IgE). NaSal (10-1 and 1 mm) significantly inhibited histamine release from rat peritoneal mast cells (RPMC) activated by compound 48/80 or anti-DNP IgE. Northern-blot analysis demonstrated that a significantly reduced level of the mRNA of L-histidine decarboxylase was expressed in mast cells treated with NaSal, compared with that without NaSal. NaSal (10-2 and 10-1 mm) had a significant inhibitory effect on anti-DNP IgE-induced tumour necrosis factor-alpha secretion from RPMC. The level of cyclic AMP in RPMC, when NaSal (1 mm) was added, transiently and significantly increased about sixfold compared with that of basal cells. These results suggest a possible use of NaSal in managing mast cell-dependent anaphylaxis. (+info)
Activation of human histidine decarboxylase gene promoter activity by gastrin is mediated by two distinct nuclear factors.
The human histidine decarboxylase gene is regulated by gastrin through a cis-acting element known as the gastrin response element (GAS-RE) that was initially localized to a site (+2 to +24) downstream of the transcriptional start site. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays using sequentially deleted DNA probes and nuclear extracts from AGS-B gastric cancer cells showed that the GAS-RE is actually composed of two overlapping binding sites (GAS-RE1, +1 to +19; and GAS-RE2, +11 to +27) that bind distinct nuclear factors. Reporter gene assays demonstrated that each element alone could confer gastrin responsiveness, but the presence of both elements was required for complete gastrin response. Stimulation of AGS-B cells with gastrin for 10-20 min resulted in a >2-fold increase in factor binding. The binding was inhibited by pretreatment of AGS-B cells with cycloheximide and the MEK1 inhibitor PD98059, indicating a requirement for protein synthesis and also indicating that activation occurs through the MEK/mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. UV cross-linking and Southwestern blot analysis showed that GAS-RE1 bound a 52-kDa protein, whereas GAS-RE2 bound a 35-kDa protein. Hence, activation of histidine decarboxylase gene promoter activity by gastrin is most likely mediated by two separate nuclear factors. (+info)
Gastric neuroendocrine cells and secretory products.
The ECL cell is the most common cell type in the oxyntic mucosa of the stomach. It is producing a number of peptides and amines where histamine and chromogranin A seems to be the most important and abundant products. Recent data indicate a direct correlation between ECL-cell mass and circulating chromogranin A levels. Chromogranin A and its splice products might serve as growth promoting agents in ECL-cell hyperplasia or gastric carcinoids. (+info)
Ontogeny of ECL cells in the rat.
ECL cells produce histamine and chromogranin A, and are restricted to the oxyntic mucosa of the stomach. ECL cell ontogeny has been studied in some detail in the rat. Using histidine decarboxylase immunostaining, the first ECL cells can be demonstrated at embryonic day 17. Immunoreactive histamine and chromogranin A appear one day later. At embryonic day 20, the vesicular monoamine transporter type 2 is also present in the ECL cells. Neonatally the ECL cell proliferation is slow; however, one to three weeks postnatally there is a rapid growth of ECL cells to populate the basal half of the glands. Gastrin is known to be an important stimulator of ECL cell activity and growth in the adult rat. As revealed in recent mouse gene knock out models gastrin does not seem to play a role in the early ECL cell differentiation and development. (+info)