Possible role for ligand binding of histidine 81 in the second transmembrane domain of the rat prostaglandin F2alpha receptor.
For the five principal prostanoids PGD2, PGE2, PGF2alpha, prostacyclin and thromboxane A2 eight receptors have been identified that belong to the family of G-protein-coupled receptors. They display an overall homology of merely 30%. However, single amino acids in the transmembrane domains such as an Arg in the seventh transmembrane domain are highly conserved. This Arg has been identified as part of the ligand binding pocket. It interacts with the carboxyl group of the prostanoid. The aim of the current study was to analyze the potential role in ligand binding of His-81 in the second transmembrane domain of the rat PGF2alpha receptor, which is conserved among all PGF2alpha receptors from different species. Molecular modeling suggested that this residue is located in close proximity to the ligand binding pocket Arg 291 in the 7th transmembrane domain. The His81 (H) was exchanged by site-directed mutagenesis to Gln (Q), Asp (D), Arg (R), Ala (A) and Gly (G). The receptor molecules were N-terminally extended by a Flag epitope for immunological detection. All mutant proteins were expressed at levels between 50% and 80% of the wild type construct. The H81Q and H81D receptor bound PGF2alpha with 2-fold and 25-fold lower affinity, respectively, than the wild type receptor. Membranes of cells expressing the H81R, H81A or H81G mutants did not bind significant amounts of PGF2alpha. Wild type receptor and H81Q showed a shallow pH optimum for PGF2alpha binding around pH 5.5 with almost no reduction of binding at higher pH. In contrast the H81D mutant bound PGF2alpha with a sharp optimum at pH 4.5, a pH at which the Asp side chain is partially undissociated and may serve as a hydrogen bond donor as do His and Gln at higher pH values. The data indicate that the His-81 in the second transmembrane domain of the PGF2alpha receptor in concert with Arg-291 in the seventh transmembrane domain may be involved in ligand binding, most likely not by ionic interaction with the prostaglandin's carboxyl group but rather as a hydrogen bond donor. (+info)
R73A and H144Q mutants of the yeast mitochondrial cyclophilin Cpr3 exhibit a low prolyl isomerase activity in both peptide and protein-folding assays.
Previously we reported that the R73A and H144Q variants of the yeast cyclophilin Cpr3 were virtually inactive in a protease-coupled peptide assay, but retained activity as catalysts of a proline-limited protein folding reaction [Scholz, C. et al. (1997) FEBS Lett. 414, 69-73]. A reinvestigation revealed that in fact these two mutations strongly decrease the prolyl isomerase activity of Cpr3 in both the peptide and the protein-folding assay. The high folding activities found previously originated from a contamination of the recombinant Cpr3 proteins with the Escherichia coli protein SlyD, a prolyl isomerase that co-purifies with His-tagged proteins. SlyD is inactive in the peptide assay, but highly active in the protein-folding assay. (+info)
A possible involvement of aberrant expression of the FHIT gene in the carcinogenesis of squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix.
To investigate involvement of an aberrant expression of the FHIT (fragile histidine triad) gene in the process of carcinogenesis and progression in cervical carcinoma, we examined its expression by the reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and cDNA sequence method in 32 cervical invasive carcinomas (25 squamous cell carcinomas and seven adeno- or adenosquamous carcinomas) and 18 of its precursor lesions [four low-grade and 14 high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasias (CINs)]. We also examined a link between the occurrence of the aberrant expression and human papillomavirus (HPV). We detected the aberrant FHIT transcripts in 11 of 25 (44%) cervical invasive squamous cell carcinomas and in 5 of 14 (36%) high-grade CINs (CIN 2 or 3), whereas they were not found in seven non-squamous type and four low-grade CINs (CIN 1). The alteration patterns of the FHIT gene expression in high-grade CINs were virtually similar to those found in invasive carcinomas, such that the exons 5-7 were consistently deleted associated or unassociated with loss of the exon 4 and/or 8. The incidence of the aberrant expression was not related to the presence of HPV and its type. These data indicate that the aberrant expression of the FHIT gene is observed in precursor lesions of cervical carcinoma as well as invasive carcinomas, with its incidence not increasing with advance of clinical stage. Given the squamous cell type dominant expression, the aberrant expression may play a critical role in the generation of squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix, but not the consequence of the progression of the cancer. (+info)
Breaking the low barrier hydrogen bond in a serine protease.
The serine protease subtilisin BPN' is a useful catalyst for peptide synthesis when dissolved in high concentrations of a water-miscible organic co-solvent such as N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF). However, in 50% DMF, the k(cat) for amide hydrolysis is two orders of magnitude lower than in aqueous solution. Surprisingly, the k(cat) for ester hydrolysis is unchanged in 50% DMF. To explain this alteration in activity, the structure of subtilisin 8397+1 was determined in 20, 35, and 50% (v/v) DMF to 1.8 A resolution. In 50% DMF, the imidazole ring of His64, the central residue of the catalytic triad, has rotated approximately 180 degrees around the Cbeta-Cgamma bond. Two new water molecules in the active site stabilize the rotated conformation. This rotation places His64 in an unfavorable geometry to interact with the other members of the catalytic triad, Ser221 and Asp32. NMR experiments confirm that the characteristic resonance due to the low barrier hydrogen bond between the His64 and Asp32 is absent in 50% DMF. These experiments provide a clear structural basis for the change in activity of serine proteases in organic co-solvents. (+info)
His ... Asp catalytic dyad of ribonuclease A: histidine pKa values in the wild-type, D121N, and D121A enzymes.
Bovine pancreatic ribonuclease A (RNase A) has a conserved His ... Asp catalytic dyad in its active site. Structural analyses had indicated that Asp121 forms a hydrogen bond with His119, which serves as an acid during catalysis of RNA cleavage. The enzyme contains three other histidine residues including His12, which is also in the active site. Here, 1H-NMR spectra of wild-type RNase A and the D121N and D121A variants were analyzed thoroughly as a function of pH. The effect of replacing Asp121 on the microscopic pKa values of the histidine residues is modest: none change by more than 0.2 units. There is no evidence for the formation of a low-barrier hydrogen bond between His119 and either an aspartate or an asparagine residue at position 121. In the presence of the reaction product, uridine 3'-phosphate (3'-UMP), protonation of one active-site histidine residue favors protonation of the other. This finding is consistent with the phosphoryl group of 3'-UMP interacting more strongly with the two active-site histidine residues when both are protonated. Comparison of the titration curves of the unliganded enzyme with that obtained in the presence of different concentrations of 3'-UMP shows that a second molecule of 3'-UMP can bind to the enzyme. Together, the data indicate that the aspartate residue in the His ... Asp catalytic dyad of RNase A has a measurable but modest effect on the ionization of the adjacent histidine residue. (+info)
Glutamine phosphoribosylpyrophosphate amidotransferase from Bacillus subtilis is a member of an N-terminal nucleophile hydrolase enzyme superfamily, several of which undergo autocatalytic propeptide processing to generate the mature active enzyme. A series of mutations was analyzed to determine whether amino acid residues required for catalysis are also used for propeptide processing. Propeptide cleavage was strongly inhibited by replacement of the cysteine nucleophile and two residues of an oxyanion hole that are required for glutaminase function. However, significant propeptide processing was retained in a deletion mutant with multiple defects in catalysis that was devoid of enzyme activity. Intermolecular processing of noncleaved mutant enzyme subunits by active wild-type enzyme subunits was not detected in hetero-oligomers obtained from a coexpression experiment. While direct in vitro evidence for autocatalytic propeptide cleavage was not obtained, the results indicate that some but not all of the amino acid residues that have a role in catalysis are also needed for propeptide processing. (+info)
Metal-catalyzed oxidation of phenylalanine-sensitive 3-deoxy-D-arabino-heptulosonate-7-phosphate synthase from Escherichia coli: inactivation and destabilization by oxidation of active-site cysteines.
The in vitro instability of the phenylalanine-sensitive 3-deoxy-D-arabino-heptulosonate-7-phosphate synthase [DAHPS(Phe)] from Escherichia coli has been found to be due to a metal-catalyzed oxidation mechanism. DAHPS(Phe) is one of three differentially feedback-regulated isoforms of the enzyme which catalyzes the first step of aromatic biosynthesis, the formation of DAHP from phosphoenolpyruvate and D-erythrose-4-phosphate. The activity of the apoenzyme decayed exponentially, with a half-life of about 1 day at room temperature, and the heterotetramer slowly dissociated to the monomeric state. The enzyme was stabilized by the presence of phosphoenolpyruvate or EDTA, indicating that in the absence of substrate, a trace metal(s) was the inactivating agent. Cu2+ and Fe2+, but none of the other divalent metals that activate the enzyme, greatly accelerated the rate of inactivation and subunit dissociation. Both anaerobiosis and the addition of catalase significantly reduced Cu2+-catalyzed inactivation. In the spontaneously inactivated enzyme, there was a net loss of two of the seven thiols per subunit; this value increased with increasing concentrations of added Cu2+. Dithiothreitol completely restored the enzymatic activity and the two lost thiols in the spontaneously inactivated enzyme but was only partially effective in reactivation of the Cu2+-inactivated enzyme. Mutant enzymes with conservative replacements at either of the two active-site cysteines, Cys61 or Cys328, were insensitive to the metal attack. Peptide mapping of the Cu2+-inactivated enzyme revealed a disulfide linkage between these two cysteine residues. All results indicate that DAHPS(Phe) is a metal-catalyzed oxidation system wherein bound substrate protects active-site residues from oxidative attack catalyzed by bound redox metal cofactor. A mechanism of inactivation of DAHPS is proposed that features a metal redox cycle that requires the sequential oxidation of its two active-site cysteines. (+info)
Evidence for the head domain movement of the rieske iron-sulfur protein in electron transfer reaction of the cytochrome bc1 complex.
The three-dimensional structure of the mitochondrial cytochrome bc1 complex suggests that movement of the extramembrane domain (head) of the Rieske iron-sulfur protein (ISP) may play an important role in electron transfer. Such movement requires flexibility in the neck region of ISP, since the head and transmembrane domains of the protein are rather rigid. To test this hypothesis, Rhodobacter sphaeroides mutants expressing His-tagged cytochrome bc1 complexes with cysteine substitution at various positions in the ISP neck (residues 39-48) were generated and characterized. The mutants with a single cysteine substitution at Ala42 or Val44 and a double cysteine substitution at Val44 and Ala46 (VQA-CQC) or at Ala42 and Ala46 (ADVQA-CDVQC) have photosynthetic growth rates comparable with that of complement cells. Chromatophore membrane and intracytoplasmic membrane (ICM) prepared from these mutants have cytochrome bc1 complex activity similar to that in the complement membranes, indicating that flexibility of the neck region of ISP was not affected by these cysteine substitutions. Mutants with a double cysteine substitution at Ala42 and Val44 (ADV-CDC) or at Pro40 and Ala42 (PSA-CSC) have a retarded (50%) or no photosynthetic growth rate, respectively. The ADV-CDC or PSA-CSC mutant ICM contains 20 or 0% of the cytochrome bc1 complex activity found in the complement ICM. However, activity can be restored by the treatment with beta-mercaptoethanol (beta-ME). The restored activity is diminished upon removal of beta-ME but is retained if the beta-ME-treated membrane is treated with the sulfhydryl reagent N-ethylmaleimide or p-chloromercuribenzoic acid. These results indicate that the loss of bc1 complex activity in the ADV-CDC or PSA-CSC mutant membranes is due to disulfide bond formation, which increases the rigidity of ISP neck and, in turn, decreases the mobility of the head domain. Using the conditions developed for the isolation of His-tagged complement cytochrome bc1 complex, a two-subunit complex (cytochromes b and c1) is obtained from all of the double cysteine-substituted mutants. This suggests that introduction of two cysteines in the neck region of ISP weakens the interactions between cytochromes b, ISP, and subunit IV. (+info)